Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques

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Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques
-
World Underwater Federation
-
Confederacion Mundial De Actividades Subacuaticas
CMAS Logo
CMAS Logo
Abbreviation CMAS
Motto Quality in Diving
Predecessor CIPS Comité des Sports Sous-Marins
Formation January 11, 1959; 55 years ago (1959-01-11) at Monaco
Type Sports federation
INGO
Diver training organization
Purpose Underwater Sports & Sciences, and diver training
Headquarters Rome, Italy
Location
  • Viale Tiziano, 74 00196 Roma Italy
Region served
International
Membership
National Federations
Official language
French, English, Spanish
Leader Anna Arzhanova
Key people
Jacques-Yves Cousteau
Main organ
General Assembly
Affiliations SportAccord
ARISF
IWGA
IUCN
Staff
5
Website http://www.cmas.org/

Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) is an international federation that represents underwater activities in underwater sport and underwater sciences, and oversees an international system of recreational snorkel and scuba diver training and recognition. It is also known by its English name, the World Underwater Federation, and its Spanish name, Confederacion Mundial De Actividades Subacuaticas. Its foundation in Monaco during January 1959 makes it one of the world's oldest underwater diving organisations.[1]

Origins[edit]

An international congress of diving federations representing all underwater disciplines met in Brussels on 28 September 1958. National Delegates attended from following countries: Belgium, Brazil, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Monaco, Portugal, Switzerland, the United States of America and the former Yugoslavia. Following a decision at that congress, a meeting was held in Monaco on 9–11 January 1959, which officially established the World Underwater Federation, with an acronym based on its French title as CMAS.[2]

A founding member and key proponent of CMAS was the French underwater explorer and diving pioneer Jacques-Yves Cousteau who was chosen to be the inaugural President with Luigi Ferraro, Italian underwater pioneer, appointed as Vice-President.[3]

CMAS succeeded the Comité des Sports Sous-Marins (Underwater Sports Committee) of the Confédération Internationale de la Pêche Sportive (CIPS) (International Confederation of Sport Fishing), which was founded on 22 February 1952.[2][3]

Organisation[edit]

CMAS consists of 3 major committees - Sport, Technical and Scientific.[4][5][6] These committees are overseen by a Board of Directors (BoD) elected periodically at the annually convened General Assembly. The BoD, the Sport Committee and the Scientific Committee oversee sub-committees known as commissions. Day-to-day operation is overseen by a steering committee appointed from the BoD. Its headquarters is currently located in Rome.

The Steering Committee[edit]

The steering committee consists of seven members. The current members are:[7]

  • President - Anna Arzhanova (Russia)
  • Secretary General - Hassen Baccouche (Tunisia)
  • Vice President - Xavier Duran Soler (Spain)
  • President Sports Committee - Ilias Xiarchos (Greece)
  • President Technical Committee - Jean Rondia (Belgium)
  • President Scientific Committee - Ralph Schill (Germany)
  • Treasurer - Alain Germain (France)

Sport Committee[edit]

The sports committee consists of commissions representing the following underwater sports - Apnoea, Aquathlon, Finswimming, Spearfishing, Sport diving, Underwater hockey, Underwater orienteering, Underwater rugby and Underwater target shooting.[8][9][10][11] An additional commission known as Visual represents the sports of Underwater photography and Underwater video.[12] The all of above sports are governed at the international level by CMAS with exception of apnoea in which competition and governance is also provided by the rival organisation, AIDA International.[13]

Technical Committee[edit]

Role[edit]

The role of the Technical Committee is the provision of ‘safe diving for CMAS members’ and seeks to achieve this by ‘promoting world class standards for all aspects of Scuba Diving and ensuring adherence of them by member federations and dive providers’.[14] Its officers who are elected from persons nominated at the CMAS General Assembly by affiliated national diving federations include the following positions - President, Secretary, Standards Director, Education Director, Technical Director, Diving Security Director, Special Tasks Director and a number of general members. It oversees the two following systems - a diver training standards system known as the CMAS International Diver Training Standards and a certification system known as CMAS International Diver Certificates.[14][15]

Since CMAS effectively started as a volunteer organisation for hobbyists, its courses tend to reflect the full range of European and world diving standards. Compared to other diving organisations which may be more geared towards holiday and tropical water diving. While organisations like PADI or SSI tend to bring divers into the water immediately, CMAS entry-level training is more extensive, featuring more "classroom" delivered theory.[16]

Qualifications[edit]

Standards, certification and training delivery[edit]

The CMAS training system.

