A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.
Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
In World War II, mechanical analog computers were used for specialized military applications. During this time the first electronic digital computers were developed. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).
Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as “computers.” However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.
- 1 History of computing
- 1.1 Etymology
- 1.2 Mechanical aids to computing
- 1.3 Mechanical calculators and programmable looms
- 1.4 First use of punched paper cards in computing
- 1.5 Babbage's dream comes true
- 1.6 First general-purpose computers
- 1.7 Stored-program architecture
- 1.8 Semiconductors and microprocessors
- 2 Programs
- 3 Components
- 4 Misconceptions
- 5 Further topics
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
History of computing
The first recorded use of the word “computer” was in 1613 in a book called “The yong mans gleanings” by English writer Richard Braithwait I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.
Mechanical aids to computing
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few precursors are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC of which a descendant won a speed competition against a contemporary desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946, the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical analog computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC. The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. This is the essence of programmability.
Mechanical calculators and programmable looms
Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642, known as Pascal's calculator. It was the first machine to better human performance of arithmetical computations and would turn out to be the only functional mechanical calculator in the 17th century. Two hundred years later, in 1851, Thomas de Colmar released, after thirty years of development, his simplified arithmometer; it became the first machine to be commercialized because it was strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage and then developed. Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development by Intel of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.
First use of punched paper cards in computing
It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. In 1837, Charles Babbage, "the actual father of the computer", was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical calculator, his analytical engine. Babbage started in 1834. Initially he was to program his analytical engine with drums similar to the ones used in Vaucanson's automata which by design were limited in size, but soon he replaced them by Jacquard's card readers, one for data and one for the program. "The introduction of punched cards into the new engine was important not only as a more convenient form of control than the drums, or because programs could now be of unlimited extent, and could be stored and repeated without the danger of introducing errors in setting the machine by hand; it was important also because it served to crystallize Babbage's feeling that he had invented something really new, something much more than a sophisticated calculating machine."
Now it is obvious that no finite machine can include infinity...It is impossible to construct machinery occupying unlimited space; but it is possible to construct finite machinery, and to use it through unlimited time. It is this substitution of the infinity of time for the infinity of space which I have made use of, to limit the size of the engine and yet to retain its unlimited power.—Charles Babbage, Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, Chapter VIII: On the Analytical Engine
After this breakthrough, he redesigned his difference engine (No. 2, still not programmable) incorporating his new ideas. Allan Bromley came to the science museum of London starting in 1979 to study Babbage's engines and determined that difference engine No. 2 was the only engine that had a complete enough set of drawings to be built, and he convinced the museum to do it. This engine, finished in 1991, proved without doubt the validity of Charles Babbage's work. Except for a pause between 1848 and 1857, Babbage would spend the rest of his life simplifying each part of his engine: "Gradually he developed plans for Engines of great logical power and elegant simplicity (although the term 'simple' is used here in a purely relative sense)."
Between 1842 and 1843, Ada Lovelace, an analyst of Charles Babbage's analytical engine, translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the engine, which she supplemented with an elaborate set of notes of her own. These notes contained what is considered the first computer program – that is, an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine. She also stated: “We may say most aptly, that the Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard-loom weaves flowers and leaves.”; furthermore she developed a vision on the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching claiming that: should “...the fundamental relations of pitched sounds in the science of harmony and of musical composition...” be susceptible “...of adaptations to the action of the operating notation and mechanism of the engine...” it “...might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity or extent”. 
In the late 1880s, Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine-readable medium. Earlier uses of machine-readable media had been for control, not data. “After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards...” To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator, and the keypunch machines. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company, which later became the core of IBM. By the end of the 19th century a number of ideas and technologies, that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers, had begun to appear: Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve), punched cards and tape, and the teleprinter.
Babbage's dream comes true
In 1888, Henry Babbage, Charles Babbage's son, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) . He gave a successful demonstration of its use in 1906, calculating and printing the first 40 multiples of pi with a precision of 29 decimal places. This machine was given to the Science Museum in South Kensington in 1910. He also gave a demonstration piece of one of his father's engines to Harvard University which convinced Howard Aiken, 50 years later, to incorporate the architecture of the analytical engine in what would become the ASCC/Mark I built by IBM.
