|Classification and external resources|
Conduct disorder (CD) is a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. These behaviors are often referred to as "antisocial behaviors." It is often seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder, which is not diagnosed until the individual is 18 years old.
- 1 Diagnosis
- 2 Etiology
- 3 Developmental course
- 4 Epidemiology
- 5 Risk and protective factors
- 6 Comorbidity
- 7 Treatment
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Conduct disorder is classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It is diagnosed based on a prolonged pattern of antisocial behaviour such as serious violation of laws and social norms and rules. No proposed revisions for the main criteria of conduct disorder exist in the DSM-5; there is a recommendation by the work group to add an additional specifier for callous and unemotional traits. According to DSM-5 criteria for conduct disorder, there are four categories that could be present in the child's behavior: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.
Almost all adolescents who have a substance use disorder have conduct disorder-like traits, but after successful treatment of the substance use disorder, about half of these adolescents no longer display conduct disorder-like symptoms. Therefore it is important to exclude a substance-induced cause and instead address the substance use disorder prior to making a psychiatric diagnosis of conduct disorder.
While the etiology (origin or cause) of conduct disorder is complicated by an intricate interplay of biological and environmental factors, identifying etiological mechanisms is crucial for obtaining accurate assessment and implementing effective treatment. These mechanisms serve as the fundamental building blocks on which evidence-based treatments are developed. Despite the complexities, several domains have been implicated in the development of conduct disorder including cognitive variables, neurological factors, intraindividual factors, familial and peer influences, and wider contextual factors. These factors may also vary based on the age of onset, with different variables related to early (e.g., neurodevelopmental basis) and adolescent (e.g., social/peer relationships) onset.
In terms of cognitive function, intelligence and cognitive deficits are common amongst youths with conduct disorder, particularly those with early-onset and have intelligence quotients (IQ) one standard deviation below the mean and severe deficits in verbal reasoning and executive function. Executive function difficulties may manifest in terms of one’s ability to shift between tasks, plan as well as organize, and also inhibit a prepotent response. These findings hold true even after taking into account other variables such as socioeconomic status (SES), and education. However, IQ and executive function deficits are only one piece of the puzzle, and the magnitude of their influence is increased during transactional processes with environmental factors.
Structural and functional brain differences
Beyond difficulties in executive function, youth with conduct disorder may also demonstrate differences in brain anatomy and function. Compared to normal controls, youths with early and adolescent onset of conduct disorder displayed reduced responses in brain regions associated with antisocial behavior (i.e., amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex). In addition, youths with conduct disorder also demonstrated less responsiveness in the orbitofrontal regions of the brain during a stimulus-reinforcement and reward task. This provides a neural explanation for why youths with conduct disorder may be more likely to repeat poor decision making patterns. Lastly, youths with conduct disorder display a reduction in grey matter volume in the amygdala, which may account for the fear conditioning deficits. This reduction has been linked to difficulty processing social emotional stimuli, regardless of the age of onset. Aside from the differences in neuroanatomy and activation patterns between youth with conduct disorder and controls, neurochemical profiles also vary between groups. Individuals with conduct disorder are characterized as having reduced serotonin and cortisol levels (e.g., reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis), as well as reduced autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. These reductions are associated with the inability to regulate mood and impulsive behaviors, weakened signals of anxiety and fear, and decreased self-esteem. Taken together, these findings may account for some of the variance in the psychological and behavioral patterns of youth with conduct disorder.
Aside from findings related to neurological and neurochemical profiles of youth with conduct disorder, intraindividual factors such as genetics may also be relevant. Having a sibling or parent with conduct disorder increases the likelihood of having the disorder, with a heritability rate of .53. There also tends to be a stronger genetic link for individuals with childhood-onset compared to adolescent onset. In addition, youth with conduct disorder also exhibit polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene, low resting heart rates, and increased testosterone.