The CMAS Technical Committee has developed a qualification system currently known as the CMAS International Diver Training Standards which consists of published universal standards for recreational diving, technical diving and leadership diver grades.[17]

The CMAS Technical Committee has also developed a diving certification system called the CMAS International Diver Training Certification System for most of its diver training standards and which permits divers that have been trained in accordance with the CMAS International Diver Training Standards, to have their training recognised worldwide particularly in countries where CMAS affiliated federations exist. The system includes a double sided certification card format where one side depicts the achieved CMAS standard while the other side has details of the issuing organisation and the diver.[15][18]

CMAS itself does not provide training or conduct the issuing of certifications - this is available from two sources. Firstly, from national diving federations affiliated to the CMAS Technical Committee using their member diving clubs, their member instructors where the federation is exclusively an instructor organisation or by agreement with independent underwater diving training organizations operating in the countries where those federations are based.[19][20][21] Secondly, from specially accredited dive centres known as CMAS Dive Centers (CDC) who use dedicated CMAS training materials.[22]

Recreational Diver Training Programmes[edit]

Standards are offered for recreational diver training for the following grades of snorkel and scuba divers.[17]

  • One Star Snorkel Diver - “a snorkel diver who is competent in the safe and correct use of relevant snorkel diving equipment used in a swimming pool or sheltered water. The snorkel diver is familiar with relevant personal equipment and its use in a sheltered open water area. The snorkel diver is ready to gain further open water training.”[23]
  • Two Star Snorkel Diver - “a snorkel diver who has gained some open water diving experience. The snorkel diver is considered ready to take part in dives with other snorkel divers, under supervision if a minor. The CMAS 2 star snorkel diver is considered trained.”[23]
  • Three Star Snorkel Diver - “A fully trained snorkel diver who has gained considerable experience in open water snorkel diving under various conditions. The 3 star snorkel diver has acquired life saving skills and can lead snorkel divers in open water dives.”[23]
  • Introductory SCUBA Experience - “this training programme aims at providing interested persons with an introductory SCUBA diving experience, to a maximum depth of ten (10) metres under the direct supervision of a CMAS Instructor, whilst using air as a breathing gas, in a safe manner.”[24]
  • One Star Diver - “a diver who is competent in the safe and correct use of all appropriate open water scuba diving equipment in a sheltered water training area and is ready to gain open water diving experience in the company of an experienced diver.”[25]
  • Two Star Diver - “a diver who has gained some open water diving experience and is considered ready to take part in dives partnered by a diver of at least the same or a higher grade. The two star diver may dive with a One Star Diver in sheltered shallow water.”[25]
  • Three Star Diver - “a fully trained, experienced, senior diver who is considered competent to supervise other divers of any grade in open water and support an instructor in pool and open water training.”[25]
  • Four Star Diver - “a three star diver who has attained a higher than average level of knowledge and ability supported by broad diving experience. He be able to assist in the training of One Star Divers and be competent to lead divers in order to accomplish major diving tasks or project objectives.”[25]

Speciality Diver Training Programmes[edit]

Standards are provided for the following speciality training for recreational divers:[17]

Technical Diver Training Programmes[edit]

Standards are provided for the following technical diver training grades:[17]

Leadership Diver Training Programmes[edit]

Standards are provided for the training of the following grades of recreational snorkel and scuba instructors:[17]

  • One Star Snorkel Diver Instructor - “a CMAS 2 star snorkel diver who is interested in and has knowledge of practical snorkel diver instruction. The instructor is qualified to conduct practical lessons in a swimming pool and to teach the CMAS 1 star snorkel diver certificate. The instructor can be used as an assistant instructor in open water, but cannot plan an open water dive and lead a group of divers on his own.”[23]
  • Two Star Snorkel Diver Instructor - “an experienced one star snorkel diver instructor who has the knowledge, skills, and experience required to lead and instruct 1, 2 and 3 Star snorkel diver students in the classroom, swimming pool, and open water. The experienced CMAS 2 Star snorkel diver instructor may assist in the training and education of CMAS 1 Star snorkel diver instructors.”[23]
  • One Star Instructor - “a three star or four star diver who has demonstrated a knowledge of the techniques of diving instruction and has proven, under evaluation, to be competent in practical instructional skills and diving safety procedures: he or she is qualified to train and certify novice diving students in a full CMAS One Star Diver scuba program.”[25]
  • Two Star Instructor - “an experienced one star instructor who has the knowledge, skills, and experience required to teach groups of divers in the classroom, pool, and in open water, and to train qualified dive supervisors, assistant instructors and assist in the training & evaluation of One Star Instructors. He is qualified to teach and certify all CMAS diver levels including snorkel Instructor levels.”[25]
  • Three Star Instructor - “a highly experienced two star instructor who is competent to train all grades of divers and instructors and able to take responsibility for instructor certiification programs and the conduct of diving schools/centres and specialised training courses or events.”[25]

Instructor speciality grades[edit]

Standards are provided for speciality training of assistants, dive supervisors, snorkel instructors and scuba instructors:[17]

Scientific Committee[edit]

Role[edit]

