Conirostrum

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Conebills
Conirostrum speciosum.jpg
Chestnut-vented conebill
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Thraupidae
Genus: Conirostrum
Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838
Species

10, see text

Typical conebills are the tanager genus Conirostrum. They are small tanagers (9–14 cm) found in the forests of South America. They feed in pairs or small flocks by gleaning insects from foliage.

The genus consists of two rather distinct subgenera:[1] The first, Ateleodacnis, possibly deserving full generic status, is confined to lowland areas. They are mostly grey in colour and inhabit deciduous woodlands, mangroves or riverbank habitats. The second group, the nominate Conirostrum subgenus, inhabits the forests of the Andes. They are somewhat more colourful combining grey or blue backs with rufous underparts. Their thin bills led to them being formerly classified as wood-warblers or honeycreepers but genetic data places them firmly in the tanager family and they are now generally considered to belong in the Thraupidae.

The related giant conebill is more distinct, it belongs to the monotypic genus Oreomanes. The record of an apparent intergeneric hybrid with white-browed conebill (Oreomanes fraseri x Conirostrum ferrugineiventre) suggests the giant conebill may belong in Conirostrum possibly in the nominate subgenus.[2]

Species list[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Ridgely & Tudor (1989), pp. 208–212, 222–224
  2. ^ Schulenberg (1985)

References[edit]

  • Beecher, W. J. 1951. Convergence in the Coerebidae. Wilson Bull. 63: 274-287.
  • Burns, K. J., S. J. Hackett, & N. K. Klein. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological diversity in Darwin's finches and their relatives. Evolution 56: 1240-1252.
  • Burns, K. J., S. J. Hackett, & N. K. Klein. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical honeycreepers and the evolution of feeding morphology. J. Avian Biology 34: 360-370.
  • Fjeldså, J., & N. Krabbe. 1990. Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, Univ. Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Hellmayer, C. E. 1935. Catalogue of birds of the Americas. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ., Zool. Ser., vol. 13., pt. 8.
  • Lowery, G. H., JR., & B. L. Monroe, JR. 1968. Family Parulidae. pp. 3–93 in "Check-list of birds of the World, Vol. 14" (Paynter R. A., Jr., ed.). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • Lovette, I. J., & E. Bermingham. 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecular characterization of a monophyletic Parulidae. Auk 119: 695-714.
  • Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1970. A guide to the birds of South America. Livingston Publishing Co., Wynnewood, Pennsylvania.
  • Ridgely, R. S., & G. Tudor. 1989. The birds of South America, vol. 1. Univ. Texas Press, Austin.
  • Ridgway, R. 1902. The birds of North and Middle America. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 2.
  • Schulenberg, T. S. 1985. An intergeneric hybrid conebill (Conirostrum X Oreomanes) from Peru. pp. 390–395 in "Neotropical Ornithology" (P. A. Buckley et al., eds.), Ornithol. Monogr. No. 36.
  • Storer, R. W. 1970a. Subfamily Thraupinae. pp. 246–408 in "Check-list of birds of the World, Vol. 13" (Paynter R. A., Jr., ed.). Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • Wetmore, A., R. F. Pasquier, & S. L. Olson. 1984. The birds of the Republic of Panamá, part 4. Smithsonian Misc. Collect., vol. 150.
  • Zimmer, J. 1942d. Studies of Peruvian birds, No. 43. Notes on The genera Dacnis, Xenodacnis, Coereba, Conirostrum, and Oreomanes. 1193: 1-16.