Family and peer influences
Elements of the family and social environment may also play a role in the development and maintenance of conduct disorder. For instance, antisocial behavior suggestive of conduct disorder is associated with single parent status, parental divorce, large family size, and young age of mothers. However, these factors are difficult to tease apart from other demographic variables that are known to be linked with conduct disorder, including poverty and low SES. Family functioning and parent-child interactions also play a substantial role in childhood aggression and conduct disorder, with low levels of parental involvement, inadequate supervision, and unpredictable discipline practices reinforcing youth’s defiant behaviors. Peer influences have also been related to the development of antisocial behavior in youth, particularly peer rejection in childhood and association with deviant peers. Peer rejection is not only a marker of a number of externalizing disorders, but also a contributing factor for the continuity of the disorders over time. Hinshaw and Lee (2003) also explain that association with deviant peers has been thought to influence the development of conduct disorder in two ways: 1) a “selection” process whereby youth with aggressive characteristics choose deviant friends, and 2) a “facilitation” process whereby deviant peer networks bolster patterns of antisocial behavior. In a separate study by Bonin and colleagues, parenting programs were shown to positively affect child behavior and reduce costs to the public sector.
Wider contextual factors
In addition to the individual and social factors associated with conduct disorder, research has highlighted the importance of environment and context in youth with antisocial behavior. However, it is important to note that these are not static factors, but rather transactional in nature (e.g., individuals are influenced by and also influence their environment). For instance, neighborhood safety and exposure to violence has been studied in conjunction with conduct disorder, but it is not simply the case that youth with aggressive tendencies reside in violent neighborhoods. Transactional models propose that youth may resort to violence more often as a result of exposure to community violence, but their predisposition towards violence also contributes to neighborhood climate.
Currently, two possible developmental courses are thought to conduct disorder. The first is known as the "childhood-onset type" and occurs when conduct disorder symptoms are present before the age of 10 years. This course is often linked to a more persistent life course and more pervasive behaviors. Specifically, children in this group have greater levels of ADHD symptoms, neuropsychological deficits, more academic problems, increased family dysfunction, and higher likelihood of aggression and violence.
There is debate among professionals regarding the validity of diagnosing young children with conduct disorder. The characteristics of the diagnosis are commonly seen in young children that are referred to mental health professionals. It is concerning that a premature diagnosis may be made in young children, and thus labeling an individual may be inappropriate. It is also argued that some children may not in fact have conduct disorder, but are engaging in developmentally appropriate disruptive behavior.
The second developmental course is known as the "adolescent-onset type" and occurs when conduct disorder symptoms are present after the age of 10 years. Individuals with adolescent-onset conduct disorder exhibit less impairment than those with the childhood-onset type and are not characterized by similar psychopathology. At times, these individuals will remit in their deviant patterns before adulthood. Research has shown that there is a greater number of children with adolescent-onset conduct disorder than those with childhood-onset, suggesting that adolescent-onset conduct disorder is an exaggeration of developmental behaviors that are typically seen in adolescence, such as rebellion against authority figures and rejection of conventional values. However, this argument is not established and empirical research suggests that these subgroups are not as valid as once thought.
In addition to these two courses that are recognized by the DSM-IV-TR, there appears to be a relationship among oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Specifically, research has demonstrated continuity in the disorders such that conduct disorder is often diagnosed in children who have been previously diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, and most adults with antisocial personality disorder were previously diagnosed with conduct disorder. For example, some research has shown that 90% of children diagnosed with conduct disorder had a previous diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder. Moreover, both disorders share relevant risk factors and disruptive behaviors, suggesting that oppositional defiant disorder is a developmental precursor and milder variant of conduct disorder. However, this is not to say that this trajectory occurs in all individuals. In fact, only about 25% of children with oppositional defiant disorder will receive a later diagnosis of conduct disorder. Correspondingly, there is an established link between conduct disorder and the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder as an adult. In fact, the current diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder require a conduct disorder diagnosis before the age of 15. However, again, only 25-40% of youths with conduct disorder will develop antisocial personality disorder. Nonetheless, many of the individuals who do not meet full criteria for antisocial personality disorder still exhibit a pattern of social and personal impairments or antisocial behaviors. These developmental trajectories suggest the existence of antisocial pathways in certain individuals, which have important implications for both research and treatment.
