Indian National Congress
||This article may require copy editing for grammar and sentence structure, as well as redundant information and definitions. (December 2014)|
|This article is part of a series about
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress ( pronunciation (help·info)), abbr. INC, also commonly called the Congress is one of the two major contemporary political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is one of the largest and oldest democratically-operating political parties in the world. The Organisation was founded during the British Colonial times in 1885. The founders included a prominent member of the Theosophical Society, Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Wacha. In the following decades, the Indian National Congress became a pivotal participant in the Indian Independence Movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its struggle against British colonial rule in India.
After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political party; in the 15 general elections since independence, the Congress has won an outright majority on six occasions, and has led the ruling coalition a further four times, heading the central government for a total of 49 years.There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, serving from 1947–64 and the most recent being Manmohan Singh, serving from 2004-14. The party's social liberal platform is largely considered to be on the centre-left of the Indian political spectrum.
From 2004–14, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of several regional parties, formed the government, headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. As of November 2014, Congress is currently in power in ten states. In six states—Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, and Mizoram—the party has a majority on its own. In three other states—Assam, Kerala and Uttarakhand—it shares power with other alliance partners. Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Goa. In the most recent general elections in 2014, the Congress registered its worst performance in a general election in independent India, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house.
Social policy of the INC is officially based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya (upliftment of all sections of the society). In particular INC emphasises upon policies to improve the lives of the economically underprivileged and socially unprivileged sections of society. The party primarily endorses social liberalism (seeks to balance individual liberty and social justice) and secularism (asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings).
- 1 History
- 2 Pre-independence
- 3 Post-independence
- 4 Election symbol
- 5 In general elections
- 6 Current structure and composition
- 7 Ideology and policy positions
- 8 Presence in various states
- 9 List of Prime Ministers
- 10 List of Prime Ministers (Former Congressmen)
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
The history of the Indian National Congress (INC) falls into two distinct eras:
- The pre-independence era, when the party was the Umbrella organization in the forefront of the struggle for independence;
- The post-independence era, when the party has enjoyed a prominent place in Indian politics, since independence in 1947.
The Congress was founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably Scotsman, A.O. Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of seventeen men after a Theosophical Convention held at Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and it was in March 1885 that the first notice was issued convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December.
The Congress was founded in 1885, claiming that it had the objective of obtaining a greater share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic and political dialogue of educated Indians with the British Raj. The Congress met once a year during December. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Pune, but due to a plague outbreak there, the meeting was later shifted to Bombay. Hume, brought about this first meeting in Bombay, with the approval of Lord Dufferin, the then-Viceroy. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the INC. The first session of the INC was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates.
But Within the next few years, the demands of the INC became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the government, and the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement, as it would allow for a new political system in which they could be a major party.By 1905, a deep gulf opened between the moderates, led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, and the new "extremists" who not only advocated agitation, but also regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Prominent among the extremists was Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who attempted to mobilise Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity, displayed, for example, in the annual public Ganapati festivals that he inaugurated in western India. In the pre-independence era, the INC featured a number of prominent political figures: Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, elected president of the Congress in 1886, and between 1892-95 the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons; Bal Gangadhar Tilak; Bipin Chandra Pal; Lala Lajpat Rai; Gopal Krishna Gokhale; and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905 and the resultant Swadeshi movement.
Congress as a Mass Movement
Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915 and with the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale became president of the Congress and formed an alliance with the Khilafat Movement. In protest, a number of leaders—Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, Motilal Nehru—resigned from the Congress to set up the Swaraj Party. The Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split.
With the rise of Mahatma Gandhi's popularity and his Satyagraha art of revolution came Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (the nation's first Prime Minister), Dr. Rajendra Prasad (the nation's first President), Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jivatram Kripalani and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. With the already existing nationalistic feeling combined with Gandhi's popularity, the Congress became a forceful and dominant group of people in the country, bringing together millions of people by specifically working against caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic boundaries. Although predominantly Hindu, it had members from just about every religion, ethnic group, economic class and linguistic group. The 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru holds special significance as in this session "Purna Swaraj" (complete independence) was declared as the goal of the INC. 26 January 1930 was declared as "Purna Swaraj Diwas", Independence Day, although the British would remain in India for 17 more years. To commemorate this date the Constitution of India was formally adopted on 26 January 1950, even though it had been passed on 26 November 1949. However, in 1929, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the Congress for demanding full independence, not just home rule as demanded by Gandhi.
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935. Elections were held in eleven provinces - Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab and Sindh. The Indian National Congress contested these elections and gained power in eight of the provinces - the three exceptions being Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. The All-India Muslim League failed to form the government in any province. The Congress ministries resigned in October and November 1939, in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's action of declaring India to be a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people.
