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Pointed hats have been a distinctive item of headgear of a wide range of cultures throughout history. Though often suggesting an ancient Indo-European tradition, they were also traditionally worn by women of Lapland, the Japanese, the Mi'kmaq people of Atlantic Canada, and the Huastecs of Veracruz and Aztec (illustrated e.g. in Codex Mendoza). The Kabiri of New Guinea have the diba, a pointed hat glued together.
Existence of the conical hat is known as early as the Bronze Age in Middle East and Central Europe. One example is the golden hat worn by members of the priesthood, likely as a ceremonial accessory. In Ancient Greece, the pilos was a common conical travelling hat. Popular among Burgundian noblewomen in the 15th century was a type of conical headgear now called a hennin. Conical hats were also popular in late medieval Vijayanagar, India.
Textile analysis of the Tarim Mummies has shown some similarities to the Iron Age civilizations of Europe dating from 800 BC, including woven twill and tartan patterns strikingly similar to tartans from Northern Europe. One unusual find was a distinctively pointed hat:
- Yet another female - her skeleton found beside the remains of a man - still wore a terrifically tall, conical hat just like those we depict on witches riding broomsticks at Halloween or on medieval wizards intent at their magical spells. (Barber 1999:200)
Pointed hats were also worn in ancient times by Saka (Scythians), and are shown on Hindu temples and in Hittite reliefs. The name of the Scythian tribe of the tigrakhauda (Orthocorybantians) is a bahuvrihi compound literally translating to "people with pointed hats".
The "golden man" of the Issyk kurgan.
Originating from the Japanese Heian period, the kazaori eboshi (風折烏帽子) was worn by aristocrats to indicate rank. Still worn today for ceremonial purposes, this black linen hat was used during a samurai's ceremony in attaining manhood.
The Papal tiara in the Middle Ages is sometimes shown as more pointed than in more recent centuries, though also shown with no point. Mitra papalis is a type of conch named after the papal mitre for its form.
Following the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215, Jews were forced to wear distinctive clothing. This included the pointed Jewish hat (or "Judenhut") already worn by Jews, a piece of clothing probably imported from the Islamic world and perhaps before that from Persia.
The Ku Klux Klan made the pointed hat a part of their tradition in the 1920's.
Folklore and fiction
|Bashlyk||This traditional Turkic and Cossack cone-shaped headdress hood is usually made of leather, felt or wool. It is an ancient round topped felt bonnet with lappets for wrapping around the neck.|
|Capirote||Historically, the capirote was a cardboard cone that flagellants in Spain would use. It was also used during capital punishment in Spain, and also during an Inquisition, where the condemned person would be forced to wear one and be put under public humiliation. The Ku Klux Klan wear a similar style, likely inspired or copied from the Spanish capirote, due to the face-covering flap or hood.|
|Capuchon||A capuchon is a ceremonial hat worn during the Mardi Gras celebration in the Cajun areas of southwestern Louisiana, known as the Courir de Mardi Gras.|
|Conical Asian hat||Known as a sedge hat, rice hat, paddy hat or coolie hat, this simple style of hat is often made of straw. It originated in East and Southeast Asia, particularly Vietnam, China, Japan and Korea, Cambodia, Philippines, and Indonesia.|
|Dunce cap||In popular culture, the dunce cap is typically made of paper and often marked with a D or the word "dunce", and given to schoolchildren to wear as punishment by public humiliation for misbehaviour and, as the name implies, stupidity.|
|Golden hat||This type of hat is a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Central Europe.|
|Hennin||Most commonly worn in Burgundy and France by women of the nobility, the hennin appears from about 1430 onwards. Later, though, this hat spread more widely, especially in the truncated form. Typically, the hennin was 12 to 18 inches (30 to 45 cm) high, generally accompanied by a veil that usually emerged from the top of the cone and was allowed to fall onto the woman's shoulders.|
|Hogeon||This Korean traditional headgear for young boys aged one year to five years has flaps, and is a type of gwanmo (관모),.|
|Jewish hat||The Jewish hat was often white or yellow, worn by Jews in Medieval Europe and some of the Islamic world.|
|Kalpak||This high-crowned cap is usually made of felt or sheepskin. It is worn by men from southeastern Europe, Iran, Central Asia and the Caucasus.|
|Kasa||A Kasa is any of several kinds of traditional hats of Japan.|
|Nightcap||This garment is worn while sleeping, often with a nightgown, for warmth.|
|Party hat||A party hat is generally a playful conical hat made with a rolled up piece of thin cardboard, usually with designs printed on the outside and a long string of elastic going from one side of the cone's bottom to another to secure the cone to one's head.|
|Phrygian cap||The Phrygian cap is a soft cap with the top pulled forward. Associated in antiquity with the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia; from the French Revolution a symbol of revolution, liberty and republicanism - and in modern times with Smurfs.|
|Pileus||Predecessor to the Phrygian cap, the pileus was, in Ancient Greece and Rome, a brimless, felt cap, somewhat similar to a fez.|
|Salakot||Usually made from rattan or reeds, this is a traditional hat from the Philippines.|
|Sugar loaf||This very tall, tapering hat was first worn in medieval times. Its name comes from the loaves into which sugar was formed at that time. The sugar loaf hat is a kind of early top hat ending in a slightly rounded conical top.|
|Tantour||Similar to the hennin, this woman's headdress was popular in the Eastern Mediterranean during the 19th century. The most ornate tantours were made of gold and reached as high as 30 inches. Some were encrusted with gems and pearls. The tantour was held in by a ribbons tied around the head. A silk scarf was wound around the base with a white veil attached to the peak.|
|Topor||A topor is worn during Bengali Hindu wedding ceremonies. It is usually white, fragile, and made of sholapith.|
- Angeleimter Spitzhut oder "diba" Kabiri (Neuguinea) (German)
- hat — FactMonster.com
- Linehan, Peter; Nelson, Janet Laughland, eds. (2003). The medieval world. Routledge Worlds Series 10. Routledge. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-415-30234-0.
- Karasulas, Antoly (2004). Mounted archers of the Steppe 600 BC-AD 1300. Illustrated by Angus McBride. Osprey Publishing. p. 63. "[The warrior's] conical fur-edged felt hat is a typical item of Cuman clothing"
- "Japan Regional Information". Asia-planet.net. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- "冠と烏帽子". Kariginu.jp. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- Jewish hat article
- "Mardi Gras in Rural Acadiana". Retrieved 2010-02-18.
- "Types of hats Alphabetic List N - Z". Millinerytechniques.com. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- Sewell, Charlotte (1983). Clothes in History. Wayland Ltd. Pp. 20, 21
- 19th Century Lebanese Princess
- "The Tantour or Shihabbiyeen". Trmkt.com. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- "Origin of Levantine Costumes". Almashriq.hiof.no. Retrieved 2010-08-16.
- Barber, A.W. (1999). The Mummies of Ürümchi. Macmillan, London.