Indian National Congress
|Indian National Congress|
|Parliamentary Chairperson||Sonia Gandhi|
|Leader in Lok Sabha||Sushilkumar Shinde|
|Leader in Rajya Sabha||Manmohan Singh
|Founded||December 28, 1885|
|Headquarters||24, Akbar Road, New Delhi|
|Student wing||National Students Union of India|
|Youth wing||Indian Youth Congress|
|Women's wing||Mahila Congress|
|Labour wing||Indian National Trade Union Congress|
• Social liberalism
• Social conservatism
|Political position||Centre-left|
|International affiliation||Alliance of Democrats
|ECI Status||National Party|
|Alliance||United Progressive Alliance (UPA)|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
|Politics of India
|This article is part of a series about
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress (abbreviated INC, and commonly known as the Congress) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). It is the largest and one of the oldest democratically-operating political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered centre-left wing in the Indian political spectrum as contrasted to the right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party. The Organization was founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Monomohun Ghose, Mahadev Govind Ranade and William Wedderburn. Hume was also a prominent member of the Theosophical Society. In the following decades, the Indian National Congress became a pivotal participant in the Indian Independence Movement, with — over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its struggle against British colonial rule in India. After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political party, led by the Nehru-Gandhi family for the most part; major challenges for party leadership have only recently formed.
In the 2009 general elections, the Congress emerged as the single largest party in the Lok Sabha, with 206 of its candidates getting elected to the 543-member house. Consequently it, as a member of a coalition of political organisations called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), was able to gain a majority and form the government.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology and policies
- 3 Organisational Structure
- 4 State branches of the Congress
- 5 Congress in various states
- 6 List of Prime Ministers of India from the Congress Party
- 7 Controversies and criticisms
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The history of the Indian National Congress falls into two distinct eras:
- The pre-independence era, when the party was at the forefront of the struggle for independence and was instrumental in the whole of India;
- The post-independence era, when the party has enjoyed a prominent place in Indian politics, ruling the country for 48 of the 60 years since independence in 1947.
The pre-independence era
The Congress was founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of seventeen men after a Theosophical Convention held at Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and it was in March 1885 that the first notice was issued convening the first Indian National Union to meet at Poona the following December.
Founded in 1885 claiming that it had the objective of obtaining a greater share in government for educated Indians was created to form a platform for civic and political dialogue of educated Indians with the British Raj. The Congress met once a year during December. Indeed, it was a Scotsman, Allan Octavian Hume, who brought about its first meeting in Bombay, with the approval of Lord Dufferin, the then-Viceroy. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the INC. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Pune, but due to a plague outbreak there, the meeting was later shifted to Bombay. The first session of the INC was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates.
Within a few years, the demands of the INC became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the government, and the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement, as it would allow for a new political system in which they could be a majorly dominant party. By 1907 the party was split into two halves—the Garam Dal (literally "hot faction") of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, or Extremists, and the Naram Dal (literally "soft faction") of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, or Moderates—distinguished by their attitude towards the British colonists. Under the influence of Tilak, the Congress became the first organised independence group in the country, bringing together millions of people against the British.
In the pre-independence era, the INC featured a number of prominent political figures: Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, elected president of the Congress in 1886, and between 1892 and 1895 the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons; Bal Gangadhar Tilak; Bipin Chandra Pal; Lala Lajpat Rai; Gopal Krishna Gokhale; and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905 and the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mohandas Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915 and with the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale became president of the Congress and formed an alliance with the Khilafat movement. In protest a number of leaders—Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, Motilal Nehru—resigned from the Congress to set up the Swaraj Party. The Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split.
With the rise of Mahatma Gandhi's popularity and his Satyagraha art of revolution came Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (the nation's first Prime Minister), Dr. Rajendra Prasad (the nation's first President), Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jivatram Kripalani and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. With the already existing nationalistic feeling combined with Gandhi's popularity, the Congress became a forceful and dominant group of people in the country, bringing together millions of people by specifically working against caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic boundaries. Although predominantly Hindu, it had members from just about every religion, ethnic group, economic class and linguistic group. In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose, the elected president in both 1938 and 1939 was expelled from the Congress for his socialist views and the Congress was reduced to a pro-business group financed by the business houses of Birla and Bajaj. At the time of the Quit India movement, the Congress was undoubtedly the strongest revolutionary group in India, but the Congress disassociated itself from the Quit India movement within a few days. The Indian National Congress could not claim to be the sole representative of the Indian people as other parties were there as well notably the Hindu Mahasabha, Azad Hind Sarkar, and Forward Bloc.