Prevalence and incidence
The majority of research on conduct disorder suggests that there are a significantly greater number of males than females with the diagnosis, with some reports demonstrating a threefold to fourfold difference in prevalence. However, this difference may be somewhat biased by the diagnostic criteria which focus on more overt behaviors, such as aggression and fighting, which are more often exhibited by males. Females are more likely to be characterized by covert behaviors, such as stealing or running away. Moreover, conduct disorder in females is linked to several negative outcomes, such as antisocial personality disorder and early pregnancy, suggesting that sex differences in disruptive behaviors need to be more fully understood.
Racial and ethnic differences in the US
Research on racial or cultural differences on the prevalence or presentation of conduct disorder is limited. However, it appears that African-American youth are more often diagnosed with conduct disorder, while Asian-American youth are about one-third as likely to develop conduct disorder when compared to White American youth.
Risk and protective factors
The development of conduct disorder is not immutable or predetermined. A number of interactive risk and protective factors exist that can influence and change outcomes, and in most cases conduct disorder develops due to an interaction and gradual accumulation of risk factors. In addition to the risk factors identified under etiology, several other variables place youth at increased risk for developing the disorder, including child physical abuse and prenatal alcohol abuse and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Protective factors have also been identified, and most notably include high IQ, being female, positive social orientations, good coping skills, and supportive family and community relationships.
However, a mere correlation between a particular risk factor and a later developmental outcome (such as conduct disorder) cannot be taken as definitive evidence for a causal link. Co-variation between two variables can arise, for instance, if they represent age-specific expressions of similar underlying genetic factors. For example, the tendency to smoke during pregnancy (SDP) is subject to substantial genetic influence (D'Onofrio et al., 2007), as is conduct disorder. Thus, the genes that dispose the mother to SDP may also dispose the child to CD following mitotic transmission. Indeed, Rice et al. (2009) found that in mother-fetus pairs that were not genetically related (by virtue of in-vitro fertilisation), no link between SDP and later conduct problems arose. Thus, the distinction between causality and correlation is an important consideration.[full citation needed]
Lack of empathy
Empathy is recognizing feelings that other people are experiencing; lack of empathy is inability to recognize feelings of others. The child diagnosed with CD often presents with a lack of empathy. Because the child with CD is unable to place themselves in the other person’s shoes, they are unable to understand their consequences.
One of the factors of conduct disorder is a lower level of fear. Research performed on the impact of toddlers exposed to fear and distress show negative emotionality (fear) predict toddlers’ empathy-related responding to distress. The findings support that if a caregiver is able to respond to infant cues, the toddler has a better ability to respond to fear and distress. If a child does not learn how to handle fear or distress the child will be more likely to lash out at other children. If the caregiver is able to provide therapeutic intervention teaching children at risk better empathy skills, the child will have a lower incident level of conduct disorder.
Children with conduct disorder have a high risk of developing other adjustment problems. Specifically, risk factors associated with conduct disorder and the effects of conduct disorder symptomatology on a child’s psychosocial context have been linked to overlap with other psychological disorders. In this way, there seems to be reciprocal effects of comorbidity with certain disorders, leading to increased overall risk for these youth.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADHD is the condition most commonly associated with conduct disorders, with approximately 25-30% of boys and 50-55% of girls with conduct disorder having a comorbid ADHD diagnosis. While it is unlikely that ADHD alone is a risk factor for developing conduct disorder, children who exhibit hyperactivity and impulsivity along with aggression is associated with the early onset of conduct problems. Moreover, children with comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD show more severe aggression.
Substance use disorders
Conduct disorder is also highly associated with both substance use and abuse. Children with conduct disorder have an earlier onset of substance use, as compared to their peers, and also tend to use multiple substances. However, substance use disorders themselves can directly or indirectly cause conduct disorder like traits in about half of adolescents who have a substance use disorder. As mentioned above, it seems that there is a transactional relationship between substance use and conduct problems, such that aggressive behaviors increase substance use, which leads to increased aggressive behavior.
Substance use in conduct disorder can lead to antisocial behavior in adulthood.
