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A concerto (from the Italian: concerto, plural concerti or, often, the anglicised form concertos) is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.
The etymology is uncertain, but the word seems to have originated from the conjunction of the two Latin words conserere (meaning to tie, to join, to weave) and certamen (competition, fight): the idea is that the two parts in a concerto, the soloist and the orchestra or concert band, alternate episodes of opposition, cooperation, and independence in the creation of the music flow.
The concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period side by side with the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra. The popularity of the concerto grosso form declined after the Baroque period, and the genre was not revived until the 20th century. The solo concerto, however, has remained a vital musical force from its inception to this day.
- 1 Early Baroque concerto
- 2 Late Baroque concerto
- 3 Classical concerto
- 4 Romantic concerto
- 5 20th century
- 6 Concertos for two or more instruments
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early Baroque concerto
The term "concerto" was initially used to denote works involving voices and instruments in which the instruments had independent parts—as opposed to the Renaissance common practice in which the instruments that accompanied voices only doubled the voice parts. Examples of this earlier form of concerto include Giovanni Gabrieli's "In Ecclesiis" or Heinrich Schütz's "Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du mich."
Late Baroque concerto
The concerto began to take its modern shape in the late Baroque period. Starting from a form called Concerto grosso popularized by Arcangelo Corelli, it evolved into the form we understand today as performance of a soloist with/against an orchestra.
The main composers of concerti of the baroque were Tommaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Pietro Locatelli, Giuseppe Tartini, Francesco Geminiani and Johann Joachim Quantz. The concerto was intended as a composition typical of the Italian style of the time, and all the composers were studying how to compose in the Italian fashion (all'italiana).
During the baroque period, before the invention of the piano, keyboard concertos were comparatively rare, with the exception of the organ and some harpsichord concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach. As the harpsichord evolved into the fortepiano, and in the end to the modern piano, the increased volume and the richer sound of the new instrument allowed the keyboard instrument to better compete with a full orchestra.
Cello concertos have been written since the Baroque era if not earlier. Among the works from that period, those by Antonio Vivaldi and Giuseppe Tartini are still part of the standard repertoire today.
The concerti of the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach are perhaps the best links between those of the Baroque period and those of the Classical era.
It is conventional to state that the first movements of concerti from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form. Final movements are often in rondo form, as in J.S. Bach's E Major Violin Concerto.
Mozart wrote five violin concerti, in quick succession. They show a number of influences, notably Italian and Austrian. Several passages have leanings towards folk music, as manifested in Austrian serenades.
Haydn wrote four violin concerti.
Beethoven wrote only one violin concerto.
Haydn wrote at least two cello concertos which are the most important works in that genre of the classical era. However, C.P.E. Bach’s three cello concertos are also noteworthy.
C.P.E. Bach’s keyboard concertos contain some brilliant soloistic writing. Some of them have movements that run into one another without a break, and there are frequent cross-movement thematic references.
Mozart, as a boy, made arrangements for harpsichord and orchestra of three sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. By the time he was twenty, Mozart was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition with some five or six sharply contrasted themes, before the soloist enters to elaborate on the material. Some of his twenty-seven piano are considered central in the instrument's repertoire.
Haydn wrote a dozen keyboard concertos, although a couple of them are considered spurious.
Concertos for other instruments
C.P.E. Bach wrote four flute concertos and two oboe concertos.
Mozart wrote one concerto each for flute, oboe (later rearranged for flute and known as Flute Concerto No. 2), clarinet, and bassoon, four for horn, a Concerto for Flute, Harp, and Orchestra, a Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra, and Exsultate, jubilate, a de facto concerto for soprano voice. They all exploit and explore the characteristics of the solo instrument.
Haydn wrote an important trumpet concerto and a Sinfonia Concertante for violin, cello, oboe and bassoon as well as two horn concertos.