The 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru holds special significance as in this session "Poorna Swaraj" (complete independence) was declared as the goal of the INC. 26 January 1930 was declared as "Poorna Swaraj Diwas", Independence Day, although the British would remain in India for 17 more years. To commemorate this date the Constitution of India was formally adopted on 26 January 1950, even though it had been passed on 26 November 1949. However, in 1929, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the Congress for demanding full independence, not just home rule as demanded by Gandhi.
After the First World War the party became associated with Mohandas K. Gandhi, who remained its unofficial, spiritual leader and mass icon even as younger men and women became party president. The party was in many ways an umbrella organisation, sheltering within itself radical socialists, traditionalists and even Hindu and Muslim conservatives, but all the socialist groupings (including the Congress Socialist Party, Krishak Praja Party, and Swarajya Party members) were expelled by Gandhi along with Subhas Chandra Bose in 1939. Members of the Congress initially supported the sailors who led the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny. However they withdrew support at the critical juncture, when the mutiny failed. During the INA trials of 1946, the Congress helped to form the INA Defence Committee, which forcefully defended the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. The committee declared the formation of the Congress' defence team for the INA and included famous lawyers of the time, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, and Jawaharlal Nehru.
The post-independence era
The party remained in power for thirty continuous years between independence in 1947 and its first taste of electoral defeat (at the national level) in 1977.
Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel are said to have held the view that the INC was formed only for achieving independence and should have been disbanded in 1947.
After the Gandhi's assassination in 1948, and the death of Sardar Patel in 1950, Jawaharlal Nehru was the sole remaining iconic national leader, and soon the situation became such that Nehru was key to the political potency and future of the Congress. Nehru embraced secularism, socialistic economic practices and a non-aligned foreign policy, which became the hallmark of the modern Congress Party. Nehru's policies targeted the more well-off, claiming to have thus improved the position of religious minorities and lower-caste Hindus. A generation of freedom fighting leaders was soon replaced by a generation of people who had grown up in the shadow of Nehru. Nehru led the Congress to consecutive majorities in the elections of 1952, 1957 and 1962.
After Nehru's death in 1964, the party's future first came into question. No other leader had Nehru's popular appeal, so the second-stage leadership mustered around the compromise candidate, the gentle, soft-spoken and Nehruvian Lal Bahadur Shastri. Shastri remained Prime Minister till his own death in 1966, and a broad Congress party election opted for Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter, over the right-wing, conservative Morarji Desai.
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Toward the end of Nehru's life, K. Kamaraj became the president of the All India Congress Committee and proposed the Kamaraj Plan. According to the plan six Congress chief ministers and six senior Cabinet ministers resigned to take up party work. After Nehru's death, Kamaraj was instrumental in bringing Lal Bahadur Shastri to power in 1964. He was part of a group of leaders in the Congress called "the syndicate". After Shastri's death, the syndicate favoured Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi over Morarji Desai and she became the prime minister of India in 1967. For his role in the two successions, Kamaraj was widely credited as the "kingmaker" in Indian politics. Kamaraj stepped down as AICC president in 1967.
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The first serious challenge to Congress hegemony came in 1967 when a new coalition, under the banner of the Samyukt Vidhayak Dal, won control over several states in the Hindi belt. Indira Gandhi (not related to Mahatma Gandhi), the daughter of Nehru, and Congress president, was then challenged by the majority of the party leadership. The conflict led to a split, and Indira launched a separate INC. Initially this party was known as Congress (R), but it soon came to be generally known as the "New Congress". The official party became the Indian National Congress (Organisation) (INC(O)) led by Kamaraj. It was informally called the "Old Congress". As Indira Gandhi had control over the national state machinery, her faction was seen as the official INC by the Election Commission of India, although her party was a break-away group.