While language impairments are most common, approximately 20-25% of youth with conduct disorder have some type of learning disability. Although the relationship between the disorders is complex, it seems as if learning disabilities result from a combination of ADHD, a history of academic difficulty and failure, and long-standing socialization difficulties with family and peers. However, confounding variables, such as language deficits, SES disadvantage, or neurodevelopmental delay also need to be considered in this relationship, as they could help explain some of the association between conduct disorder and learning problems.
The most effective treatment for an individual with conduct disorder is one that seeks to integrate individual, school, and family settings. Additionally, treatment should also seek to address familial conflict such as marital discord or maternal depression. In this manner, a treatment would serve to address many of the possible triggers of conduct problems. Several treatments currently exist, the most effective of which is multi-systemic treatment (MST).
Multisystemic treatment (MST)
MST is an intensive, integrative treatment that emphasizes how an individual’s conduct problems fit within a broader context. The individual is viewed functioning within a series of interconnected systems (home, school, neighborhood etc.), that reinforces their antisocial behavior. MST seeks to break this connection through empowering the individual and family members.
The success rate of MST among severely antisocial youths has been found to be superior to other office-based therapy approaches. Adolescents that have undergone this treatment show decreased levels of aggression and improved familial relations. MST has also been found to decrease long-term rates of crime.
MST has not yet been shown to differentiate between rates of improvement for those presenting a child-onset path and those with an adolescent-onset path. Perceived gains from this treatment may stem from the fact that adolescent onset of the disorder is typically associated with troubled teens befriending other troubled teens. MST may serve to deter these bonds and thus improve their prognosis. The child-onset type has proved to be more impairing, and resilient, and thus may not respond as well.
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Challenging behavior
- Child pyromaniac
- Drift hypothesis
- Multisystemic therapy
- Oppositional defiant disorder
- Parental alienation
- Hinshaw, S. P., & Lee, S. S. (2003). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 144-198). New York: Guilford Press.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 659. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
- Murray J; Farrington DP (Oct 2010). "Risk factors for conduct disorder and delinquency: key findings from longitudinal studies.". Can J Psychiatry. 55 (10): 633–42. PMID 20964942.
- "DSM 5 Development: Conduct Disorder". American Psychiatric Association. 2010.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 469–470. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Brown, SA.; Gleghorn, A.; Schuckit, MA.; Myers, MG.; Mott, MA. (May 1996). "Conduct disorder among adolescent alcohol and drug abusers.". J Stud Alcohol 57 (3): 314–24. doi:10.15288/jsa.1996.57.314. PMID 8709590.
- Murrihy, R., Kidman, A., & Ollendick, T (2010). Clinical Handbook of Assessing and Treating Conduct Problems in Youth. Springer: New York.
- Passamonti L., Fairchild G., Goodyer I., Hurford G., Hagan C., Rowe J., Calder A. (2010). "Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder". Archives of General Psychiatry 67 (7): 729–738. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.75.
- Lynham, D. & Henry, B. (2001). The role of neuropsychological deficits in conduct disorders. In J. Hill & B. Maughan (Eds.), Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (pp.235-263). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Moffitt, T. & Lynam, D. (1994). The neuropsychology of conduct disorder and delinquency: Implications for understanding antisocial behavior. In D.C. Fowles, P. Sutker, & S.H. Goodman (Eds.), Progress in experimental personality and psychopathology research (pp. 233-262). New York: Springer.
- Pennington B., Benneto L. (1993). "Main effects or transactions in the neuropsychology of conduct disorder? Commentary on "The neuropsychology of conduct disorder". Developmental Psychopatholgy 5: 153–164. doi:10.1017/s0954579400004314.
- Finger E., Marsh A., Blair K., Reid M., Sims C., Ng P., Pine D., Blair R. (2011). "Disrupted reinforcement signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate in youths with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and a high level of psychopathic traits". American Journal of Psychiatry 168 (2): 152–162. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10010129.
- Raine A (2011). "An amygdale structural abnormality common to two subtypes of conduct disorder: A neurodevelopmental conundrum". American Journal of Psychiatry 168 (2): 569–571.
