Concrete art

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Concrete Art and Design or Concretism is an abstractionist movement that evolved in the 1930s out of the work of De Stijl, Futurism and Kandinsky around the Swiss painter Max Bill. The term "Concrete Art" was first introduced by Theo van Doesburg in his "Manifesto of Concrete Art" (1930). In his understanding, this form of Abstractionism must be free of any symbolical association with reality, arguing that lines and colors are concrete by themselves.

Max Bill further promoted this idea, organizing the first international exhibition in 1944. The movement came to fruition in Northern Italy and France in the 1940s and 1950s through the work of the groups Movimento d'arte concreta (MAC) and Espace.

In 1960 Max Bill organized a large exhibition of Concrete Art in Zürich illustrating 50 years of its development.[1]

Erich Hauser: double pillar 23/70, 1970, in front of Neue Pinakothek in Munich

International dimension[edit]

Concrete art, optical art, kinetic art and programmatic art bring together groups around the world characterized by similar concerns.[2]

City Group Year Artists
Buenos Aires Asociación Arte Concreto Invención 1945
Buenos Aires Movimento Madi 1946
Copenhagen Linien II 1947 Ib Geertsen, Bamse Kragh-Jacobsen, Niels Macholm, Albert Mertz, Richard Winther
Milan Movimento Arte Concreta (MAC) 1948 Atanasio Soldati, Gillo Dorfles, Bruno Munari, Gianni Monnet
Zagreb Group Exat 51 1951
Paris Group Espace 1951
Rio de Janeiro Grupo Frente 1952 Aluísio Carvão, Carlos Val, Décio Vieira, Ivan Serpa, João José da Silva Costa, Lygia Clark, Lygia Pape, Vicent Ibberson
Ulm Hochschule für Gestaltung 1953
Düsseldorf Gruppo Zero 1957 Otto Piene, Hienz Mack, Günther Uecker, Yves Klein, Piero Manzoni, Lucio Fontana, Jean Tinguely, Joseph Beuys, Piero Dorazio
Cordoba Equipo 57 1957
Padua Gruppo N 1959 Alberto Biasi, Ennio Chiggio, Toni Costa, Edoardo Landi, Manfredo Massironi.
Milan Gruppo T 1959 Giovanni Anceschi (1939), Davide Boriani (1936), Gabriele De Vecchi (1938), Gianni Colombo (1937-1993) e Grazia Varisco (1937)
Paris Motus/GRAV 1960 Hugo Demarco, Garcia Miranda, Francois Molnar, Moyano, Horacio Garcia Rossi, Julio Le Parc, Francois Morellet, Servanes, Francisco Sobrino, Joen Stein, Yvaral (Jean Pierre Vasarely)
Cleveland Anonima Group 1960
Rome Gruppo Uno 1962 Gastone Biggi, Nicola Carrino, Nato Frascà, Achille Pace, Pasquale Santoro, Giuseppe Uncini. Palma Bucarelli
Moscow Group Dvizjenije 1962
Genoa Gruppo Tempo 3 1963
Praha Synthese 1964

Representative artists[edit]


  1. ^ Walker, John. "Concrete Art / Art Concret / Arte Concreta / Konkrete Kunst". Glossary of Art, Architecture & Design since 1945, 3rd. ed.
  2. ^ Alessandro Del Puppo, L'arte contemporanea: Il secondo novecento, Einaudi, 2013, table 3 page 238.


  • Museum am Kulturspeicher (ed.): Concrete Art in Europe after 1945 - The Peter C. Ruppert Collection. Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz, 2002. ISBN 3-7757-1191-0
  • Concrete art definition reference in Danish that includes richard Winther as one of the main artists in the movement under the area of Linien II