Conservative liberalism

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Not to be confused with liberal conservatism or libertarian conservatism.

Conservative liberalism[1][2] is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or, more simply, representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.[3][4][2]


Conservative liberalism is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism.[5] Conservative liberal parties combine liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues.[2]

The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism.[6] Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian-democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.[1][3]

In the European context conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism,[7] which is a variant of conservatism combining conservatives views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social, and ethical issues.[2]

Conservative-liberal parties worldwide[edit]

Current conservative-liberal parties[edit]

Parties with conservative-liberal factions[edit]

Historical conservative-liberal parties or parties with conservative-liberal factions[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Libéralisme conservateur - WikiPolitique
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l M. Gallagher, M. Laver and P. Mair, Representative Government in Europe, p. 221.
  4. ^ (French)
  5. ^ R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 2.
  6. ^ R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 13.
  7. ^ Peter Augustine Lawler, Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q
  9. ^ Emil J. Kirchner (3 November 1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9. 
  10. ^ European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity
  11. ^ Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
  12. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Netherlands
  13. ^ Rudy W Andeweg; Lieven De Winter; Patrick Dumont (5 April 2011). Government Formation. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-134-23972-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  14. ^ Jochen Clasen; Daniel Clegg (27 October 2011). Regulating the Risk of Unemployment: National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-959229-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  15. ^ Hans Slomp (30 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  16. ^ David Hanley (16 June 1998). CHRISTIAN DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-85567-382-3. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  17. ^ Ricky Van Oers; Eva Ersbøll; Dora Kostakopoulou; Theodora Kostakopoulou (30 June 2010). A Re-Definition of Belonging?: Language and Integration Tests in Europe. BRILL. p. 60. ISBN 978-90-04-17506-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  18. ^ Siripan Nogsuan Sawasdee (2012), "Thailand", Political Parties and Democracy: Contemporary Western Europe and Asia (Palgrave Macmillan): 157 
  19. ^ a b c Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (7 May 2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 191–. ISBN 978-1-137-31484-0. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Hans Slomp (30 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 465–. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  21. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Czech Republic
  22. ^ NSD, European Election Database, Finland
  23. ^ NSD - European Election Database, Norway
  24. ^ Ulrike Liebert; Hans-Jörg Trenz (2011). The New Politics of European Civil Society. Routledge. p. 177–. ISBN 978-0-415-57845-5. 
  25. ^ Anna Bosco (13 September 2013). Party Change in Southern Europe. Routledge. p. 15–. ISBN 978-1-136-76777-7. 
  26. ^ Stephen White; Elena A. Korosteleva; John Löwenhardt (2005). Postcommunist Belarus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 37–. ISBN 978-0-7425-3555-8. 
  27. ^ a b Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 105. STANFORD:RW793BX2256. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  28. ^ Dietrich Orlow (15 December 1986). Weimar Prussia, 1918–1925: The Unlikely Rock of Democracy. University of Pittsburgh Pre. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-8229-7640-0. 
  29. ^ Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2 July 2009). Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-134-08411-1.