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo built two analytical machines to prove that all of the functions of Babbage's analytical engine could be replaced with electromechanical devices. The first one, built in 1914, had a little electromechanical memory and the second one, built in 1920 to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the invention of the arithmometer, received its commands and printed its results on a typewriter. Torres y Quevedo published functional schematics of all of these functions: addition, multiplication, division ... and even a decimal comparator, in his "Essais sur l'automatique" in 1915.
Howard Aiken wanted to build a giant calculator and was looking for a sponsor to build it. He first presented his design to the Monroe Calculator Company and then to Harvard University, both without success. Carmello Lanza, a technician in Harvard's physics laboratory who had heard Aiken's presentation "...couldn't see why in the world I (Howard Aiken) wanted to do anything like this in the Physics laboratory, because we already had such a machine and nobody used it... Lanza led him up into the attic... There, sure enough... were the wheels that Aiken later put on display in the lobby of the Computer Laboratory. With them was a letter from Henry Prevost Babbage describing these wheels as part of his father's proposed calculating engine. This was the first time Aiken ever heard of Babbage he said, and it was this experience that led him to look up Babbage in the library and to come across his autobiography" which gave a description of his analytical engine.
Aiken first contacted IBM in November 1937, presenting a machine which, by then, had an architecture based on Babbage's analytical engine. This was the first development of a programmable calculator that would succeed and that would end up being used for many years to come: the ASCC/Mark I.
First general-purpose computers
During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.
Alan Turing is widely regarded as the father of modern computer science. In 1936, Turing provided an influential formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. Of his role in the creation of the modern computer, Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, states: “The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine.”
The first really functional computer was the Z1, originally created by Germany's Konrad Zuse in his parents' living room in 1936 to 1938, and it is considered to be the first electro-mechanical binary programmable (modern) computer.
George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. While working at Bell Labs in November 1937, Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the “Model K” (for “kitchen table,” on which he had assembled it), which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.
The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the world's first electronic digital computer, albeit not programmable. Atanasoff is considered to be one of the fathers of the computer. Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff, and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry, the machine was not programmable, being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. The computer did employ parallel computation. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.
The first program-controlled computer was invented by Konrad Zuse, who built the Z3, an electromechanical computing machine, in 1941. The first programmable electronic computer was the Colossus, built in 1943 by Tommy Flowers.
Key steps towards modern computers
A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as “the first digital electronic computer” is difficult.Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include:
- Konrad Zuse's electromechanical “Z machines.” The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world's first operational computer. Thus, Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer.
- The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937, completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench), since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements.
- The secret British Colossus computers (1943), which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically re-programmable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.
- The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.
- The U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Initially, however, ENIAC had an architecture which required rewiring a plugboard to change its programming.
- The Ferranti Mark 1 was the world's first commercially available general-purpose computer.
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Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the “stored-program architecture” or von Neumann architecture. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time, the first of which was completed in 1948 at the University of Manchester in England, the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or “Baby”). The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC), completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University, was the first practical, non-experimental implementation of the stored-program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years.
Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word “computer” is now defined. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, most still use the von Neumann architecture.
Beginning in the 1950s, Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers, devices that operated on a base three numbering system of -1, 0, and 1 rather than the conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. They designed the Setun, a functional ternary computer, at Moscow State University. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union, but supplanted by the more common binary architecture.
Semiconductors and microprocessors
Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s, but by the 1960s they had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines, which were smaller, faster, cheaper to produce, required less power, and were more reliable. The first transistorized computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953. In the 1970s, integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation of microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004, further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers. By the late 1970s, many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers, and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household.
The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer, and it will process them. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language.
In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write, and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors.
Stored program architecture
This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers.
In most cases, computer instructions are simple: add one number to another, move some data from one location to another, send a message to some external device, etc. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. However, there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. These are called “jump” instructions (or branches). Furthermore, jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that “remembers” the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction.
Program execution might be likened to reading a book. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence, they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. Similarly, a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention.