In the 19th century the concerto as a vehicle for virtuosic display flourished as never before. It was the age in which the artist was seen as hero, to be worshipped and adulated with rapture. Early Romantic traits can be found in the violin concertos of Viotti, but it is Spohr’s twelve violin concertos, written between 1802 and 1827, that truly embrace the Romantic spirit with their melodic as well as their dramatic qualities.
Mendelssohn opens his violin concerto (1844) with the singing qualities of the violin solo. Even later passage work is dramatic and recitative-like, rather than merely virtuosic. The wind instruments state the lyrical second subject over a low pedal G on the violin – certainly[neutrality is disputed] an innovation. The cadenza, placed at the end of the development and acting as a link to the recapitulation, is fully written out and integrated into the structure.
The great violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini was a legendary figure who, as a composer, exploited the technical potential of his instrument to its very limits. Each one exploits rhapsodic ideas but is unique in its own form. The Belgian violinist Henri Vieuxtemps, himself a major virtuoso, contributed several works to this form.
Édouard Lalo's Symphonie Espagnole (1875) displays virtuoso writing with a Spanish flavor.
Max Bruch wrote three violin concertos, but it is the first, in G minor, that has remained a firm favorite in the repertoire. The opening movement relates so closely to the two remaining movements that it functions like an operatic prelude.
In the same year Brahms wrote his violin concerto for the virtuoso Joseph Joachim. This work makes new demands on the player, so much so that when it was first written it was referred to as a "concerto against the violin". The first movement brings the concerto into the realm of symphonic development. The second movement is traditionally lyrical, and the finale is based on a lively Hungarian theme.
Since the Romantic era, the cello has received as much attention as the piano and violin as a concerto instrument, and many great Romantic and even more 20th-century composers left examples.
Antonín Dvořák’s cello concerto ranks among the supreme examples from the Romantic era while those of Robert Schumann, Carl Reinecke, David Popper, and Julius Klengel focus on the lyrical qualities of the instrument.
Elgar's popular concerto, while written in the early 20th century, belongs to the late romantic period stylistically.
Today's 'core' repertoire which is performed the most of any cello concertos are by Elgar, Dvořák, Saint-Saëns, Haydn, Shostakovich and Schumann, but there are many more concertos which are performed nearly as often (see below: cello concertos in the 20th century).
Beethoven’s five piano concertos increase the technical demands made on the soloist. The last two are particularly remarkable, integrating the concerto into a large symphonic structure with movements that frequently run into one another. His Piano Concerto No. 4 starts, against tradition, with a statement by the piano, after which the orchestra magically enters in a foreign key, to present what would normally have been the opening tutti. The work has an essentially lyrical character. The slow movement is a dramatic dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. His Piano Concerto No. 5 has the basic rhythm of a Viennese military march. There is no lyrical second subject, but in its place a continuous development of the opening material. He also wrote a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello, and orchestra.
Chopin wrote two piano concertos in which the orchestra is very much relegated to an accompanying role. Schumann, despite being a pianist-composer, wrote a piano concerto in which virtuosity is never allowed to eclipse the essential lyrical quality of the work. The gentle, expressive melody heard at the beginning on woodwind and horns (after the piano’s heralding introductory chords) bears the material for most of the argument in the first movement. In fact, argument in the traditional developmental sense is replaced by a kind of variation technique in which soloist and orchestra interweave their ideas.
Liszt's mastery of piano technique matched that of Paganini for the violin. His concertos No. 1 and No. 2 left a deep impression on the style of piano concerto writing, influencing Rubinstein, and especially Tchaikovsky, whose first piano concerto's rich chordal opening is justly famous. Grieg’s concerto likewise begins in a striking manner after which it continues in a lyrical vein.
Brahms's First Piano Concerto in D minor (pub 1861) was the result of an immense amount of work on a mass of material originally intended for a symphony. His Second Piano Concerto in B♭ major (1881) has four movements and is written on a larger scale than any earlier concerto. Like his violin concerto, it is symphonic in proportions.
Fewer piano concertos were written in the late Romantic Period. But Grieg-inspired Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote 4 piano concertos between 1891 and 1926. His 2nd and 3rd, being the most popular of the 4, went on to become among the most famous in piano repertoire and shining examples of Russian musicianship.
