Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
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The institution was founded in 1923. The process of improvement of the national scientific research, through the use of specific laws, (see Law 59/1997), affects many research organizations, and amongst them is CNR, whose "primary function is to carry on, through its own organs, advanced basic and applied research, both to develop and maintain its own scientific competitiveness, and to be ready to take part effectively in a timely manner in the strategic fields defined by the national planning system".
With the issuing of the legislative decree of 30 January 1999, n. 19, which defines "The reorganization of the National Research Council" the central role of CNR in the Italian research system is confirmed.
In particular CNR is defined (see Article 1 of the above mentioned decree 19/1999) as a "national research organization, with general scientific competence and with scientific research institutes distributed across Italy, which carries out activities of primary interest for the promotion of science and the progress of the country".
CNR has the legal status of a public organization, and defines for itself autonomous rules and regulations, in accordance with the existing laws and the Civil Code.
The new CNR has the following mission and activities:
- It promotes and carries on research activities, in pursuit of excellence and strategic relevance within the national and international ambit, in the frame of European cooperation and integration; in cooperation with academic research and with other private and public organizations, ensures the dissemination of results inside the country;
- in the scope of its triennial plan of activity and in the frame of the collaboration with universities and other private and public organizations, CNR defines, manages and coordinates national and international research programs, in addition to supporting scientific and research activities of major relevance to the nation;
- it promotes the valorization, the precompetitive development and the technological transfer of research results carried on by its own scientific network and by third parties with whom cooperative relationships have been established;
- it promotes collaboration in scientific and technological fields, and in the technical regulations field, with organizations and institutions of other Countries, and with supranational organizations in the frame of extra-governmental agreements; it provides, upon request from government authorities, specific skills for the participation of Italy in organizations or international scientific programs of an inter-governmental nature;
- it carries on, through its own program of scholarships and research fellowships, educational and training activities in Ph.D. courses, in advanced after-university specialization courses, and in programs of continuous or recurring education; CNR can also perform activities of non university related higher education;
- it provides supervision over those organizations designated to issue rules and regulations (see Law of 21 June 1986, n. 317), activity of dissemination of technical specifications in the frame of its institutional tasks, and, on demand, activities of certification, test and accreditation for Public Administration;
- provides technical and scientific support to Public Administration upon their request;
- in the frame of fulfilling its institutional activities, CNR can supply private law services to third parties.
For the execution of these activities and any other activity related to them, CNR can stipulate agreements and contracts, establish or participate in consortia, foundations or societies with private or public parties, Italian or foreign.
In addition, through agreements or participation, CNR can implement programs, directives and regulations of the Regional governments or other Public Administrations, aimed to the dissemination of the research results in the economic system; it can also contribute to the realization of the conditions needed for the establishment of highly innovative enterprises.
Finally, CNR can participate in international research centers, in collaboration with analogous scientific institutions of other Countries.
Notable members 
- Daniele Archibugi
- Andrea Boattini
- Luigi Broglio
- Eduardo Caianiello
- Guido Caldarelli
- Cristiano Castelfranchi
- Guido Castelnuovo
- Gustavo Colonnetti (former president)
- Angioletta Coradini
- Rosaria Conte
- Mauro Cristofani
- Oscar D'Agostino
- Roberto de Mattei (vice-president since 2004)
- Francesco Dieli
- Luciano Fadiga
- Rita Levi-Montalcini
- Paolo Malanima
- Stefano Nolfi
- Fabio Paternò
- Luciano Pietronero
- Sauro Succi
See also 
- Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione - Institute of Information Science and Technologies (ISTI)
- Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante - Institute of Plant Protection
- Institute for Chemical-Physical Processes
- Official website (English)