Comparatively, a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1,000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time, with a near certainty of making a mistake. On the other hand, a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. For example:
mov No. 0, sum ; set sum to 0 mov No. 1, num ; set num to 1 loop: add num, sum ; add num to sum add No. 1, num ; add 1 to num cmp num, #1000 ; compare num to 1000 ble loop ; if num <= 1000, go back to 'loop' halt ; end of program. stop running
Once told to run this program, the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second.
Errors in computer programs are called “bugs.” They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle effects. But in some cases, they may cause the program or the entire system to “hang,” becoming unresponsive to input such as mouse clicks or keystrokes, to completely fail, or to crash. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit, code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution. Bugs are usually not the fault of the computer. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design.
Admiral Grace Hopper, an American computer scientist and developer of the first compiler, is credited for having first used the term “bugs” in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947.
In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode; the command to multiply them would have a different opcode, and so on. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from, each with a unique numerical code. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann, or stored program, architecture. In some cases, a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs, such as in CPU caches.
While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers, it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice, especially for complicated programs. Instead, each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember – a mnemonic such as ADD, SUB, MULT or JUMP. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler.
Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques.
Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer. For instance, an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC.
Though considerably easier than in machine language, writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). High level languages are usually “compiled” into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler. High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language, and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles.
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Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem, collection of inputs, using the programming constructs within languages, devising or using established procedures and algorithms, providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable. As problems become larger and more complex, features such as subprograms, modules, formal documentation, and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult; the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge.
A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are interconnected by buses, often made of groups of wires.
Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a “1”, and when off it represents a “0” (in positive logic representation). The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.
The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.
The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer. Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance.
The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU:
- Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter.
- Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems.
- Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.
- Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code.
- Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.
- If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation.
- Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device.
- Jump back to step (1).
Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as “jumps” and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow).
The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program, and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer, which runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.
The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction, or might include multiplication, division, trigonometry functions such as sine, cosine, etc., and square roots. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers, albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other (“is 64 greater than 65?”).
Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs, allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously. Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often contain ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.
A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered “address” and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to “put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357” or to “add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595.” The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.
In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256); either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight). When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two's complement notation. Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.
The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed.
Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes, therefore the CPU can only read from it. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.
In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories, which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part.
I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals. On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices such as the display and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O.
I/O devices are often complex computers in their own right, with their own CPU and memory. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics. Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.
While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. This is achieved by multitasking i.e. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn.
One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt, which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. If several programs are running “at the same time,” then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second, causing a program switch each time. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed “time-sharing” since each program is allocated a “slice” of time in turn.
Before the era of cheap computers, the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer.
Seemingly, multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly, in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running, but most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a “time slice” until the event it is waiting for has occurred. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss.
Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers. Multiprocessor and multi-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result.
Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers. They often feature thousands of CPUs, customized high-speed interconnects, and specialized computing hardware. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called “embarrassingly parallel” tasks.
Networking and the Internet
Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems such as Sabre.
In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that resulted was called the ARPANET. The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.
In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. “Wireless” networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.
Computer architecture paradigms
There are many types of computer architectures:
- Quantum computer vs Chemical computer
- Scalar processor vs Vector processor
- Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers
- Register machine vs Stack machine
- Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture
- Cellular architecture
The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore any type of computer (netbook, supercomputer, cellular automaton, etc.) is able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.
A computer does not need to be electronic, nor even have a processor, nor RAM, nor even a hard disk. While popular usage of the word “computer” is synonymous with a personal electronic computer, the modern definition of a computer is literally “A device that computes, especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information.” Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer, especially if the processing is purposeful.
Historically, computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors. However, conceptually computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. For example, a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer); an often quoted example. More realistically, modern computers are made out of transistors made of photolithographed semiconductors.
There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computers, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Most computers are universal, and are able to calculate any computable function, and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed. However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems; for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly.
A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to, without regard to efficiency, alternative solutions, possible shortcuts, or possible errors in the code. Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.
The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.