Besides the usual three-movement works with the title "concerto", many 19th-century composers wrote shorter pieces for solo instrument and orchestra, often bearing descriptive titles. From around 1800 such pieces were often called Konzertstück or Phantasie by German composers.
Liszt wrote the Totentanz for piano and orchestra, a paraphrase of the Dies Irae. Max Bruch wrote a popular Scottish Fantasy for violin and orchestra, César Franck wrote Les Djinns and Variations symphoniques, and Gabriel Fauré wrote a Ballade for piano and orchestra. Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini is widely considered to be structured similarly to a piano concerto.
Many of the concertos written in the early 20th century belong more to the late Romantic school than to any modernistic movement. Masterpieces were written by Edward Elgar (a violin concerto and a cello concerto), Sergei Rachmaninoff and Nikolai Medtner (four and three piano concertos, respectively), Jean Sibelius (a violin concerto), Frederick Delius (a violin concerto, a cello concerto, a piano concerto and a double concerto for violin and cello), Karol Szymanowski (two violin concertos and a "Symphonie Concertante" for piano), and Richard Strauss (two horn concertos, a violin concerto, Don Quixote —a tone poem which features the cello as a soloist— and among later works, an oboe concerto).
However, in the first decades of the 20th century, several composers such as Debussy, Schoenberg, Berg, Hindemith, Stravinsky, Prokofiev and Bartók started experimenting with ideas that were to have far-reaching consequences for the way music is written and, in some cases, performed. Some of these innovations include a more frequent use of modality, the exploration of non-western scales, the development of atonality, the wider acceptance of dissonances, the invention of the twelve-tone technique of composition and the use of polyrhythms and complex time signatures.
These changes also affected the concerto as a musical form. Beside more or less radical effects on musical language, they led to a redefinition of the concept of virtuosity in order to include new and extended instrumental techniques as well as a focus on aspects of sound that had been neglected or even ignored before such as pitch, timbre and dynamics. In some cases, they also brought about a new approach to the role of the soloist and its relation to the orchestra.
Two great innovators of early 20th-century music, Schoenberg and Stravinsky, both wrote violin concertos. The material in Schoenberg’s concerto, like that in Berg’s, is linked by the twelve-tone serial method. Bartók, another major 20th-century composer, wrote two important concertos for violin. Russian composers Prokofiev and Shostakovich both wrote two concertos while Khachaturian wrote a concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody for the instrument. Hindemith’s concertos hark back to the forms of the 19th century, even if the harmonic language which he used was different.
Three violin concertos from David Diamond show the form in neoclassical style.
More recently, Dutilleux's L'Arbre des Songes has proved an important addition to the repertoire and a fine example of the composer's atonal yet melodic style.
Other composers of major violin concertos include Jean Sibelius, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Walton, Benjamin Britten, Frank Martin, Carl Nielsen, Paul Hindemith, Alfred Schnittke, György Ligeti, Philip Glass and John Adams.
In the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War, the cello enjoyed an unprecedented popularity. As a result, its concertante repertoire caught up with those of the piano and the violin both in terms of quantity and quality.
An important factor in this phenomenon was the rise of virtuoso cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. His outstanding technique and passionate playing prompted dozens of composers to write pieces for him, first in his native Soviet Union and then abroad. His creations include such masterpieces as Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony-Concerto, Dmitri Shostakovich's two cello concertos, Benjamin Britten's Cello-Symphony (which emphasizes, as its title suggests, the equal importance of soloist and orchestra), Henri Dutilleux' Tout un monde lointain..., Witold Lutosławski's cello concerto, Dmitri Kabalevsky's two cello concertos, Aram Khachaturian's Concerto-Rhapsody, Arvo Pärt's Pro et Contra, Alfred Schnittke, André Jolivet and Krzysztof Penderecki second cello concertos, Sofia Gubaidulina's Canticles of the Sun, Luciano Berio's Ritorno degli Snovidenia, Leonard Bernstein's Three Meditations, James MacMillan's cello concerto and Olivier Messiaen's Concert à quatre (a quadruple concerto for cello, piano, oboe, flute and orchestra).