In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose, the elected president in both 1938 and 1939 resigned from the Congress over the selection of the working committee. The Indian National Congress was not the sole representative of the Indian polity and other parties existed at the time, notably the Hindu Mahasabha, Azad Hind Sarkar, and Forward Bloc. After the First World War the party had become associated with Mahatma Gandhi, who remained its unofficial, spiritual leader and mass icon even as younger men and women became party presidents. The party was in many ways an umbrella organisation, sheltering within itself radical socialists, traditionalists and even Hindu and Muslim conservatives, but all the socialist groupings (including the Congress Socialist Party, Krishak Praja Party, and Swarajya Party members) were expelled by Gandhi along with Subhas Chandra Bose in 1939.
In 1946, Members of the Congress initially supported the sailors who led the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny. However they withdrew support at the critical juncture, when the mutiny failed. During the INA trials of 1946, the Congress helped to form the INA Defence Committee, which forcefully defended the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. The committee declared the formation of the Congress' defence team for the INA and included famous lawyers of the time, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, and Jawaharlal Nehru.
After Indian independence in 1947, the Congress became the dominant political party in the country. In the first general election in 1952 held after Independence, the party swept to power at the centre as well as in most state legislatures. The Congress was continuously in power until 1977, when it was defeated by the Janata Party. It returned to power in 1980 and ruled until 1989, when it was once again defeated. It formed the government in 1991 at the head of a coalition, as well as in 2004 and 2009, when it led the United Progressive Alliance. During this period it has remained centre-left in its social policies, while steadily shifting from a socialist to a neoliberal economic outlook.
From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru, the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi dominated the Congress Party, which won overwhelming victories in the elections of 1951–52, 1957, and 1962. During his tenure, Nehru implemented policies based on import substitution industrialisation and advocated a mixed economy where the government controlled public sector would co-exist with the private sector.
He believed that the establishment of basic and heavy industry was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy. The Nehru government therefore directed investment primarily into key public sector industries – steel, iron, coal, and power – promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies. Nehru embraced secularism, socialistic economic practices based on state driven industrialization, and a non-aligned and non-confrontational foreign policy, which became the hallmark of the modern Congress party. The policy of non-alignment during the Cold War meant that Nehru received financial and technical support from both power blocs in building India's industrial base from scratch. There were four known assassination attempts on Nehru. The first attempt on his life was during partition in 1947 while he was visiting North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan) in a car. The second one was by a knife-wielding rickshaw-puller in Maharashtra in 1955. The third one happened in Bombay (now in Maharashtra) in 1956. The fourth one was a failed bombing attempt on train tracks in Maharashtra in 1961. Despite threats to his life, Nehru despised having too much security around him and did not like to disrupt traffic due to his movement. In 1964, Nehru died due to an aortic dissection and signalled the first time the party's future came into question.
In 1964 after Nehru's death, K. Kamaraj became the president of the All India Congress Committee. Kamalraj was also involved in the Indian independence movement and remembered for bringing school education to millions of the rural poor by introducing free education and the free Midday Meal Scheme during his tenure as chief minister of Tamil Nadu during 1954–63. Being part of a group of leaders in the Congress known as "the syndicate", he proposed the Kamaraj Plan (six Congress chief ministers and six senior Cabinet ministers to resign to take up party work). Kamaraj was widely credited as the "kingmaker" in Indian politics for bringing Lal Bahadur Shastri to power in 1964. As no other leader had Nehru's popular appeal, other than the gentle, soft-spoken and Nehruvian Lal Bahadur Shastri. Kamaraj stepped down as AICC president in 1967. Shastri as Prime Minister continued Nehru's policies of non-alignment and socialism. He became a national hero following the victory in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. His slogan of Jai Jawan Jai Kisan (Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer) became very popular during the war. Shastri retained many members of Nehru's Council of Ministers. T. T. Krishnamachari was retained as the Finance Minister of India, as was Defence Minister Yashwantrao Chavan. He appointed Swaran Singh to succeed him as External Affairs Minister.
Shashtri appointed Indira Gandhi, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru and former Congress President, as the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Gulzarilal Nanda continued as the Minister of Home Affairs. Shashtri continued Nehru's policy of non-alignment but also built closer relations with the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the Sino-Indian War of 1962 and the formation of military ties between the Chinese People's Republic and Pakistan, Shastri's government decided to expand the defence budget of India's armed forces. He also promoted the White Revolution – a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk by creating National Dairy Development Board. Shastri's tenure witnessed the Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965. On 11 January 1966, Prime Minister Shastri died in Tashkent, the day after signing the Tashkent Declaration, reportedly due to a heart attack but circumstances of his death still remain a mystery.
In 1966, after Shastri's death, the Congress party elected, Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, over the Morarji Desai as their leader. Once again, Kamaraj was instrumental in achieving this result. In 1967, following a poor showing in the general election, Indira Gandhi started progressively moving to the left in the political spectrum. In 1969, after falling out with senior party leaders on a number of issues, the party president S. Nijalingappa expelled Indira Gandhi from the party. Gandhi, in turn floated her own faction of the Congress party and managed to retain most of the Congress MPs on her side with only 65 on the side of Congress (O). In the mid-term parliamentary elections held in 1971, the Gandhi-led Congress (R) Party scored a landslide victory on a platform of progressive policies such as poverty elimination (Garibi Hatao). The progressive policies of the Congress under Indira Gandhi, prior to the 1971 elections, also included proposals for the abolition of Privy Purse to former rulers of the Princely states and the 1969 nationalization of the fourteen largest banks in India.