History of computing hardware
Other hardware topics
|Peripheral device (input/output)||Input||Mouse, keyboard, joystick, image scanner, webcam, graphics tablet, microphone|
|Output||Monitor, printer, loudspeaker|
|Both||Floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, teleprinter|
|Computer busses||Short range||RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB|
|Long range (computer networking)||Ethernet, ATM, FDDI|
Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is sometimes called “firmware.”
There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.
|Lists of programming languages||Timeline of programming languages, List of programming languages by category, Generational list of programming languages, List of programming languages, Non-English-based programming languages|
|Commonly used assembly languages||ARM, MIPS, x86|
|Commonly used high-level programming languages||Ada, BASIC, C, C++, C#, COBOL, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal|
Professions and organizations
As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.
|Hardware-related||Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Telecommunications engineering, Optical engineering, Nanoengineering|
|Software-related||Computer science, Computer engineering, Desktop publishing, Human–computer interaction, Information technology, Information systems, Computational science, Software engineering, Video game industry, Web design|
The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature.
|Standards groups||ANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C|
|Professional societies||ACM, AIS, IET, IFIP, BCS|
|Free/open source software groups||Free Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation|
- In 1946, ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. By comparison, a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W; nearly six thousand times less. "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. A modern “commodity” microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second, and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. "Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". Intel Corporation. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- computer, n.. Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. Retrieved 10 April 2009.(subscription required)
- Bernard Cohen, p. 297, 2000 : "Historians of technology and computer scientists interested in history have adopted a number of qualifications that define a computer. As a result, the question of whether Mark I was or was not a computer depends not on a general consensus but rather on the particular definition that is adopted. Often, some primary defining characteristics of a computer are that it must (1) be electronic, (2) be digital (rather than analog), (3) be programmed, (4) be able to perform the four elementary operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) and -often- extract roots or obtain information from built-in tables, and (5) incorporate the principle of the stored program. A machine does not generally qualify as a computer unless it has some further properties, for example the ability to perform certain specified operations automatically in a controlled and predetermined sequence. For some historians and computer scientists, a machine must also have been actually constructed and then become fully operational."
- * Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. From 2700 to 2300 BC, Georges Ifrah, pp.11
- Berkeley, Edmund (1949). Giant Brains, or Machines That Think. John Wiley & Sons. p. 19. Edmund Berkeley
- According to advertising on Pickett's N600 slide rule boxes."Pickett Apollo Box Scans". University of Delaware. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.C.". The New York Times. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "Heron of Alexandria". Retrieved 15 January 2008.
- From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience.com
- See James Essinger, p.3-4 (2004), also see: Anthony Hyman, ed., Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989), page 298. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London, England. (Delve (2007), page 99.)
- Felt, Dorr E. (1916). Mechanical arithmetic, or The history of the counting machine. Chicago: Washington Institute. p. 10. Dorr E. Felt
- "The arithmetical machine produces effects which approach nearer to thought than all the actions of animals. But it does nothing which would enable us to attribute will to it, as to the animals.", Pascal, Pensées Bartleby.com, Great Books online, Blaise Pascal, Thoughts
- See the paragraph Pascal's calculator#Competing designs
- Babbage's Difference engine in 1823 and his Analytical engine in the mid-1830s
- “It is reasonable to inquire, therefore, whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering. The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage. Babbage's ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years, but we now realize that he understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers” Faster than thought, edited by B. V. Bowden, 1953, Pitman Publishing Corporation
- “...Among this extraordinary galaxy of talent Charles Babbage appears to be one of the most remarkable of all. Most of his life he spent in an entirely unsuccessful attempt to make a machine which was regarded by his contemporaries as utterly preposterous, and his efforts were regarded as futile, time-consuming and absurd. In the last decade or so we have learnt how his ideas can be embodied in a modern digital computer. He understood more about the logic of these machines than anyone else in the world had learned until after the end of the last war.” Foreword to Irascible Genius, Charles Babbage inventor p. 15 (1964)
- In the proposal that Aiken gave IBM in 1937 while requesting funding for the Harvard Mark I we can read: “Few calculating machines have been designed strictly for application to scientific investigations, the notable exceptions being those of Charles Babbage and others who followed him ... After abandoning the difference engine, Babbage devoted his energy to the design and construction of an analytical engine of far higher powers than the difference engine ... Since the time of Babbage, the development of calculating machinery has continued at an increasing rate.” Howard Aiken, Proposed automatic calculating machine, reprinted in: The Origins of Digital Computers, Selected Papers, Edited by Brian Randell, 1973, ISBN 3-540-06169-X
- "Intel Museum – The 4004, Big deal then, Big deal now". Intel.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012.[dead link]
- Konrad Zuse p. 33 (1993)
- "It is reasonable to inquire, therefore, whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering. The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage. Babbage's ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years, but we now realize that he understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers" B. V. Bowden, 1953, pp.6,7
- The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage's difference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator.