- Fairchild G., Passamonti L., Hurford G., von dem Hagan C., Hagen E., van Goozen S., Goodyer I., Calder A. (2011). "Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolscent-onset conduct disorder". Journal of Psychiatry 168 (6): 624–633. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10081184.
- Cappadocia, MC.; Desrocher, M.; Pepler, D.; Schroeder, JH. (Aug 2009). "Contextualizing the neurobiology of conduct disorder in an emotion dysregulation framework.". Clin Psychol Rev 29 (6): 506–18 v. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.001. PMID 19573964.
- Gelhorn H. L., Stallings M. C., Young S. E., Corley R. P., Rhee S. H., Hewitt J. K. (2005). "Genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder: Symptom, domain, and full-scale analyses". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46 (6): 580–591. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00373.x.
- Burt S., Truger R., McGue M., Iacono W. (2001). "Sources of covariation among attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: The importance of shared environment". Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110: 516–525. doi:10.1037/0021-843x.110.4.516.
- Foley, D. L., Eaves, L. J., Wormley, B., Silberg, J. L., Maes, H. H., Kuhn, J., & Riley, B. (2004). Childhood adversity, monoamine oxidase A genotype, and risk for conduct disorder.Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 738-744.
- Baker L. A., Tuvblad C., Reynolds C., Zheng M., Lozano D. I., Raine A. (2009). "Resting heart rate and the development of antisocial behaviour from age 9 to 14: genetic and environmental influences". Developmental Psychopathology 21: 939–960. doi:10.1017/s0954579409000509.
- Coie, J. & Dodge, K. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol.2. Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp.779-862). New York: Wiley.
- Bonin EM, Stevens M, Beecham J, Byford S, Parsonage M (2011). "Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study". BMC Public Health 11: 803. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-803.
- Moffitt T.E. (1993). "Life course persistent" and "adolescence-limited" antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy". Psychological Review 13: 355–375.
- Volkmar F (2002). "Considering disruptive behaviors". Am J Psychiatry 159: 349–350. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.349.
- Moffitt T.E., Caspi A. (2001). "Childhood predictors differentiate life-course life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females". Development and Psychopathology 8: 355–375.
- Roisman G. I., Monahan K. C., Campbell S. B., Steinberg L., Cauffman E., Early Child Care Research Network (2010). "Is adolescence-onset antisocial behavior developmentally normative?". Development and Psychopathology 22: 295–311. doi:10.1017/s0954579410000076.
- Loeber R., Keenan K., Lahey B.B., Green S.M., Thomas C. (1993). "Evidence for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 21: 377–410. doi:10.1007/bf01261600.
- Zocccolillo M., Pickles A., Quinton D., Rutter M. (1992). "The outcome of conduct disorder: Implications for defining adult personality disorder and conduct disorder". Psychological Medicine 22: 971–986.
- Rutter M (1989). "Pathways from childhood to adult life". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30: 25–51. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1989.tb00768.x.
- U.S. Department of Justice. (2006). Psychiatric disorders of youth in detention (NCJ 210331)Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
- Lahey, B. B., Miller, T. L., Gordon, R. A., & Riley, A. W. (1999). Developmental epidemiology of the disruptive behavior disorders. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive disorders (pp. 23-48). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Loeber R., Burke J.D., Lahey B.B., Winters A., Zera M. (2000). "Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I.". American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39: 1468–1484. doi:10.1097/00004583-200012000-00007.
- Keenan, Kate, Rolf Loeber, and Stephanie Green. "Conduct Disorder in Girls: A Review of the Literature." Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 2.1 (1999): n.
- Stanger, Nicholas, Maria Kavussanu, and Christopher Ring. "Put Yourself in Their Boots: Effects of Empathy on Emotion and Aggression." Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2012; 34: 208-22. Print
- DelBello M. P., Lopez-Larson M. P., Soutullo C. A., Strakowski S. M. (2001). "Effects of race on psychiatric diagnosis of hospitalized adolescents: A retrospective chart review". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 11 (1): 95–103. doi:10.1089/104454601750143528.
- Sakai J. T., Risk N. K., Tanaka C. A., Price R. K. (2007). "Conduct disorder among Asians and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders in the USA". Psychological Medicine 37 (7): 1013–1025.
