Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon
The Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon (CTGR) consists of twenty-seven Native American tribes with long historical ties to present-day Western Oregon between the western boundary of the Oregon Coast and the eastern boundary of the Cascade Range, and the northern boundary of southwestern Washington, and the southern boundary of Northern California.
Members of the confederation
The tribes who were removed to Grand Ronde are:
- Chasta (or Shasta; from present-day Oregon and California bands of the Shasta Nations)
- Chasta Costa (Southern Oregon Athapaskan speakers)
- Kalapuya (Yamel (Yamhill), Mary's River, Winfelly (Mohawk), Atfalati (Tualatin), Yoncalla (Kommema), Ahanyichuk, Santiam)
- Molalla (Santiam Band, and Molala)
- Rogue River (Historically an erroneous name conglomerating Takelma, Upper Umpqua and Athapaskan tribes)
- Chinook (Thomas Band Chinook, Williams Band Chinook, Wal-la-lah band of Tumwaters, Johns Band Chinook, Clackamas Chinook (Oregon City))
- Tillamook (Salmon River, Nehalem, Nestucka)
- French-Canadian (Iroquoian)
Treaties affecting the CTGR
- Treaty with the Chasta, etc., 1854
- Treaty with the Kalapuya, etc., 1855
- Treaty with the Molala, 1855
- Treaty with the Rogue River, 1853
- Treaty with the Rogue River, 1854
- Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya, 1854
The reservation today
Since 1996, the tribes have received the bulk of their income from the Spirit Mountain Casino in Grand Ronde. They also receive revenue from timber. The tribes oppose the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs' plans to build an off-reservation casino in Cascade Locks, Oregon, and spent over $800,000 on the issue in the 2006 primary races for Governor of Oregon.
CTGR cultural events
Each July, members of the tribe travel to New York City, to see Tomanowos, a sky person who fell as a meteorite and is now on display at the American Museum of Natural History's Rose Center for Earth and Space.
Historically the tribe had people from 27 distinct languages. Members of these tribes could speak many languages due to the close proximity of many different tribes. Oregon had one of the most linguistically diverse regions in the world. But on the reservation, most people began communicating using Chinook Jargon, the trade language. The Chinook Jargon was widely spoken throughout the northwest among tribes and new-comers to the region. At Grand Ronde reservation Chinook Jargon became a creole, a first language in most native homes. This language has persisted throughout the history of the tribe and through the termination era (1954-1983), when all other tribal languages became extinct at Grand Ronde.
In the 1970s, Grand Ronde elders began teaching Chinook Jargon language classes in the community. In the 1990s the restored Confederated tribes of Grand Ronde began a language program. Chinook Jargon was reinvisioned as Chinuk Wawa (Talking Chinuk). The Grand Ronde tribe's immersion program is now one of half a dozen Native immersion language programs in the United States that is producing speakers. This program begins in preschool classes (Lilu) and continues into Kindergarten. The immersion program is making plans to expand to a pre-8 grade program. This will create speakers of the language that will help the language survive into perpetuity.
- Rogue Rivers—-several tribes grouped together based on the Rogue River Wars of ~1855-1857. These tribes are in the Illinois and Rogue River areas of southwest Oregon and northern California. They were split between the Grand Ronde Reservation (Yamhill River Reserve) and the Confederated Tribes of Siletz after the Rogue River Treaty of September 10, 1853.
- Jaquiss, Nigel (May 17, 2006). "Betting On The Governor's Race". Willamette Week.
- Aikens, C. Melvin (1975) Archaeological Studies in the Willamette Valley. Eugene, University of Oregon.
- Applegate, Jesse (1907) The Yangoler Chief. Roseburg, OR, Review Publishing Co.
- Applegate, Jesse (1914) Recollections of My Boyhood. Roseburg, OR, Review Publishing.
- Applegate, Jesse (1931) Umpqua Agriculture 1851. Oregon Historical Quarterly. 23: 135-144.
- Applegate, Shannon. (1988) Skookum: An Oregon Pioneer Family's History and Lore. New York, Quill, William Morrow.
- Applegate, Shannon. and T. O' Donnell, eds. (1994) Talking on Paper: An Anthology of Oregon Letters and Diaries. Corvallis, Oregon State University Press.
- C.F. Coan, "The Adoption of the Reservation Policy in Pacific Northwest, 1853-1855," Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, vol. 23, no. 1 (March 1922), pp. 1-38. In JSTOR.
- Leo J. Frachtenberg, "Myths of the Alsea Indians of Northwestern Oregon," International Journal of American Linguistics, vol. 1, no. 1 (Jul., 1917), pp. 64-75. In JSTOR.
- Melinda Marie Jetté, "'Beaver Are Numerous, but the Natives...Will Not Hunt Them': Native-Fur Trader Relations in the Willamette Valley, 1812-1814," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, vol. 98, no. 1 (Winter 2006/2007), pp. 3-17. In JSTOR.
- Tracy Neal Leavelle, "'We Will Make It Our Own Place': Agriculture and Adaptation at the Grand Ronde Reservation, 1856-1887," American Indian Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 4 (Autumn 1998), pp. 433-456. In JSTOR.
- David Gene Lewis, Termination of the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon: Politics, Community, Identity. PhD dissertation. University of Oregon, 2009.
- Oregon Council for the Humanities, The First Oregonians. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2007.
- Ronald Spores, "Too Small a Place: The Removal of the Willamette Valley Indians, 1850-1856," American Indian Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 2 (Spring 1993), pp. 171-191. In JSTOR.
- Official website, including tribal documents and history
- A successful model of intergovernmental relations in Oregon, a February 1998 article about the community