The split in the congress was result of growing differences between syndicate/old guard of the party and Indira Gandhi. Indira Gandhi took control of the finance portfolio and passed bank nationalization ordinance. After death of President Zakir Hussain in May 1969, the Syndicate faction chose Sanjiva Reddy as the Congress candidate. The vice President of India at that time, V.V. Giri, also filed his nomination as an independent candidate for the post of President. Mrs Gandhi openly supported Mr. Giri against Mr. Reddy. After the victory of Mr. Giri, Mrs. Gandhi was served with a show-cause notice for her indiscipline. She didn't reply which led to the party split in late 1969. Indira's faction was called INC (R). This faction retained maximum number of MPs and SMrs. Gandhi remained in control of government.[full citation needed]
The split can in some ways be seen as a left-wing/right-wing division. Indira Gandhi wanted to use a populist agenda in order to gather support for the party. She raised slogans such as Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty), and wanted to develop closer ties with the Soviet Union, for strategic purposes. The regional party elites, who formed the INC(O), stood for a more conservative agenda, and distrusted Soviet help. INC(O) later merged into the Janata Party.
Gradually, Indira Gandhi grew more authoritarian and autocratic in her policies and outlook. Following allegations of electoral malpractice in the general elections, a court overturned Gandhi's victory in her parliamentary constituency in the 1971 General Elections. Facing growing criticism and widespread demonstrations by opposition in the country, she proclaimed a state of National Emergency in 1975, imprisoned most of her party's opposition, and unleashed a police state.
After she lifted the emergency in 1977, more Congress factions were formed, the one remaining loyal to Indira Gandhi being popularly known as Congress(I) with an 'I' for Indira. Congress(I) was routed in the general elections by the Janata Party, but the resulting coalition government lasted only two years. The Congress party returned to power in the ensuing 1980 elections. In 1984 Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards, in revenge for the disastrous Operation Blue Star. In the following days anti-Sikh riots broke out in Delhi and elsewhere in which more than six thousand Sikhs were killed, purportedly by activists and leaders of the Congress Party.
Following the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984, the Indian National Congress party leaders nominated Rajiv Gandhi to be the next Prime Minister. He took office by storm, winning major election victory, and leading the Congress party by winning 411 seats out of 542, in the Indian Parliament. He helped improve the economic, foreign and security policies of the country, during his tenure.
Narasimha Rao (1992–1996)
Along with party president, Narasimha Rao was also the prime minister of the country.
Sitaram Kesri (1996–1998)
Former treasurer Sitaram Kesri took over the reins of the party and oversaw the Congress support to the United Front governments that ran from 1996 to 1998. During his tenure, several key leaders broke away from the party, and serious infighting broke out among those left.
Sonia Gandhi (1998–present)
After her election as party leader, a section of the party, which objected to the choice, broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party. The use of "Congress (I)" continues to denote the party run by Indira Gandhi's successors. Sonia Gandhi's autocratic era in power has been criticised by some, including the ultra-nationalist right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party (Indian People's Party) and the ultra-left wing Communist Party of India (Marxist) as well as other, mostly affiliated, groups on the basis that she is a foreigner of Italian ethnicity.
Although the Congress expedited the downfall of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in 1999 by promising an alternative, Ms. Gandhi's decision was followed by fresh elections and the Congress party's worst-ever tally in the lower house. The party spent the interval period forging alliances and overseeing changes in the state and central institutions to revive the party. It has had many electoral successes which led up to the formation of a Congress-led government in 2004. In the next general election in 2009 which made Manmohan Singh the Prime Minister once again, and Congress was the first party to get 206 seats during a coalition era of politics.
Ideology and policies
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Historically, the party has supported and advocated in favour of farmers, laborers, worker's unions (Labour unions), and religious and ethnic minorities; it has also advocated in favour of the regulation of business and finance, and has looked favourably upon the levying of income taxes. However, in recent years the party has turned towards centrist economic and social democratic policies. Today, the INC advocates neo-liberal policies including populism, social liberalism, secularism and free enterprise with government regulations such as public–private partnership (PPP) model. As a political party, the INC has publicised its intentions to do all it can to reduce poverty, illiteracy and strongly supports the weaker section of the society.
Social policy of the INC is officially based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya (upliftment of all sections of the society.) In particular INC emphasises upon policies to improve the lives of the economically underprivillaged and socially disprivilleged sections of society. This includes publicising employment generation efforts for the rural population (through schemes such as National Rural Employment Generation Scheme) etc. The party supports the somewhat controversial concept of family planning with birth control but hasn't overtly supported elective abortion (i.e. Gender-Selective abortion), which would be controversial and dangerous as certain groups (e.g. Feminists) could consider that to be sexist or insensitive and the INC wouldn't have been able to survive under such pressure. The INC supports the highly controversial 'Reservation' system (i.e. reserving jobs and other things for underprivileged factions of society) which could lead to an inexperienced poorer person getting a job instead of an experienced wealthier person, though it could also be vice versa.