- Bruce Collier, 1970
- "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, Chapter 8, The analytical engine". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Doron D. Swade Scientific American, February 1993: "During several visits to London beginning in 1979, Allan G. Bromley of the University of Sydney in Australia examined Babbage's drawings and notebooks in the Science Museum Library and became convinced that Difference Engine No. 2 could be built and would work...In 1985, shortly after my appointment as curator of computing, Bromley appeared at the science museum carrying a two-page proposal to do just that. He suggested that the museum attempt to complete the machine by 1991, the bicentenary of Babbage's birth."
- Anthony Hyman p. 167 (1985)
- Fuegi, J.; Francis, J. (2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". Annals of the History of Computing 25 (4). pp. 18–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
- Fuegi and Francis, 2003, pp. 19, 25.
- "Sketch of The Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith". Columbia University. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Robert Ligonnière p. 109 (1987)
- Bernard Cohen, pp. 61–62 (2000):
- Brian Randell 1982
- Louis Couffignal p. VII (1933). Maurice d'Ocagne mentions that Louis Couffignal is building a simpler version of the analytical engine in the preface.
- Bernard Cohen, p. 53 (2000)
- Bernard Cohen pp. 299-300 (2000): "When Zuse learned that I was gathering materials for a book on Aiken, he told me that he had first come across Aiken and Mark I in an indirect manner, through the daughter of his bookkeeper. She was working for the German Geheimdienst (Secret Service) and ... knew enough about Zuse's machine to recognize that the material filed in a certain drawer related to a device that seemed somewhat like Zuse's ... Zuse, of course, could not go to the Secret Service and ask for the document since that would give away the illegal source of his information. Zuse was well connected, however, and was able to send two of his assistants to the Secret Services ... requesting any information that might be in the files concerning a device or machine in any way similar to Zuse's ... There they found a newspaper clipping ...containing a picture of Mark I and a brief description about Aiken and the new machine."
- Konrad Zuse p.50, (1993): "...the logical development from the Babbage machine - or my Z3 - to stored-program computers..."
- "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine. Retrieved 13 June 2009. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine"
- "When was the first computer invented?". Computerhope.com. 1971-11-15. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "Inventor Profile: George R. Stibitz". National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc.
- "John Vincent Atanasoff and the Birth of Electronic Digital Computing". Cs.iastate.edu. Retrieved 29 January 2012.[dead link]
- "John Vincent Atanasoff – the father of the computer". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- "Atanasoff-Berry Computer". Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- "Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published". Der Spiegel. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Rojas, R. (1998). "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. doi:10.1109/85.707574.
- RTD Net: "From various sides Konrad Zuse was awarded with the title "Inventor of the computer"."
- GermanWay: "... German inventor of the computer"
- Monsters & Critics: "he(Zuse) built the world's first computer in Berlin"
- About.com: "Konrad Zuse earned the semiofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer""
- B. Jack Copeland, ed., Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, Oxford University Press, 2006
- "Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers", October 1944, Popular Science. Google Books. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Lavington 1998, p. 37
- This program was written similarly to those for the PDP-11 minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. All the text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972)
- It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. For instance, the Pentium FDIV bug caused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices.
- Taylor, Alexander L., III (16 April 1984). "The Wizard Inside the Machine". TIME. Retrieved 17 February 2007. (subscription required)
- Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. Some minicomputers like the DEC PDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. However, this method was usually used only as part of the booting process. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some non-volatile memory.
