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Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or, more simply, representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.
Conservative liberalism is a more positive and less radical version of classical liberalism. Conservative liberal parties combine liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues. It is a temperant form of liberalism that embraces genuine liberty, but view offered by, in the sense of John Locke or Isaiah Berlin; they reject this philosophical liberalism because they believe it fosters the "illusions of modernity"—a notion of autonomy which admits no higher authority than the human will ("the self-sovereignty of man") as well as blind worship of progress that destabilizes society, undermines virtue, and tempts modern man with utopian ideologies that lead to totalitarian systems of government.
Robert Kraynak of The New Criterion offers this view of conservative liberalism: "Instead of following progressive liberalism, conservative liberals draw upon pre-modern sources, such as classical philosophy (with its ideas of virtue, the common good, and natural rights), Christianity (with its ideas of natural law, the social nature of man, and original sin), and ancient institutions (such as common law, corporate bodies, and social hierarchies). This gives their liberalism a conservative foundation. It means following Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Edmund Burke rather than Locke or Kant; it usually includes a deep sympathy for the politics of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and Christian monarchies. But, as realists, conservative liberals acknowledge that classical and medieval politics cannot be restored in the modern world. And, as moralists, they see that the modern experiment in liberty and self-government has the positive effect of enhancing human dignity as well as providing an opening (even in the midst of mass culture) for transcendent longings for eternity. At its practical best, conservative liberalism promotes ordered liberty and establishes constitutional safeguards against tyranny.
The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism. Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian-democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.
In the European context conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism, which is a variant of conservatism combining conservatives views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social, and ethical issues.
Conservative-liberal parties worldwide
Current conservative-liberal parties
- Andorra: Liberal Party of Andorra
- Belgium: Libertarian, Direct, Democratic, People's Party
- Bulgaria: National Movement for Stability and Progress
- Colombia: Radical Change Party
- Croatia: Croatian Social Liberal Party
- Denmark: Venstre, Liberal Party of Denmark
- Estonia: Estonian Reform Party
- Faroe Islands: Union Party
- Greece: Recreate Greece
- Greenland: Feeling of Community
- Japan: Your Party
- Moldova: Liberal Party, Liberal Reform Party of Moldova
- Mongolia: Civil Will Party
- Morocco: Popular Movement
- Netherlands: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
- Peru: Popular Action
- Poland: Congress of the New Right
- Slovakia: Freedom and Solidarity
- Slovenia: Civic List
- Spain: Democratic Convergence of Catalonia
- Thailand: Democrat Party
- Uruguay: Liberal Party
Parties with conservative-liberal factions
- Åland: Moderates of Åland, Liberals for Åland
- Argentina: Republican Proposal, Renewal Front
- Australia: Liberal Party, Liberal National Party of Queensland, Country Liberal Party
- Austria: NEOS – The New Austria, Team Stronach, Alliance for the Future of Austria
- Belarus: United Civic Party
- Belgium: Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats, Reformist Movement, New Flemish Alliance, Fédéralistes Démocrates Francophones
- Brazil: Democrats
- Canada: Conservative Party of Canada, British Columbia Liberal Party, Quebec Liberal Party, Saskatchewan Party
- Chile: National Renewal, Liberal Party
- Colombia: Social Party of National Unity
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Party, Public Affairs, Liberal Democrats, Action of Dissatisfied Citizens
- Denmark: Conservative People's Party
- Faroe Islands: People's Party
- Finland: National Coalition Party and Swedish People's Party of Finland
- France: Union for a Popular Movement, namely The Reformers and The Free Right
- Germany: Free Democratic Party
- Ghana: New Patriotic Party
- Greece: New Democracy
- Greenland: Association of Candidates
- Guatemala: Patriotic Party, Reform Movement
- Honduras: Liberal Party of Honduras
- Hungary: Hungarian Democratic Forum
- Iceland: Independence Party, Progressive Party, Dawn
- Ireland: Fianna Fáil
- Italy: Forza Italia, Future and Freedom, Italian Liberal Party
- Japan: Liberal Democratic Party
- Lebanon: National Liberal Party
- Lithuania: Liberal and Centre Union, Liberal Movement
- Luxembourg: Democratic Party
- Moldova: Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova
- Mongolia: Democratic Party
- Morocco: Constitutional Union, National Rally of Independents
- Netherlands: Party for Freedom, Proud of the Netherlands
- New Zealand: National Party
- Norway: Liberal Party, Conservative Party, Progress Party
- Peru: Christian People's Party
- Poland: Civic Platform, Poland Comes First
- Portugal: Social Democratic Party
- Romania: Democratic Liberal Party, National Liberal Party
- Russia: Right Cause
- Serbia: United Regions of Serbia
- Slovakia: Most–Híd, Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party
- Slovenia: Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, Slovenian Democratic Party, New Slovenia
- Spain: People's Party
- Sweden: Liberal People's Party
- Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals
- United Kingdom: Conservative Party, Liberal Democrats
- United States: Republican Party, Democratic Party
- Uruguay: Colorado Party
Historical conservative-liberal parties or parties with conservative-liberal factions
- Argentina: Recreate for Growth
- Austria: Federation of Independents, Freedom Party
- Belgium: Liberal Appeal
- Brazil: National Democratic Union
- Canada: Progressive Conservative Party
- Chile: Liberal Party (1849–1966), National Party
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Alliance, Freedom Union – Democratic Union
- France: Democratic Republican Alliance, Union for the New Republic/Union of Democrats for the Republic/Rally for the Republic, National Centre of Independents and Peasants, Independent Republicans/Republican Party/Liberal Democracy
- Germany: National Liberal Party, German People's Party
- Greece: Party of New Liberals, Democratic Alliance
- Iceland: Liberal Party
- Ireland: Progressive Democrats
- Italy: Italian Liberal Party, Forza Italia, Liberal Party, Italian Liberal Right, The People of Freedom
- Latvia: Latvian Way, Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way
- Lithuania: National Resurrection Party
- Netherlands: Liberal State Party, Freedom Party
- Romania: Liberal Democratic Party
- Russia: Democratic Choice of Russia, Union of Rightist Forces
- Serbia: G17 Plus
- Slovenia: National Progressive Party
- Spain: Union of the Democratic Centre
- Switzerland: Free Democratic Party, Liberal Party
- United Kingdom: Liberal Party
- Libéralisme conservateur - WikiPolitique
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