Initially and for a long time, the economic policy of the INC was centred around the public sector and aimed at establishing a "socialistic pattern of society". However, after the recent adoption of Economically Liberal policies started by Manmohan Singh the then Finance Minister in the early 1990s, the economic policy of INC has been changed somewhat and it is now adopted free market policies, though at the same time it is in favour of taking a cautious approach when it comes to liberalising the economy claiming it is to help ensure that the weaker sectors aren't affected to hard by the changes that come with liberalisation.
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The organisational structure created by Mohandas Gandhi's re-arrangement of the Congress in the years of 1918 to 1920 has largely been retained till today.
In every Indian state and union territory or pradesh, there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party, responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels and assisting the campaigns for Parliamentary constituencies. Each PCC has a Working Committee of 10–15 key members, and the state president is the leader of the state unit. The Congressmen elected as members of the states legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies, and their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership.
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is formed of delegates sent from the PCCs around the country. The delegates elect various Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, which consists of senior party leaders and office bearers, and takes all important executive and political decisions.
The President of the Indian National Congress is in effect the party's national leader, head of the organisation, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman and the Congress choice to become the Prime Minister of India.
Constitutionally, the president is to be elected by the vote of the PCCs and members of the AICC. However, this procedure has often been by-passed by the Working Committee, choosing to elect its own candidate as a result of conditional circumstances.
The Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) is the group of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. It is headed by senior Congress leader Pranab Mukherjee. Since the current Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh is not an elected member of the Lok Sabha, Pranab is the CPP president. Dr. Singh is Leader of the Rajya Sabha. There is also a CLP leader in each state. The CLP (Congress Legislative Party) consists of all Congress Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in each state. It also comes under the CPP so Pranab is head of the MLAs also. In cases of states where the Congress is single-handedly ruling the government, the CLP leader is the Chief Minister.
State branches of the Congress
- Andaman and Nicobar PCC
- Andhra Pradesh PCC
- Arunachal Pradesh PCC
- Assam PCC
- Bihar PCC
- Chhatisgarh PCC
- Dadra and Nagar Haveli PCC
- Daman and Diu PCC
- Delhi PCC
- Goa PCC
- Gujarat PCC
- Haryana PCC
- Himachal Pradesh PCC
- Jammu & Kashmir PCC
- Jharkhand PCC
- Karnataka PCC
- Kerala PCC
- Lakshadweep PCC
- Madhya Pradesh PCC
- Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee
- Manipur Pradesh Congress Committee
- Meghalaya PCC
- Mizoram PCC
- Nagaland PCC
- Orissa PCC
- Pondicherry PCC
- Punjab PCC
- Rajasthan PCC
- Sikkim PCC
- Tamil Nadu PCC
- Tripura PCC
- Uttarakhand PCC
- Uttar Pradesh PCC
- West Bengal PCC
Congress in various states
- Congress is currently in power in eight states (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram)where the party enjoys a majority of its own.
- In five other states — Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand — it shares power with other alliance partners.
- In Tamil Nadu, it lost power in the 1967 assembly election and has not been able to recapture it since.
- In the remaining states and in the union territory of Puducherry, various opposition parties are in power.
List of current Congress Chief Ministers
All Chief Ministers from the Congress are mentioned first and are marked as bold-
- N. Kiran Kumar Reddy - Andhra Pradesh
- Nabam Tuki - Arunachal Pradesh
- Tarun Gogoi - Assam
- Bhupinder Singh Hooda - Haryana
- Virbhadra Singh - Himachal Pradesh
- Siddaramaiah - Karnataka
- Oommen Chandy - Kerala
- Prithviraj Chavan - Maharashtra
- Okram Singh - Manipur
- Mukul Sangma - Meghalaya
- Pu Lalthanhawla - Mizoram
- Vijay Bahuguna - Uttarakhand
List of Prime Ministers of India from the Congress Party
- Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–1964)
- Gulzarilal Nanda (May–June 1964 and in January 1966)
- Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964–1966)
- Indira Gandhi (1966–1977, 1980–1984)
- Rajiv Gandhi (1984–1989)
- P.V. Narasimha Rao (1991–1996)
- Manmohan Singh (2004–)
Controversies and criticisms
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1975-1977: State of Emergency
On 12 June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice. But Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court.