In addition, several important composers who were not directly influenced by Rostropovich wrote cello concertos: György Ligeti, Alexander Glazunov, Paul Hindemith, Toru Takemitsu, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honegger, Nikolai Myaskovsky, Samuel Barber, Joaquín Rodrigo, Elliot Carter, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, William Walton, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Hans Werner Henze, Bernd Alois Zimmermann and Einojuhani Rautavaara for instance.
Igor Stravinsky wrote three works for solo piano and orchestra: Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments, Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra, and Movements for Piano and Orchestra. Sergei Prokofiev, another Russian composer, wrote no less than five piano concertos which he himself performed. Dmitri Shostakovich composed two. Fellow soviet composer Aram Khachaturian contributed to the repertoire with a piano concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody.
Béla Bartók also wrote three piano concertos. Like their violin counterparts, they show the various stages in his musical development.
Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote a concerto for piano (in fact a reworking of a concerto for two pianos - both versions have been recorded) while Benjamin Britten's concerto for piano (1938) is a fine work from his early period.
György Ligeti's concerto (1988) has a synthetic quality: it mixes complex rhythms, the composer's Hungarian roots and his experiments with micropolyphony from the 1960s and 70's. Witold Lutoslawski's piano concerto, completed in the same year, alternates between playfulness and mystery. It also displays a partial return to melody after the composer's aleatoric period.
Russian composer Rodion Shchedrin has written six piano concertos. Finnish composer Einojuhani Rautavaara wrote three piano concertos, the third one dedicated to Vladimir Ashkenazy, who played and conducted the world première.
Concertos for other instruments
The 20th century also witnessed a growth of the concertante repertoire of instruments, some of which had seldom or never been used in this capacity. As a result, almost all classical instruments now have a concertante repertoire. Examples include:
- Alto saxophone Concerto: Adams, Creston, Dahl, Denisov, Dubois, Glazunov, Husa, Ibert, Koch, Larsson, Maslanka, Muczynski, Salonen, Tomasi, Worley, Yoshimatsu
- Bandoneón Concerto: Piazzolla
- Baritone saxophone Concerto: Gaines, Glaser
- Bass clarinet Concerto: Bouliane
- Bass oboe concerto: Bryars
- Bassoon concerto: Aho, Butterworth, Davies, Donatoni, Eckhardt-Gramatté, Fujikura, Gubaidulina, Hétu, Jolivet, Kaipainen, Knipper, Landowski, Panufnik, Rihm, Rota, Sæverud, J. Williams
- Clarinet concerto: Aho, Arnold, Copland, Davies, Denisov, Dusapin, Fairouz, Françaix, Hétu, Hindemith, Kan-no, Nielsen, Penderecki, Rautavaara, Stravinsky, Takemitsu, Tomasi, J. Williams
- Contrabassoon Concerto: Aho, Erb
- Contrabass flute Concerto: McGowan
- Cornet Concerto: Wright
- Double bass concerto: Aho, Gagneux, Henze, Koussevitsky, Davies, Ohzawa, Rautavaara, Tubin
- Euphonium Concerto: Clarke, Cosma, Ewazen, Gillingham, Golland, Graham, Horovitz, Lindberg, Linkola, Sparke, Wilby.
- Flute Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Davies, Denisov, Dusapin, Harman, Hétu, Ibert, Jolivet, Landowski, Nielsen, Penderecki, Rautavaara, Rodrigo, Takemitsu, J. Williams
- Free bass accordion Concerto: Serry, Sr.