In the mid-1970s, the New Congress Party’s popular support began to fracture. From 1975, Gandhi’s government grew increasingly more authoritarian, and unrest among the opposition grew. On 12 June 1975, the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency, because of the disorder and lawlessness. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975. The 19 months of the Emergency saw widespread oppression and abuse of power by Gandhi's unelected younger son, Sanjay Gandhi and his close associates., This period of oppression ended when on 23 January 1977, Gandhi called fresh elections to the Lok Sabha for March and released all political prisoners. The Emergency officially ended on 23 March 1977. In the parliamentary elections held in March 1977, the opposition Janata Party scored a landslide victory over the Congress Party, winning 295 seats in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of India’s parliament) against 153 for the Congress; Gandhi herself lost to her Janata opponent. On January 2, 1978, she and her followers seceded and formed a new opposition party, popularly called Congress (I)—the I signifying Indira. Over the next year, her new party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition.
In November 1978, Gandhi regained a parliamentary seat, and in January 1980, following a landslide victory for the Congress (I), she was once again elected prime minister. In 1981, the national election commission declared Congress (I) the real Indian National Congress. In 1996, the I designation was dropped. In her new term as Prime minister, Gandhi faced the personal loss of the death of her younger son and political heir, Sanjay Gandhi, in a plane crash in June 1980. This led her to induct her elder pilot son, Rajiv Gandhi to enter politics. Gradually, Indira Gandhi grew more authoritarian and autocratic in her policies and outlook and became the central figure of the Indian National Congress party. As Prime Minister, Gandhi became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. Gandhi's term as Prime Minister also witnessed increasing turmoil in Punjab with demands for Sikh autonomy by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his militant followers. In 1983, they headquartered themselves in the Golden Temple and started accumulating weapons. After several futile negotiations, Gandhi, in June 1984, ordered the Indian army to enter the Golden Temple in order to establish control over the temple complex in Amritsar, Punjab and remove Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the complex buildings. This event was known as Operation Blue Star. On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence, in response to her actions in authorising Operation Blue Star. The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant. She was to have been interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television. Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm, and Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds. Later, the 1984 anti-Sikh riots took place over the assassination of Indira Gandhi where more than 3000 people were killed.
In 1984, Indira Gandhi's son, Rajiv Gandhi became nominal head of the party and, upon her assassination in October 1984, he became prime minister. In December, he led the Congress Party to a landslide victory in which it secured 401 seats in the legislature. His administration took vigorous measures to reform the government bureaucracy and liberalise the country’s economy. Gandhi’s attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab and Kashmir backfired, however, and after his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual. Gandhi was regarded as a nonabrasive person who consulted other party members and refrained from hasty decisions. The Bofors scandal shattered his image as an honest politician; however he was posthumously cleared over this allegation in 2004. On 21 May 1991, Gandhi was killed by a bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with the Tamil Tigers.
He was campaigning in Tamil Nadu for upcoming parliamentary elections. In 1998, an Indian court convicted twenty six people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi. The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi because the Indian troops he sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforce a peace accord there had ended up fighting the Tamil separatist guerrillas.
Rajiv Gandhi was succeeded as party leader by P.V. Narasimha Rao, who was elected prime minister in June 1991. His ascendancy to the prime ministership was politically significant in that he was the first holder of this office from South India. He led an important administration, overseeing a major economic transformation and several home incidents affecting national security of India. Rao who held the Industries portfolio was personally responsible for the dismantling of the Licence Raj as this came under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. He is often referred to as the "Father of Indian Economic Reforms". Future prime ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh continued the economic reform policies pioneered by Rao's government. Rao accelerated the dismantling of the Licence Raj, reversing the socialist policies of the previous governments. He employed future prime minister, Manmohan Singh as his |Finance Minister to embark on a historic economic transition. With Rao's mandate, Singh launched India's globalisation angle of the reforms that involved implementing the International Monetary Fund (IMF) policies to rescue the almost bankrupt nation from economic collapse. Rao was also referred to as Chanakya for his ability to steer tough economic and political legislation through the parliament at a time when he headed a minority government. By 1996, however, the party’s image was suffering from various reports of corruption, and in elections that year the Congress Party was reduced to 140 seats, its lowest number in the Lok Sabha to that point, becoming parliament’s second largest party. Rao subsequently resigned as prime minister and, in September, as party president. He was succeeded as president by Sitaram Kesri, the party’s first non-Brahmin leader.
In the 1998 general elections, the Congress won 141 seats in the Lok Sabha, its lowest tally up until then. To boost its popularity among the masses and improve the party’s performance in the forthcoming elections, the Congress Party leaders urged Sonia Gandhi —widow of Rajiv Gandhi—to assume the leadership of the party. She had previously declined overtures to play an active role in party affairs, as she had hitherto stayed away from politics. After her election as party leader, a section of the party which objected to the choice on the basis of her Italian ethnicity, broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), led by Sharad Pawar. The breakaway faction commanded strong support in the state of Maharashtra, as well as limited support elsewhere. The remainder continued to be known as the Indian National Congress.