The Committee considers its main task is to bring to the attention of the world underwater diving community, the important issues concerning the marine environment and how divers can play a major role in protecting it by serving as frontline observers of its overall health, particularly in respect to invasive species, coastal ecosystems and biodiversity.[26] Its officers who are elected from persons nominated at the CMAS General Assembly by affiliated national diving federations include the following positions - President, Secretary, a number of general members and Presidents of the following commissions - marine biology, marine archaeology, geology and professional relationships.[6]

Scientific diving codes[edit]

Over a 10-year period from 1977, it was responsible for the development of the "Code of Practice for Scientific Diving" for UNESCO[27] in cooperation with Sea Grant.[citation needed]

Qualifications[edit]

The CMAS Scientific Committee oversees a system of diving standards and certification that operates in parallel to the CMAS International Diver Training Certification System. The system was developed to which recognize the status of a diver who is qualified to dive in the course of research whilst employed. This internationally recognized standard of competence is a distinct advantage for working scientists who wish to travel between laboratories and institutes in different countries. Known as the CMAS Scientific Diver Standard, the system consists of the following diver and instructor grades:

  • CMAS Scientific Diver (CSD) (pre-requisite of CMAS 2 Star Diver plus scientific diver training)
  • CMAS Advanced Scientific Diver (CASD) (pre-requisite of CMAS 3 Star Diver plus advanced scientific diver training)
  • CMAS Scientific Diving Instructor (pre-requisite: CMAS 2 Star Instructor)
  • CMAS Confirmed Scientific Diving Instructor (pre-requisite: CMAS 3 Star Instructor)

A programme of specialist courses both at entry and advanced levels in underwater archaeology, freshwater biology, marine biology, marine geology and oceanology is also offered. Training and certification (also known as brevets) for the above qualifications is available from organisations known as CMAS Scientific Centres (CSC).[28]

Recognitions, agreements and affiliations[edit]

Recognitions[edit]

Organisations which recognise CMAS as the international federation for underwater sport and activities include:

Agreements[edit]

Affiliations[edit]

Member federations[edit]

CMAS membership consists of at least 130 national federations from 5 continents.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Cave Diving Group (CDG) was founded in 1946 in the UK. The British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC) was founded in 1953.
  2. ^ a b c "The history of CMAS". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Luigi Ferraro; C.M.A.S.". Luigi Ferraro's official site. 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  4. ^ "The Technical Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  5. ^ "The Sport Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "Scientific Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  7. ^ "The Steering Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  8. ^ "About Aquathlon". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  9. ^ "About Orienteering". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  10. ^ "About Sport Diving". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  11. ^ "About Target Shooting". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "About Underwater Photography & News of the Visual Commission". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  13. ^ "Aida International". AIDA International. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "About the Technical Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Learn To Dive". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  16. ^ C.M.A.S. Diver *, **, ***, ****Training Program Diver. Version 2007/01. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. 7 February 2008. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f "CMAS International Diver Training Standards and Procedures Manual". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  18. ^ "Chapter 1 Universal Standards and Procedures", CMAS International Diver Training Standards and Procedures Manual, Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques, pp. 2–3, retrieved 28 January 2013 
  19. ^ "Federations affiliated to the CMAS Technical Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  20. ^ "Welcome to CMAS Instructors South Africa". CMAS Instructors South Africa. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  21. ^ "ORGANIZATIONAL STANDARDS". Scuba Educators International. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  22. ^ "CMAS Diving Centers". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Definition of Snorkel diver and Snorkel diver Instructor grades". Snorkel Diver Standards. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  24. ^ "CMAS Introductory SCUBA Experience Training Programme". CMAS International Diver Training Standards and Procedures Manual. Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. p. 1. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "Definitions of Diver and Instructor". Standards & Requirements Diver and Instructor (Version 2002/00 ). Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. p. 3. Retrieved 29 January 2013.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  26. ^ "Standards of Scientific Committee". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  27. ^ Flemming, N. C.; Max, M. D., eds. (1988), Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 53, Scientific Committee of Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques, Paris (France): United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Div. of Marine Sciences, ISSN 0503-4299, OCLC 18056894, retrieved 8 February 2013 
  28. ^ Scientific Committee of CMAS (2000), Norro, Dr Alain, ed., CMAS Standard for Scientific Diver, Scientific Committee of Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques, retrieved 29 January 2013 
  29. ^ "World Underwater Federation". IOC. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  30. ^ "Members: CMAS - World Underwater Federation". Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF). Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  31. ^ "World Underwater Federation". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  32. ^ "List of– International Sports Federations". SportAccord. 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  33. ^ "Underwater Sports: Fin Swimming". International World Games Association (IWGA). 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  34. ^ "List of International Federations". World Anti-Doping Agency. 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  35. ^ "OVERVIEW OF RESCUE DIVER'S CERTIFICATION". International Life Saving Federation. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  36. ^ "C.M.A.S. / PADI Agreement". Norges Dykkeforbund. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  37. ^ "Members' database, International NGO". International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 

External links[edit]