- Murray J., Farrington D. P. (2010). "Risk factors for conduct disorder and delinquency: Key findings from longitudinal studies". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55 (10): 633–642.
- Larkby C. A., Goldschmidt L, Hanusa B. H., Day N. L. (2011). "Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with conduct disorder in adolescence: Findings from a birth cohort". Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 50 (3): 262–271. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.12.004.
- Bassarath L (2001). "Conduct disorder: A biopsychosocial review". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 46: 609–616.
- Rutter M., Moffi , Caspi A. (2006). "Gene–environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47: 226–261. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01557.x.
- Spinrad, Tracy, and Cynthia Stifter. "Toddlers’ Empathy-Related Responding to Distress: Predictions from Negative Emotionality and Maternal Behavior in Infancy." Infancy 10(2), 97-121, n.d. Web
- McMahon R. J., Frick P. J. (2005). "Evidenced-based assessment of conduct problems in children and adolescents". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 34: 477–505. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_6.
- Waschbusch D. A. (2002). "A meta-analytic evaluation of comorbid hyperactive-impulsive-inattention problems and conduct problems". Psychological Bulletin 128: 118–150. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.118.
- Lynskey M. T., Fergusson D. M. (1995). "Childhood conduct problems, attention deficit behaviors, and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 23: 281–302. doi:10.1007/bf01447558.
- White H.R., Loeber R., Stouthamer-Loeber M., Farrington D.P. (1999). "Developmental associations between substance use and violence". Development and Psychopathology 11: 785–803. doi:10.1017/s0954579499002321.
- Khalifa, N; Duggan, C; Howard, R; Lumsden, J (October 2012). "The relationship between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior is partially mediated by early-onset alcohol abuse.". Personality disorders 3 (4): 423–32. doi:10.1037/a0027017. PMID 22888992.
- Frick P. J., Kamphaus R. W., Lahey B. B., Christ M. A., Hart E. L., Tannenbaum T. E. (1991). "the vast majority of these have ADHD. Academic underachievement and the disruptive behavior disorders". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59: 289–294. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.59.2.289.
- Hinshaw S.P. (1992). "Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood adolescence: Causal relationships and underling mechanisms". Psychological Bulletin 101: 443–463.
- Mash, E. J., Wolfe, D. A. (2010). Abnormal Child Psychology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth (reference for the entire section Treatment version 15 november 2012)
- Bernstein, N. (2000). Treating the unmanageable adolescent: A guide to oppositional defiant and conduct disorder. New York: Jason Aronson, Inc.
- Decety J., Moriguchi Y. (2007). "The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: implications for intervention across different clinical conditions". BioPsychoSocial Medicine 1: 22–65. doi:10.1186/1751-0759-1-22.
- Eddy, J. (2006). Conduct disorders: The latest assessment and treatment strategies (4th Edition ed.). Kansas City, MO: Compact Clinicals.
- Eyberg S. M., Nelson M. M., Boggs S. R. (2008). "Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent with disruptive behavior". Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 37: 215–237. doi:10.1080/15374410701820117.
- Hughes, T. (2010). Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Conduct Disorder at School (Developmental Psychopathology at School). New York: Springer.
- Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E.,& Caspi, A. (Eds.). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. New York: Guilford Press.
- Matthys, W. (2010). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in children. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
- McIntosh, K., & Livingston, P. (2008). Youth with conduct disorder: In trouble with the world. New York: Mason Crest Publishers.
- Raine A (2002). "Biosocial Studies of Antisocial and Violent Behavior in Children and Adults: A Review". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 30: 311–326.
- Van Goozen S.H.M., Fairchild G. (2008). "How can the study of biological processes help design new interventions for children with severe antisocial behavior?". Development and Psychopathology 20: 941–973. doi:10.1017/s095457940800045x.
- Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Treatment Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
- Bullying tendency wired in brain from the BBC News.
- Bullies may enjoy seeing others in pain National Science Foundation
- Support for Parents
- Diagnosing Conduct Disorder in Primary Care
- Conduct Disorder