Sonia Gandhi's appointment failed to have an impact initially; in the snap polls called by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in 1999, the Congress won 114 seats, its lowest ever tally. However, the leadership structure was not changed, and the party campaigned strongly in the assembly elections that followed, tasting considerable success; at one point, the Congress ruled 15 states nationwide. In the 2004 general election, the Congress forged an alliance with several regional parties, including the NCP and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. The party campaigned on a plank of social inclusion and common people's welfare. This was in contrast to the "India Shining" campaign of the NDA, which sought to highlight the successes of the NDA government in making India a "modern nation". The Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 222 seats in the new parliament, defeating the NDA by a substantial margin. With the support of the communist front, the Congress was able to muster a majority and form the government. Despite massive support from within the party, Gandhi declined the post of prime minister, choosing to appoint Manmohan Singh instead. She, however, retained the post of party president, as well as heading the National Advisory Council (NAC).
Through its first term in office, the UPA government passed several landmark bills aimed at social reform. These included an employment guarantee bill, the Right to Information Act, and a right to education act. The NAC, as well as the left front that supported the government from the outside, were widely seen as being the driving force behind such legislation. However, the Left Front withdrew support to the government over disagreements about the nuclear deal with the United States. Despite the effective loss of 62 seats in parliament, the government survived the trust vote that followed. In the Lok Sabha elections that occurred soon after, the Congress won 207 seats, the highest tally by any party since 1991. The UPA as a whole won 262, thus easily enabling to form the government for the second time. The social welfare policies of the first UPA government are broadly credited for the victory, as is the perceived divisiveness of the BJP.
By the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, however, the party had lost much of its popular support, mainly because of several years of poor economic conditions in the country and growing discontent over a series of corruption scandals including 2G spectrum scam and Indian coal allocation scam involving government officials. Congress Party suffered a stunning loss, securing only 44 seats in the chamber. It was the party’s worst-ever performance in a national election and threw into question if it would continue to be identified as an officially recognised party in parliament or if its status would be reduced to that of a recognised group.
As of 2014, the election symbol of the Congress party, as approved by the Election Commission of India, is the right hand, with its palm-side facing front. It is usually seen in the centre of an Indian flag, which forms its background. The fingers of the hand are pressed together. The present hand symbol was first used by Indira Gandhi as she split from the Congress (R) faction following the 1977 elections and created the New Congress (I).
The symbol of the original Congress during elections held between 1952 and 1971 was different - it had a symbol of two bullocks with plough. Indira's Congress(R) during the period of 1971-77 had a cow with a suckling calf as its election symbol.
In general elections
Current structure and composition
The Congress party is structured in a hierarchically manner. Its organisational structure created by Mohandas Gandhi's re-arrangement of the Congress in the years of 1918-20 has largely been retained until today. Delegates from state and district parties attend an annual national conference, which elects a president and the All India Congress Committee. In every Indian state and union territory or pradesh, there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party, responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels and assisting the campaigns for Parliamentary constituencies. Each PCC has a Working Committee of twenty members, the majority of whose members are appointed by the party president (handpicked by the prime minister when the party is in power) and the state president is the leader of the state unit. Those elected as members of the states legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies, and their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership. The party is also organised into various committees and sections (e.g. youth and women’s groups), and it publishes a daily newspaper, the National Herald.
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is formed of delegates sent from the PCCs around the country. The delegates elect various Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, which consists of senior party leaders and office bearers, and takes all important executive and political decisions. Since 1978, when Indira Gandhi formed the Congress (I), the President of the Indian National Congress has been in effect the party's national leader, head of the organisation, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman and the Congress' choice to become the Prime Minister of India. Constitutionally, the president is to be elected by the vote of the PCCs and members of the AICC. However, this procedure has often been by-passed by the Working Committee, choosing to elect its own candidate as a result of conditional circumstances.
The Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) is the group of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. There is also a CLP (Congress Legislative Party) leader in each state. The CLP consists of all Congress Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in each state. In cases of states where the Congress is single-handedly ruling the government, the CLP leader is the Chief Minister. Other groups who are directly affiliated include the National Students Union of India (NSUI) which is the students' wing of the INC, Indian Youth Congress, its youth wing, Indian National Trade Union Congress, which is their labour union and Mahila Congress, which is its women's division and Congress Seva Dal, which is its voluntary organization.
State and territorial parties
Ideology and policy positions
Since the 1950s, the INC has favored liberal positions (the term "liberal" in this sense describes modern liberalism, not classical liberalism) with support for social justice and a mixed economy. INC strongly supports Liberal nationalism, a kind of nationalism compatible with values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.
