In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. Also known as a conflux, it refers either to the point where a tributary joins a larger river, called the main stem, or where two streams meet to become the source of a river of a new name, such as the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania creating the Ohio River.
The term is also used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water, such as two canals or a canal and a lake. A one-mile (1.6 km) portion of the Industrial Canal in New Orleans accommodates the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal; therefore those three waterways are confluent there.
- Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada is at the confluence of the Niagara River and Lake Ontario.
- The junction of the Green River and Colorado River forms the heart of Canyonlands National Park in Utah's Canyon Country.
- The Sangam, near Allahabad, India, where the sacred rivers Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati meet to create one of the holiest places in Hinduism.
- The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- The Madison, Jefferson and Gallatin Rivers in Three Forks, Montana form the confluence of the Missouri River, one of the longest rivers in the United States (2,341 miles (3,767 km)).
- Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is at the confluence of the Gombak River (previously known as Sungai Lumpur, which means muddy river) and the Klang River.
- Passau known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of the Bavarian Forest to the North.
- Manaus, Brazil is on the Rio Negro near its confluence with the Amazon (see Meeting of Waters). It is the chief port and a hub for the region's extensive river system.
- Osijek, Croatia, is on the right bank of the river Drava 25 km upstream of its confluence with the Danube.
- Belgrade, the capital of Serbia lies at the confluence of the Sava and Danube Rivers.
- The Hochelaga Archipelago, including the island and city of Montreal, is located at the confluence of the St. Lawrence River and Ottawa River in Quebec, Canada.
- The two largest rivers in Australia, the Darling and the Murray converge at Wentworth, New South Wales
- Rovaniemi, the capital of Finnish Lapland and one of the largest towns above the Arctic Circle, is at the confluence of rivers Ounasjoki and Kemijoki.
- Winnipeg, Canada, is at the confluence of the Red River, and the Assiniboine River. The area is referred to as The Forks by locals, and has been an important trade location for over 6000 years.
- The confluence of the rivers Danube and Morava in Devín on the border between Slovakia and Austria.
- Triangle of Three Emperors, former tripoint in Europe.
- Cairo, Illinois, in the United States, where the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi River.
- St. Louis, Missouri, is built just south of the confluence of the Mississippi River and the Missouri River.
- Lyon, France is located on the confluence of the Saône and Rhone rivers.
- The confluence between the Franklin River and Gordon River in south-western Tasmania
- The confluence of the Snake and Columbia River at the Tri-Cities of Washington.
- The confluence of the rivers Pivka and Rak is one of the largest subterranean confluences in Europe.
- The confluence at Lokoja, Nigeria, where the Niger and Benue rivers merge.
- The Sudanese capital of Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile. This merging point is the beginning of the Nile.
- Columbus, Ohio, in the United States is at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers.
- Luang Prabang in Laos is at the confluence of the Mekong and Nam Khan rivers.
- River Kabul and River Swat at Attock, in Pakistan.
- 82 km north of Al-Basra in Iraq, at the town of Al-Qurnah is the confluence of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates forming Shatt al-Arab.
- Portland Oregon is at the confluence of the Columbia River and the Willamette River.
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- The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers refers to the confluence of the Assawoman Canal with the Bethany Loop Canal in Delaware. See: "CENAP-OP-R-Quarterly Report, 2004-05-12". Philadelphia Engineer District. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
- Engineers in New Orleans refer to the confluence of the 17th Street Canal and Lake Pontchartrain. See: "Interim Closure Structure at 17th St. Canal". Task Force Guardian. Archived from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
- Kogovšek, Janja; Petrič, Metka; Zupan Hajna, Nadja; Pipan, Tanja. "Planinska jama" [Planina Cave]. In Šmid Hribar, Mateja; Golež, Gregor; Podjed, Dan; Kladnik, Drago; Erhartič, Bojan; Pavlin, Primož; Ines, Jerele. Enciklopedija naravne in kulturne dediščine na Slovenskem [Encyclopedia of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Slovenia] (in Slovene). Retrieved 17 May 2012.