- Guitar Concerto: Arnold, Brouwer, Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Hovhaness, Ohana, Ponce, Rodrigo, Villa-Lobos
- Harmonica concerto: Arnold, Vaughan Williams, Villa-Lobos
- Harp Concerto: Ginastera, Glière, Jongen, Milhaud, Jolivet, Rautavaara, Rodrigo, Villa-Lobos
- Harpsichord Concerto: de Falla, Glass, Górecki, Martinů, Poulenc
- Horn Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Arutiunian, Atterberg, Bowen, Carter, Davies, Glière, Gipps, Hindemith, Hovhaness, Jacob, Knussen, Ligeti, Murail, Penderecki, Strauss, Tomasi, J. Williams
- Kanun Concerto: Alnar
- Mandolin Concerto: Thile
- Marimba Concerto: Creston, Larsen, Milhaud, Rosauro, Svoboda, Viñao
- Oboe concerto: Aho, Arnold, Bouliane, Davies, Denisov, Harman, MacMillan, Maderna, Martinů, Penderecki, Shchedrin, Strauss, Vaughan Williams, Zimmermann
- Organ concerto: Arnold, Hanson, Harrison, Hétu, Hindemith, Jongen, Kan-no, MacMillan, Peeters, Poulenc, Rorem, Sowerby
- Percussion Concerto: Aho, Dorman, Glass, Jolivet, MacMillan, Milhaud, Rautavaara, Susman
- Piccolo Concerto: Davies, Liebermann
- Shakuhachi Concerto: Takemitsu
- Sheng Concerto: Kan-no, Unsuk Chin.
- Soprano saxophone Concerto: Higdon, Hovhaness, Mackey, Torke, Yoshimatsu.
- Tenor saxophone Concerto: Bennett, Ewazen, Gould, Nicolau, Ward, Wilder.
- Timpani concerto: Druschetzky, Glass, Kraft, Rosauro
- Trombone Concerto: Aho, Bourgeois, Dusapin, Gagneux, Grøndahl, Holmboe, Larsson, Milhaud, Olsen, Rota, Rouse, Sandström, Tomasi
- Trumpet Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Arutiunian, Böhme, Jolivet, Perry, Sandström, Williams, Zimmermann
- Tuba Concerto: Aho, Arutiunian, Gagneux, Holmboe, Vaughan Williams, J. Williams
- Viola concerto: Aho, Arnold, Bartók, Denisov, Gagneux, Gubaidulina, Hindemith, Kan-no, Kancheli, Martinů, Milhaud, Murail, Penderecki, Schnittke, Takemitsu, Walton
Among the works of the prolific composer Alan Hovhaness may be noted Prayer of St. Gregory for trumpet and strings.
Concertos for orchestra or concert band
In the 20th and 21st centuries, several composers wrote concertos for orchestra or concert band. In these works, different sections and/or instruments of the orchestra or concert band are treated at one point or another as soloists with emphasis on solo sections and/or instruments changing during the piece. Some examples include those written by:
- Bartók - Concerto for Orchestra - 1945
- Carter - 1969
- Hindemith - Op. 38, 1925
- Knussen - 1969
- Kodály - 1940
- Lindberg - 2003
- Lutoslawski - Concerto for Orchestra - 1954
- Shchedrin - No. 1 Naughty Limericks (1963), No. 2 The Chimes (1968), No. 3 Old Russian Circus Music (1989), No. 4 Round Dances (Khorovody) (1989), No. 5 Four Russian Songs (1998)
Dutilleux has also described his Métaboles as a concerto for orchestra, while Britten's well-known pedagogical work The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra is essentially a concerto for orchestra in all but name.
Concertos for two or more instruments
Many composers also wrote concertos for two or more soloists.
In the Baroque era:
- Vivaldi's concerti for 2, 3 or 4 violins, for 2 cellos, for 2 mandolins, for 2 trumpets, for 2 flutes, for oboe and bassoon, for cello and bassoon... etc.. Some of Vivaldi's concerti were written for a very large number of soloists, including the extraordinary RV555 which features 3 violins, an oboe, 2 recorders, 2 viole all'inglese, a chalumeau, 2 cellos, 2 harpsichords and 2 trumpets.
- Bach's concerti for 2 violins, for 2, 3, or 4 harpsichords as well as several of his Brandenburg concertos.