Historically, the party has favoured farmers, labourers, labour unions, and religious and ethnic minorities; it has opposed unregulated business and finance. In recent decades, the party has adopted a centrist economic and socially progressive agenda and has begun to advocate for more social justice, affirmative action, a balanced budget, and a market economy. The economic policy adopted by the modern INC is free market policies, though at the same time it is in favour of taking a cautious approach when it comes to liberalising the economy claiming it is to help ensure that the weaker sectors are not affected too hard by the changes that come with liberalisation. In the 1990s, however, it endorsed market reforms, including privatisation and the deregulation of the economy. It also has supported secular policies that encourage equal rights for all citizens, including those in lower castes. The party supports the somewhat controversial concept of family planning with birth control. Throughout much of the Cold War period, the Congress Party championed a foreign policy of nonalignment, which called for India to form ties with both the West and communist countries but to avoid formal alliances with either. Nonetheless, American support for Pakistan led the party to endorse a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union in 1971. In recent decades, the party began advocating welfare spending programs targeted at the poor.
In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance came to power, its chairperson Sonia Gandhi unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan Singh. This Singh-led "UPA I" government executed several key legislations and projects, including the Rural Health Mission, Unique Identification Authority, the Rural Employment Guarantee scheme and the Right to Information Act.
The Congress strongly endorses a mixed economy in which both the private sector and the state direct the economy, reflecting characteristics of both market economies and planned economies. A leading economic theory advocated by the modern Congress party is import substitution industrialisation that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production. Party also believes that mixed economies often provide environmental protection, maintenance of employment standards, a standardised welfare system, and maintenance of competition. The Congress party liberalised the Indian economy, allowing it to speed up development dramatically. In 2005, then Congress led-UPA Prime Minister Manmohan Singh introduced the value added tax, replacing sales tax and has continued the Golden Quadrilateral and the highway modernisation program that was initiated by Vajpayee's government. In 2009, India achieved its highest GDP growth rate of 9% and became the second fastest growing major economy in the world.
Healthcare and education
In 2005, Congress started the National Rural Health Mission, which has mobilised half a million community health workers. This rural health initiative was praised by the American economist Jeffrey Sachs. In 2006, its Government implemented the proposal to reserve 27% of seats in All India Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS), Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and other central institutions of higher education for Other Backward Classes which led to 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests. The Singh government also continued the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme. The programme includes the introduction and improvement of mid-day meals and the opening of schools all over India, especially in rural areas, to fight illiteracy. During Manmohan Singh's tenure eight IIT's were opened in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Orissa, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh.
Security and Home Affairs
The Congress party has been instrumental in strengthening anti-terror laws with amendments to Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA). National Investigation Agency (India) (NIA) was also created soon after the Nov 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, as a need for a central agency to combat terrorism was realised. Also, Unique Identification Authority of India was established in February 2009, an agency responsible for implementing the envisioned Multipurpose National Identity Card with the objective of increasing national security and facilitating e-governance.
The Congress party continued the pragmatic foreign policy that was started by P.V. Narasimha Rao. It also continued the peace process with Pakistan, exchange of high-level visits by top leaders from both countries. Efforts were made by the party to end the border dispute with People's Republic of China. Relations with Afghanistan have also improved considerably, with India now becoming the largest regional donor to Afghanistan. During Afghan President Hamid Karzai's visit to New Delhi in August 2008, Manmohan Singh increased the aid package to Afghanistan for the development of more schools, health clinics, infrastructure, and defence. Under the leadership of Singh, India has emerged as one of the single largest aid donors to Afghanistan.
When in power in 2004–14, the Congress party worked towards stronger ties with the United States. Several delegates including Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, visited the United States in July 2005 initiating negotiations over the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. This was followed by George W. Bush's visit to India in March 2006, during which the declaration over the nuclear agreement was made, giving India access to American nuclear fuel and technology in exchange for the IAEA inspection of its civil nuclear reactors. After more than two years of negotiations, followed by the approval from the IAEA, Nuclear Suppliers Group and the US Congress, India and the US signed the agreement on 10 October 2008. During its tenure, relations have improved with Japan and European Union countries, like the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Relations with Iran have continued and negotiations over the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline have taken place. New Delhi hosted an India–Africa Summit in April 2006 which was attended by the leaders of 15 African states. Relations have improved with other developing countries, particularly Brazil and South Africa.
Presence in various states
As of December 2014, Congress is currently in power in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram where the party enjoys a majority of its own. In three other states viz. Assam, Kerala, and Uttarakhand it shares power with other alliance partners. Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Goa.