Gandhi had already been accused of authoritarianism. By using her strong parliamentary majority, her ruling Congress Party had amended the Constitution and altered the balance of power between the Centre and the States in favour of the Central Government. She had twice imposed "President's Rule" under Article 356 of the Constitution by declaring states ruled by opposition parties as "lawless and chaotic", and thus seizing control. In response to her new tendency for authoritarian use of power, public figures and former freedom-fighters like Jaya Prakash Narayan, Satyendra Narayan Sinha and Acharya Jivatram Kripalani toured India, speaking actively against her and her government.
Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency, because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution, on 26 June 1975. It is one of the most controversial periods in the history of independent India.
1984: anti-Sikh riots
After the assassination of Indira Gandhi by two of her Sikh Body Guards following Operation Blue Star, many Congress workers including Jagdish Tytler, Sajjan Kumar and Kamal Nath were accused of inciting and participating in Sikh riots.
There are allegations that the government destroyed evidence and shielded the guilty. The Asian Age front-page story called the government actions "the Mother of all Cover-ups" There are allegations that the violence was led and often perpetrated by Indian National Congress activists and sympathisers during the riots. The government, then led by the Congress, was widely criticised for doing very little at the time, possibly acting as a conspirator. The conspiracy theory is supported by the fact that voting lists were used to identify Sikh families.
A 2011 survey conducted by Outlook and a television news channel CNN-IBN in the wake of the 2G Spectrum scam and the 2010 Commonwealth Games Scam found that Indian voters ranked corruption as the second most important issue facing India (inflation was the first) and ranked politicians as being the most corrupt.
The Bofors scandal was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s. Late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, who was simultaneously serving as the president of Congress (I), and his associates the late Win Chadha and Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi were accused of receiving kickbacks to help Bofors win a bid in 1986 to sell 155 mm field howitzers to the Indian Army. The scale of this corruption was far worse than any that India had seen before, and directly led to the defeat of Gandhi's ruling Congress party in the November 1989 general elections. It has been speculated that the scale of the scandal was to the tune of 400 million.
In January 2011, an Income tax tribunal ruled that Rs. 41.2 crore was paid as kickbacks to the late Win Chadha and Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi in the Swedish howitzer deal and the two are liable to tax in India on such income.
2G spectrum scam
In 2010, in an audit report, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India charged the Congress lead government of India with improperly managing the allocation of 122 2G spectrum licenses in 2008. The report charged that officials in the government received bribes from various telecommunications companies and that, as a result, the licenses were issued at a price well below their true value. In a 2012 judgement, the Supreme Court of India declared the process invalid and revoked the licenses that had been issued. The then minister for communications and information technology, A. Raja, a member of the DMK, a party that was a part of the Congress led governing alliance, was indicted for criminal conspiracy, forgery and cheating and the case against him is currently being tried.
Bribes to Members of Parliament
As per United States secret diplomatic cable number 162458 dated 17 July 2008, Congress Party insider Satish Sharma's political aide Nachiketa Kapur told a US diplomat on 16 July 2008 that the party paid INR 100 million (about $2.5 million) each to four Members of Parliament in order to help the party narrowly survive a no-confidence motion. Another Congress Party insider told the US Political Counsel in New Delhi that Congress Party cabinet minister Kamal Nath was also helping bribe Members of Parliament in order to help secure the votes.
Coal block allocation scam
The Coal allocation scam is a political scandal concerning the Indian government's allocation of the nation's coal deposits to public sector entities (PSEs) and private companies. In a draft report issued in March 2012, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) office accused the Government of India of allocating coal blocks in an inefficient manner during the period 2004–2009, that resulted in a loss of 1.860 trillion (US$28 billion) to the taxpayers.
- Congress Working Committee
- All India Congress Committee
- Pradesh Congress Committee
- Statewise Election history of Congress Party
- Jinnah's People's Memorial Hall
- Nehru - Feroze Gandhi family
- List of political parties in India
- Politics of India
- President of the Indian National Congress
- Political Parties, International Organisations and Individuals joining the Alliance of Democrats, Alliance of Democrats
- Expected Participants, Progressive Alliance
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- Bipan Chandra, Amales Tripathi, Barun De. Freedom Struggle. India: National Book Struggle. ISBN 81-237-0249-X.
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