In the Classical era:
- Haydn's concerto for violin and keyboard (usually referred to as the Keyboard Concerto No. 6) and Sinfonia concertante for violin, cello, oboe and bassoon.
- Mozart's concerti for 2 pianos and 3 pianos, the Sinfonia concertante for violin and viola, and his concerto for flute and harp.
- Salieri's Triple Concerto for oboe, violin and cello, and his double concerto for flute and oboe.
In the Romantic era:
- Beethoven's triple concerto for piano, violin, and cello.
- Brahms's double concerto for violin and cello.
- Bruch's double concerto for viola and clarinet and one for 2 pianos.
In the 20th century:
- Malcolm Arnold's concerto for piano duet and strings, as well as his concerto for two violins and string orchestra
- Béla Bartók's concerto for two pianos and percussion
- Samuel Barber's Capricorn Concerto for flute, oboe and trumpet.
- Benjamin Britten's double concerto for violin and viola.
- Elliott Carter's double concerto for piano and harpsichord.
- Peter Maxwell Davies's Strathclyde Concerto No. 3 for horn, trumpet and orchestra, No. 4 for violin, viola and string orchestra and No. 9 for piccolo, alto flute, cor anglais, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, contrabassoon and string orchestra.
- Frederick Delius's double concerto for violin and cello.
- Nicolas Flagello's Concerto Sinfonico for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
- Jean Françaix's concerto for two pianos and another for two harps, as well as his Divertissement for string trio and orchestra, his Quadruple Concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and orchestra, his Double Concerto for flute and clarinet, and his Concerto for 15 Soloists and Orchestra
- Philip Glass's concerto for saxophone quartet.
- Cristóbal Halffter's Concierto a cuatro for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
- Hans Werner Henze's double concerto for oboe and harp.
- Paul Hindemith's concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, harp, and orchestra as well as his concerto for trumpet, bassoon, and strings.
- Gustav Holst's Fugal Concerto for flute, oboe and string orchestra.
- Tristan Keuris's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
- György Kurtág's double concerto for piano and cello.
- Lowell Liebermann's concerto for flute and harp
- György Ligeti's double concerto for flute and oboe.
- Jon Lord's concerto for rock band.
- Witold Lutosławski's concerto for oboe and harp.
- Miklós Maros's Concerto Grosso for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
- Bohuslav Martinu's concerto for string quartet, concertino for piano trio and string orchestra, two concertante duos for two violins, concerto for two pianos, sinfonia concertante No. 2 for violin, cello, oboe, bassoon and orchestra with piano, and his concerto for violin and piano.
- Olivier Messiaen's Concert à quatre for piano, cello, oboe and flute.
- Darius Milhaud's Symphonie concertante for bassoon, horn, trumpet and double bass, as well as his concerti for flute and violin, and for marimba and vibraphone.
- Michael Nyman's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
- Francis Poulenc's concerto for two pianos.
- Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto madrigal for 2 guitars and Concierto Andaluz for 4 guitars.
- William Russo's concerto for blues band.
- Alfred Schnittke's double concerto for oboe, harp, and strings as well as his Konzert zu Dritt, for violin, viola, violoncello and strings.
- Rodion Shchedrin's double concerto for piano and cello.
- Michael Tippett's triple concerto for violin, viola, and cello.
- Charles Wuorinen's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
In the 21st century:
- William Bolcom's Concerto Grosso for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
- Leo Brouwer's Guitar Concerto No. 10 "Book of Signs", for two guitars.
- Mohammed Fairouz's Double Concerto 'States of Fantasy' for violin and cello.
- Philip Glass's Concerto Fantasy for two Timpanists and Orchestra and Double Concerto for violin and cello.
- William P. Perry's Gemini Concerto for violin and piano.
- Karl Jenkins' Over the Stone for two harps
- Talbot, Michael. "The Italian concerto in the Late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries". The Cambridge Companion to the Concerto.
- White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music, p.62. ISBN 0-13-033233-X.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Concerto". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
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