List of current UPA Chief Ministers
|No||State/UT||Chief Minister||Party/Alliance partner||CM Since||Seats in Assembly|
|1||Arunachal Pradesh||Nabam Tuki||Indian National Congress||1 November 2011||42/60|
|2||Assam||Tarun Gogoi||Indian National Congress||17 May 2001||78/126|
|3||Himachal Pradesh||Virbhadra Singh||Indian National Congress||25 December 2012||36/68|
|4||Karnataka||Siddaramaiah||Indian National Congress||13 May 2013||122/225|
|5||Kerala||Oommen Chandy||Indian National Congress||May 18, 2011||73/140|
|6||Manipur||Okram Ibobi Singh||Indian National Congress||7 March 2002||30/60|
|7||Meghalaya||Mukul Sangma||Indian National Congress||20 April 2010||31/60|
|8||Mizoram||Pu Lalthanhawla||Indian National Congress||11 December 2008||33/40|
|9||Uttarakhand||Harish Rawat||Indian National Congress||1 February 2014||35/71|
List of Prime Ministers
|1||Jawaharlal Nehru||1947–64||17 years||Phulpur|
|2||Gulzarilal Nanda||May–June 1964; January 1966||26 days||Sabarkantha|
|3||Lal Bahadur Shastri||1964–66||2 years||Allahabad|
|4||Indira Gandhi||1966–77, 1980–84||16 years||Rae Bareli, Medak|
|5||Rajiv Gandhi||1984–89||5 years||Amethi|
|6||P. V. Narasimha Rao||1991–96||5 years||Nandyal|
|7||Manmohan Singh||2004–14||10 years||Assam (Rajya Sabha)|
List of Prime Ministers (Former Congressmen)
|1||Morarji Desai||1977–79||2 years||Surat|
|2||Charan Singh||July 1979; January 1980||170 days||Baghpat|
|3||V. P. Singh||1989–90||1 year||Fatehpur|
|4||Chandra Shekhar||1990||223 Days||Ballia|
|5||H. D. Deve Gowda||1996–97||1 year||Karnataka (Rajya Sabha)|
|6||I. K. Gujral||1997–98||1 year||Bihar (Rajya Sabha)|
- Congress Working Committee
- All India Congress Committee
- Pradesh Congress Committee
- Statewise Election history of Congress Party
- Nehru - Feroze Gandhi family
- List of political parties in India
- Politics of India
- President of the Indian National Congress
- "Indian National Congress - Policy and structure". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "Indian National Congress – about INC, history, symbol, leaders and more". Elections.in. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Progressive Alliance Participants". Progressive Alliance.
- "Full Member Parties of Socialist International". Socialist International.
- "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Lok Sabha Official Website". 2014-09-09. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- "Rajya Sabha Official Website". 2014-09-09. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- Bevir, Mark (9 February 2013). "Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 1 January 2003.
- Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the Indian National Congress. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version
- Stanley A. Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: revolution and reform in the making of modern India (1962) p 67
- "Khilafat Movement (1919–1922) | History PakHistory Pak". Historypak.com. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Main Bharat Hun". Main Bharat Hun. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Dates of time spent in Britain: 1919–21. "Subhas Chandra Bose |". Open.ac.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Lawyers in the Indian Freedom Movement – The Bar Council of India". Barcouncilofindia.org. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- "Nehru Years in Indian Politics". http://www.sps.ed.ac.uk/. School of Social and Political Science, Edinburgh. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Economic Ideology of Jawaharlal Nehru". http://www.epw.in/. Economic and Political Weekly. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "History of Indian Economy Part II". Daily News and Analysis. DNA. July 11, 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Nehru: Founding member of The non-aligned movement". http://news.bbc.co.uk/. The British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "History and Evolution of Non-Aligned Movement". http://mea.gov.in/. Ministry of External Affairs,Government of India. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Nayantara Sahgal (1 January 2010). Jawaharlal Nehru: Civilizing a Savage World. Penguin Books India. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-670-08357-2.
- "The death of Nehru". The Guardian (The Guardian archive). The Guardian News Portal. May 28, 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)". http://www.bbc.co.uk/. The British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "1964: Light goes out in India as Nehru dies". http://news.bbc.co.uk/. The British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "K. Kamaraj -Life History". http://www.perunthalaivar.org/. The Perun Thalaivar organization. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "The Syndicate: Kingmakers of India". http://pib.nic.in/. Press Information Bureau: Government of India. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Mahendra Prasad Singh (1 January 1981). Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969. Abhinav Publications. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-7017-140-9.
- Bala Jeyaraman (2 September 2013). Kamaraj: The Life and Times of K. Kamaraj. Rupa Publications. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-81-291-3227-7.
- N. S. Gehlot (1991). The Congress Party in India: Policies, Culture, Performance. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-7100-306-8.
- R. C. Kochar (1 January 1997). Congress and Socialism: Economic Programmes and Policies. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 130. ISBN 978-81-86565-24-7.
- Narayan Agrawal Narayan; Lal Bahadur Shastri; Vivek Misra; Subha Ravi (2006). Lal Bahadur Shastri, Churn of Conscience. Eternal Gandhi. p. 88. ISBN 978-81-231-0193-4.
- "The Indo-Pakistan war of 1965". http://indiannavy.nic.in/. Indian Navy. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Life of Lal Bahadur Shastri". Business Standard (Ananda Publishers). Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group. March 26, 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- R. D. Pradhan; Madhav Godbole (1 January 1999). Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962-65. Orient Blackswan. p. 17. ISBN 978-81-250-1477-5.
