In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time. The exact conservation laws include: conservation of energy, conservation of linear momentum, conservation of angular momentum, and conservation of electric charge. There are also many approximate conservation laws which apply to such quantities as: mass, parity, lepton number, baryon number, strangeness, hypercharge, etc..
A local conservation law is usually expressed mathematically as a continuity equation, a partial differential equation which gives a relation between the amount of the quantity and the "transport" of that quantity. It is analogous to an "accounting statement" which states that the amount of the conserved quantity at a point or within a volume can only change by the amount of the quantity which flows in or out of the volume. For example, the conservation of electric charge is expressed by the continuity equation
where is the density of charge at a point and is the current density at a point. It says that the rate of increase in the amount of charge at any point is equal to the current of charge flowing into that point minus the current flowing out of the point.
Conservation laws as fundamental laws of nature
Conservation laws are fundamental to our understanding of the physical world, in that they describe which processes can or cannot occur in nature. For example, the conservation law of energy states that the total quantity of energy in an isolated system does not change, though it may change form. In general, the total quantity of the property governed by that law remains unchanged during physical processes. With respect to classical physics, conservation laws include conservation of energy, mass (or matter), linear momentum, angular momentum, and electric charge. With respect to particle physics, particles cannot be created or destroyed except in pairs, where one is ordinary and the other is an antiparticle. With respect to symmetries and invariance principles, three special conservation laws have been described, associated with inversion or reversal of space, time, and charge.
Conservation laws are considered to be fundamental laws of nature, with broad application in physics, as well as in other fields such as chemistry, biology, geology, and engineering.
Most conservation laws are exact, or absolute, in the sense that they apply to all possible processes. Some conservation laws are partial, in that they hold for some processes but not for others.
One particularly important result concerning conservation laws is Noether's theorem, which states that there is a one-to-one correspondence between each one of them and a differentiable symmetry in the system. For example, the conservation of energy follows from the time-invariance of physical systems, and the fact that physical systems behave the same regardless of how they are oriented in space gives rise to the conservation of angular momentum.
A partial listing of physical conservation equations due to symmetry that are said to be exact laws, or more precisely have never been [proven to be] violated:
|Conservation Law||Respective Noether symmetry invariance||Number of dimensions|
|Conservation of mass-energy||Time invariance||Lorentz invariance symmetry||1||translation about time axis|
|Conservation of linear momentum||Galilean invariance||3||translation about x,y,z position|
|Conservation of angular momentum||Rotation invariance||3||rotation about x,y,z axes|
|CPT symmetry (combining charge, parity and time conjugation)||Lorentz invariance||1+1+1||(charge inversion q→-q) + (position inversion r→-r) + (time inversion t→-t)|
|Conservation of electric charge||Gauge invariance||1⊗4||scalar field (1D) in 4D spacetime (x,y,z + time evolution)|
|Conservation of color charge||SU(3) Gauge invariance||3||r,g,b|
|Conservation of weak isospin||SU(2)L Gauge invariance||1||weak charge|
|Conservation of probability||Probability invariance||1⊗4||total probability always=1 in whole x,y,z space, during time evolution|
There are also approximate conservation laws. These are approximately true in particular situations, such as low speeds, short time scales, or certain interactions.
- Conservation of mass (applies for non-relativistic speeds and when there are no nuclear reactions)
- Conservation of baryon number (See chiral anomaly)
- Conservation of lepton number (In the Standard Model)
- Conservation of flavor (violated by the weak interaction)
- Conservation of parity
- Invariance under Charge conjugation
- Invariance under time reversal
- CP symmetry, the combination of charge and parity conjugation (equivalent to time reversal if CPT holds)
In continuum mechanics, the most general form of an exact conservation law is given by a continuity equation. For example, conservation of electric charge q is
where ∇⋅ is divergence, ρ is the density of q (amount per unit volume), j is the flux of q (amount crossing a unit area in unit time), and t is time.
If we assume that the motion u of the charge is a continuous function of position and time, then
where the dependent varible y is called the density of a conserved quantity, and A(y) is called the current jacobian, and the subscript notation for partial derivatives has been employed. The more general inhomogeneous case:
is not a conservation equation but the general kind of balance equation describing a dissipative system. The dependent variable y is called a nonconserved quantity, and the inhomogeneous term s(y,x,t) is the a (quantity)-source, or dissipation. For example balance equations of this kind are the momentum and energy Navier-Stokes equations, or the entropy balance for a general isolated system.
where the dependent variable y(x,t) is called the density of the conserved (scalar) quantity (c.q.(d.) = conserved quantity (density)), and a(y) is called the current coefficient, usually corresponding to the partial derivative in the conserved quantity of a current density (c.d.) of the conserved quantity j(y):
In this case since the chain rule applies:
the conservation equation can be put into the current density form:
In a space with more than one dimension the former definition can be extended to an equation that can be put into the form:
where the conserved quantity is y(r,t), denotes the scalar product, ∇ is the nabla operator, here indicating a gradient, and a(y) is a vector of current coefficients, analogously corresponding to the divergence of a vector c.d. associated to the c.q. j(y):
This is the case for the continuity equation:
where y is called the conserved (vector) quantity, ∇ y is its gradient, 0 is the zero vector, and A(y) is called the Jacobian of the current density. In fact as in the former scalar case, also in the vector case A(y) usually corresponding to the Jacobian of a current density matrix J(y):
and the conservation equation can be put into the form:
For example this the case for Euler equations (fluid dynamics). In the simple incompressible case they are:
- u is the flow velocity vector, with components in a N-dimensional space u1, u2 ... uN,
- s is the specific pressure (pressure per unit density) giving the source term,
It can be shown that the conserved (vector) quantity and the c.d. matrix for these equations are respectively:
where denotes the tensor product.
Integral and weak forms
Conservation equations can be also expressed in integral form: the advantage of the latter is substantially that it requires less smoothness of the solution, which paves the way to weak form, extending the class of admissible solutions to include discontinuous solutions. By integrating in any space-time domain the current density form in 1-D space:
and by using Green's theorem, the integral form is:
In a similar fashion, for the scalar multidimensional space, the integral form is:
where the line integration is performed along the boundary of the domain, in an anticlock-wise manner.
Moreover, by defining a test function φ(r,t) continuously differentiable both in time and space with compact support, the weak form can be obtained pivoting on the initial condition. In 1-D space it is:
Note that in the weak form all the partial derivatives of the density and current density have been passed on to the test function, which with the former hypothesis is sufficiently smooth to admit these derivatives.
- Conserved quantity
- Noether's theorem
- Riemann invariant
- Dissipative system
- Balance equation
- Philosophy of physics
- Symmetry in physics
- Totalitarian principle
- Convection–diffusion equation
Examples and applications
- Mass conservation, or Continuity equation
- Charge conservation
- Euler equations (fluid dynamics)
- inviscid Burgers equation
- Kinematic wave
- Energy conservation
- Traffic flow
- see Toro, p.43
- see Toro, p.62-63
- Philipson, Schuster, Modeling by Nonlinear Differential Equations: Dissipative and Conservative Processes, World Scientific Publishing Company 2009.
- Victor J. Stenger, 2000. Timeless Reality: Symmetry, Simplicity, and Multiple Universes. Buffalo NY: Prometheus Books. Chpt. 12 is a gentle introduction to symmetry, invariance, and conservation laws.
- Toro, E.F. (1999). "Chapter 2. Notions on Hyperbolic PDEs". Riemann Solvers and Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-65966-8.
- E. Godlewski and P.A. Raviart, Hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, Ellipses, 1991.
- Conservation Laws — an online textbook