- However, there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. An x86-64 compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2 microprocessor can, as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486. This contrasts with very early commercial computers, which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers.
- High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly, while running, by another program called an interpreter.
- The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers, this is not always the case. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. For example, EDVAC, one of the earliest stored-program computers, used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there.
- Instructions often occupy more than one memory address, therefore the program counter usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction.
- David J. Eck (2000). The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. A K Peters, Ltd. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-56881-128-4.
- Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. CRC Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8247-4067-2.
- Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out, making it less useful for heavy random access usage. (Verma & Mielke 1988)
- Donald Eadie (1968). Introduction to the Basic Computer. Prentice-Hall. p. 12.
- Arpad Barna; Dan I. Porat (1976). Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. Wiley. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-471-05051-3.
- Jerry Peek; Grace Todino, John Strang (2002). Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. O'Reilly. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-596-00261-9.
- Gillian M. Davis (2002). Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. CRC Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-8493-0949-6.
- However, it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware; usually individual computers connected by networks. These so-called computer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers, there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. (TOP500 2006)
- Agatha C. Hughes (2000). Systems, Experts, and Computers. MIT Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-262-08285-3. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system..."
- "A Brief History of the Internet". Internet Society. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- "Computer architecture: fundamentals and principles of computer design" by Joseph D. Dumas 2006. page 340.
- According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed, 2007), the word computer dates back to the mid 17th century, when it referred to “A person who makes calculations; specifically a person employed for this in an observatory etc.”
- "Definition of computer". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.
- Fuegi, J. and Francis, J. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 No. 4 (October–December 2003): Digital Object Identifier[dead link]
- a Kempf, Karl (1961). Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps. Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army).
- a Phillips, Tony (2000). "The Antikythera Mechanism I". American Mathematical Society. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
- a Shannon, Claude Elwood (1940). A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Digital Equipment Corporation (1972). PDP-11/40 Processor Handbook (PDF). Maynard, MA: Digital Equipment Corporation.
- Verma, G.; Mielke, N. (1988). Reliability performance of ETOX based flash memories. IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium.
- Doron D. Swade (February 1993). Redeeming Charles Babbage's Mechanical Computer. Scientific American. p. 89.
- Meuer, Hans; Strohmaier, Erich; Simon, Horst; Dongarra, Jack (13 November 2006). "Architectures Share Over Time". TOP500. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Lavington, Simon (1998). A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed.). Swindon: The British Computer Society. ISBN 978-0-902505-01-8.
- Stokes, Jon (2007). Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6.
- Zuse, Konrad (1993). The Computer - My life. Berlin: Pringler-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-56453-5.
- Felt, Dorr E. (1916). Mechanical arithmetic, or The history of the counting machine. Chicago: Washington Institute.
- Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-39671-0.
- Berkeley, Edmund (1949). Giant Brains, or Machines That Think. John Wiley & Sons.
- Cohen, Bernard (2000). Howard Aiken, Portrait of a computer pioneer. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-2625317-9-5.
- Ligonnière, Robert (1987). Préhistoire et Histoire des ordinateurs. Paris: Robert Laffont. ISBN 9-782221-052617.
- Couffignal, Louis (1933). Les machines à calculer ; leurs principes, leur évolution. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
- Essinger, James (2004). Jacquard's Web, How a hand loom led to the birth of the information age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280577-0.
- Hyman, Anthony (1985). Charles Babbage: Pioneer of the Computer. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-6910237-7-9.
- Cohen, Bernard (2000). Howard Aiken, Portrait of a computer pioneer. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-2625317-9-5.
- Bowden, B. V. (1953). Faster than thought. New York, Toronto, London: Pitman publishing corporation.
- Moseley, Maboth (1964). Irascible Genius, Charles Babbage, inventor. London: Hutchinson.
- Collier, Bruce (1970). The little engine that could've: The calculating machines of Charles Babbage. Garland Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-8240-0043-9.
- Randell, Brian (1982). "From Analytical Engine to Electronic Digital Computer: The Contributions of Ludgate, Torres, and Bush". Retrieved 29 October 2013.
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