Computer crime in Canada

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Computer crime, or cybercrime, is an evolving international phenomenon. People and businesses in Canada and other countries may be affected by computer crimes that may, or may not originate within the borders of their country. From a Canadian perspective, 'computer crime' may be considered to be defined by the Council of Europe – Convention on Cybercrime [1] (November 23, 2001). Canada contributed, and is a signatory, to this international of criminal offences involving the use of computers:

  • Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems;
  • Computer-related offences;
  • Content-related offences;
  • Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights; and
  • Ancillary liability.

Canada is also a signatory to the Additional Protocol to the Convention on cybercrime,[2] concerning the criminalization of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems (January 28, 2003). As of July 25, 2008 Canada had not yet ratified the Convention on Cybercrime or the Additional Protocol to the Convention on cybercrime, concerning the criminalization of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems.

Canadian Computer Crime Laws[edit]

The Criminal Code of Canada contains a set of laws dealing with computer crime issues.

Criminal Offences Contained in the Convention on Cybercrime (November 23, 2001)[edit]

As Canada has not yet ratified the Convention on Cybercrime its Criminal Code may not fully address the areas of criminal law set out in the Convention on Cybercrime.

Computer-related offences[edit]

  • Computer-related forgery
  • Computer-related fraud

Content-related offences[edit]

  • Offences related to child pornography

Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights[edit]

Ancillary liability[edit]

  • Attempt and aiding or abetting
  • Corporate liability

Criminal offences in the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime[edit]

As Canada has not yet ratified this Additional Protocol to the Convention on cybercrime its Criminal Code may not fully address the following criminal offences:

  • Dissemination of racist and xenophobic material through computer systems
  • Racist and xenophobic motivated threat
  • Racist and xenophobic motivated insult
  • Denial, gross minimization, approval or justification of genocide or crimes against humanity
  • Aiding and abetting

Laws and Bills[edit]

Canadian Computer Criminals[edit]

  • The Canadian hacker group 'The Brotherhood of Warez' hacked the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's website on April 20, 1997; replacing the homepage with the message "The Media Are Liars" [8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=185&CM=12&DF=7/27/2008&CL=ENG
  2. ^ http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=189&CM=12&DF=7/27/2008&CL=ENG
  3. ^ "Criminal Code". Laws.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  4. ^ "Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46". CanLII. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  5. ^ "Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46". CanLII. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  6. ^ "Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46". CanLII. Retrieved 2012-09-11. 
  7. ^ "Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46". CanLII. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  8. ^ "A history of hacking". Sptimes.com. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  9. ^ Gorbould, Paul. "10th Anniversary". CBC.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-06.