Conjunctival concretion

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Concretion in the palpebral conjunctiva, is called conjunctival concretion, that is a (or a cluster) small, hard, yellowish-white calcified matter, superficially buried beneath the palpebral conjunctiva. Most of concretions in the eye form in the palpebral conjunctiva, which is a clear membrane to surround the inside of the eyelid. Less can be located in the cornea and retina.

Cause[edit]

Chronic conjunctivitis (e.g. trachoma) and aging factor are two causes of conjunctival concretion, which will make the conjunctiva cellular degeneration to produce an epithelial inclusion cyst, filled with epithelial cells and keratin debris. After calcification, the conjunctival cyst hardens and forms a conjunctival concretion. Congenital conjunctival concretion condition is also more common.

Symptoms[edit]

Conjunctival concretions are generally asymptomatic. Common symptoms include eye discomfort, eye irritation, and foreign body sensation. Sometimes, the larger, harder or multiple concretions make the rubbing off of the superficial layers of the conjunctiva or eyelids to cause conjunctival abrasion, especially prominent when upon blinking. In severe cases, dysfunction or inflammation of the Meibomian (Meibomianitis, an inflammation of the tarsal glands) glands may occur.

Clinical Statistics[edit]

Conjunctival concretions can be single, also multiple, less confluent. There is no difference between the site of the occurrence on the upper and lower eyelid, nor right or left eye. The vast majority of concretions are in the conjunctival surface rather than deep. There is no difference in age for predilection or incidence of concretions, due to the causes of conjunctivitis, aging, and even congenital factor.

Treatment[edit]

Conjunctival concretions can be seen easily by everting the eyelid. The projecting concretions should be removed. Removal is easily performed by a doctor. For example, using needles or sharp knife removes the concretion, under a local light anesthesia of the conjunctiva.