- Arvind Panagariya Professor of Economics and Jagdish Bhagwati Professor of Indian Political Economy Columbia University School of International & Public Affairs (1 February 2008). India: The Emerging Giant: The Emerging Giant. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-804299-0.
- "History and Politics of India". http://socialsciences.ucla.edu/. UCLA Division of Social Sciences. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Biography of Gulzarilal Nanda". http://pmindia.gov.in/. Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "The White Revolution: A beginning". http://www.unicef.org/. UNICEF. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Jyotirindra Dasgupta (1970). Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and National Language Policy in India. University of California Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-520-01590-6.
- "The Madras anti-Hindi agitation". http://www.jstor.org/. Digital library of academic journals. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Controversial death of Shastri". http://www.wikileaks-forum.com/. Wikileaks Forum. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Lal Bahadur Shastri's death in Tashkent". http://www.bbc.com/. BBC. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Lal Bahadur Shastri :". http://socialsciences.ucla.edu/. UCLA Division of Social Science. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "1969: S. Nijalingappa expelled Indira Gandhi from the party". India Today (Aroon Purie). July 2, 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Singh, Mahendra Prasad (1981). Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969. New Delhi: Sakti Malik , Abhinav Prakashan. ISBN 8170171407.
- "General Elections, India, 1971: Statistical report". http://eci.nic.in/. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "The Emergency, and Indian democracy". https://www.sscnet.ucla.edu. UCLA Division of Social Science. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Ghildiyal,, Subodh (Dec 29, 2010). "Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency ‘excesses’". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Express News Service (Jun 11, 2013). "Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs". Indian Express. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Dasgupta, Swapan (July 1985). Third World Quarterly 7 (3).
- "Indian general election, 1977". http://www.ipu.org/english/home.htm. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "What Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's Emergency proved for India". Rediff.com (Ajit Balakrishnan). Rediff.com. June 23, 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Statistical report general elections, 1980". http://eci.nic.in/. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Postindependence: from dominance to decline". http://www.britannica.com/. Britanica Portal. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Sanjay Gandhi dies in plane crash". The Sydney Morning Herald (Google News). Jun 24, 1980. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Operation Blue Star 1984". Daily News and Analysis (Deepak Rathi). Dainik Bhaskar. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "1984: Operation Blue Star". The Daily Telegraph (Ian MacGregor). Telegraph Media Group. Jun 6, 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Operation Blue Star". The Hindu (N.Ram). The Hindu Group. June 10, 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "1984: Indian prime minister shot dead". The British Broadcasting Corporation (The British Broadcasting Corporation). British public service broadcasting statutory corporation. Oct 31, 1984. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Violence follows Gandhi killing". http://news.bbc.co.uk/. The British Broadcasting Corporation.
- "Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, complete profile". http://pmindia.gov.in/. Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "India General or the 8th Lok Sabha Election Results - 1984". http://www.elections.in/. Assembly and Parliamentary Election Results Portal. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Resurgent India". Daily News and Analysis (Deepak Rathi). Dainik Bhaskar. Jan 22, 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Rajiv Gandhi and the story of Indian modernization". http://www.livemint.com/. Mint. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Rajiv Gandhi, History and Politics". https://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/. UCLA, Division of Social Sciences. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Rajiv Gandhi cleared over bribery". BBC News. 4 February 2004. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
- "The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi". NDTV India. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Rajiv Gandhi assassination case". The Times Group (The Times of India). Feb 27, 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- D. R. Kaarthikenyan, Radhavinod Raju; Radhavinod Raju (2008). Rajiv Gandhi Assassination. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-81-207-3265-0.
- "SC refers Rajiv Gandhi killers’ release case to Constitution Bench". The Indian Express. April 25, 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "PV Narasimha Rao Biography". http://pmindia.nic.in/. Prime Minister's Office, India. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Narasimha Rao – a Reforming PM. BBC News (23 December 2004). Retrieved 2 March 2007.
- Arvind Kumar, Arun Narendhranath (3 October 2001). India must embrace unfettered free enterprise. Daily News and Analysis.
- PV Narasimha Rao Remembered as Father of Indian Economic Reforms. VOA News (23 December 2004).
- "Narasimha Rao led India at crucial juncture, was father of economic reform: Pranab". 31 December 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "PV Narasimha Rao reinvented India". http://www.thenational.ae/. The National. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Foreign Policies of India’s Prime Ministers". http://www.transnational-perspectives.org/. Transnational Organization. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- V. Venkatesan (1–14 January 2005). "Obituary: A scholar and a politician". Frontline 22 (1). Archived from the original on 2010-01-30. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- PV Narasimha Rao Passes Away. Retrieved 7 October 2007.[dead link]
- "Atal Bihari Vajpayee's 13-day govt.". https://www.youtube.com. YouTube. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "The Sitaram Kesri case". Daily News and Analysis (Deepak Rathi). Dainik Bhaskar. July 10, 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Manmohan survives trust vote". India Today. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Bidwai, Praful. "Reading the Verdict". Frontline. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "2G spectrum scam". India Today Group (India Today). October 19, 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "Coal Block Allocations Scam". Daily News and Analysis. April 30, 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "List of Congress winners". CNN - Indian Broadcasting Network (CNN-IBN). May 17, 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "Congress Vote Share Dips Below 20 Per Cent for First Time". NDTV India. May 17, 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- "A Short History of the Congress Hand". The Wall Street Journal (News Corp). Dow Jones & Company. Mar 28, 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "How Indira's Congress got its hand symbol". NDTV (Prannoy Roy). New Delhi Television Limited. December 22, 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Indian political party election symbols from 1951". CNN-Indian Broadcasting Network (TV18 Broadcast Limited). Network18. Apr 4, 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Sanghvi, Vijay (2006). The Congress, Indira to Sonia Gandh. New Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 77. ISBN 81-7835-340-7.
- Indian National Congress Since Independence. Lotus Press. 1 January 2006. p. 214. ISBN 978-81-8382-050-9.
- "Structure of All India Congress Committe". Association of Democratic Reform. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Kedar Nath Kumar (1 January 1990). Political Parties in India, Their Ideology and Organisation. Mittal Publications. pp. 41–43. ISBN 978-81-7099-205-9.
- "Annual percentage growth rate of GDP". worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Sachs, Jeffrey D. (6 March 2005). "The End of Poverty". Time.
- "Direct SSA funds for school panels". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "LS passes bill to provide IIT for eight states.". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Position of negotiation.". Firstpost (Firstpost staff). Network 18. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "India’s prime minister, Manmohan Singh, in Beijing to discuss matters of trade and border defence.". The Economist (John Micklethwait). The Economist Group. Oct 26, 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visits Beijing". China Briefing (Business Intelligence). Dezan Shira & Associates. January 14, 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- Bajoria, Jayshree (23 October 2008). "India-Afghanistan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
- India announces more Afghan aid
- "U.S., India ink historic civilian nuclear deal". People's Daily. 11 October 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
- Haass, Richard N. (Nov 23, 2009). "A Conversation with Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh". http://www.cfr.org/. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "The 'peace pipeline'". http://www.thenational.ae/. The National. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Several African leaders to attend Africa-India summit, AU says". African Press International. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
- "India-South Africa relations". http://www.mea.gov.in/. Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Banerjee, Sanjay. "Congress set to rule Goa again". Times of India. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- The Indian National Congress: An Historical Sketch, by Frederick Marion De Mello. Published by H. Milford, Oxford university press, 1934.
- The Indian National Congress, by Hemendra Nath Das Gupta. Published by J. K. Das Gupta, 1946.
- Indian National Congress: A Descriptive Bibliography of India's Struggle for Freedom, by Jagdish Saran Sharma. Published by S. Chand, 1959.
- Social Factors in the Birth and Growth of the Indian National Congress Movement, by Ramparkash Dua. Published by S. Chand, 1967.
- Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress in 1969, by Mahendra Prasad Singh. Abhinav Publications, 1981. ISBN 81-7017-140-7.
- Concise History of the Indian National Congress, 1885–1947, by B. N. Pande, Nisith Ranjan Ray, Ravinder Kumar, Manmath Nath Das. Published by Vikas Pub. House, 1985. ISBN 0-7069-3020-7.
- The Indian National Congress: An Analytical Biography, by Om P. Gautam. Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985.
- A Century of Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, by Pran Nath Chopra, Ram Gopal, Moti Lal Bhargava. Published by Agam Prakashan, 1986.
- The Congress Ideology and Programme, 1920–1985, by Pitambar Datt Kaushik . Published by Gitanjali Pub. House, 1986. ISBN 81-85060-16-9.
- Struggling and Ruling: The Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, by Jim Masselos. Published by Sterling Publishers, 1987.
- The Encyclopedia of Indian National Congress, by A. Moin Zaidi, Shaheda Gufran Zaidi, Indian Institute of Applied Political Research. Published by S.Chand, 1987.
- Indian National Congress: A Reconstruction, by Iqbal Singh, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. Published by Riverdale Company, 1988. ISBN 0-913215-32-5.
- INC, the Glorious Tradition, by A. Moin Zaidi, Indian National Congress. AICC. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1989.
- Indian National Congress: A Select Bibliography, by Manikrao Hodlya Gavit, Attar Chand. Published by U.D.H. Pub. House, 1989. ISBN 81-85044-05-8.
- The Story of Congress PilgrFile: 1885–1985, by A. Moin Zaidi, Indian National Congress. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1990. ISBN 81-85355-46-0. (7 vols)
- Indian National Congress in England, by Harish P. Kaushik. Published by Friends Publications, 1991.
- Women in Indian National Congress, 1921–1931, by Rajan Mahan. Published by Rawat Publications, 1999.
- History of Indian National Congress, 1885–2002, by Deep Chand Bandhu. Published by Kalpaz Publications, 2003. ISBN 81-7835-090-4.
- Bipan Chandra, Amales Tripathi, Barun De. Freedom Struggle. India: National Book Struggle. ISBN 81-237-0249-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|