Constantino Reyes-Valerio

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Constantino Reyes-Valerio
ConstantinoReyesValerio.jpg
Born (1922-01-10)January 10, 1922
Zinacatepec, Puebla, Mexico
Died December 13, 2006(2006-12-13)
Mexico City, Mexico
Nationality Mexican
Institutions Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia INAH
Alma mater I.P.N, U.N.A.M
Known for Arte Indocristiano, Azul Maya, Christian Iconography

Constantino Reyes-Valerio (10 January 1922 - 13 December 2006) was a prominent Mexican scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, particularly the Aztec and the Maya as well as the Colonial Art.

Reyes-Valerio identified the artistic contribution of Native Mexican Indians in the Colonial painting and sculpture; he coined the term Indochristian art. Another major contribution was his seminal work on the chemical composition and process of the Maya Blue Pigment where he re-discovered the technique used by the Maya to create the famous turquoise blue pigment. He was granted a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1972 for Fine Arts Research. He corresponded extensively with major scholars in Mexico and abroad such as George Kubler, Santiago Sebastian and Enrique Marco Dorta among others. In 2000 he was named Emeritus Researcher by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

In April 2009, a special edition of the INAH bulletin (Boletin de Monumentos Historicos Num 12 enero-abril 2008) was published as an in memoriam edition dedicated to Constantino Reyes-Valerio. Several important researchers, Miguel Leon-Portilla, Alfredo López Austin, Eduardo Matos Moctezuma, Giacomo Chiari, Carlos Navarrete Cáceres, Beatriz Barba Ahuatzin, Dora Sierra, Guillermo Tovar y de Teresa, Manuel Sanchez del Rio, Rosa Camelo among others contributed with articles to this bulletin.

Event at which the Photographic Archive of INAH's Coordinacion de Monumentos Historicos was named after Constantino Reyes-Valerio. On the Photograph: Natalia Fiorentini, Carlos Navarrete and Rosa Camelo and a picture of Reyes-Valerio on the far left.

Education[edit]

Escuela ConstantinoReyesValerio.jpg

Reyes-Valerio studied primary and secondary school in his native town of Zinacatepec, where he also learned to speak Nahuatl. In 2008 a bilingual school (Spanish-Nahuatl) in Zinacatepec was named after him.

He studied high school in the city of Puebla, where he also studied one year of Medicine before moving to Mexico City and transferring to Chemistry at the I.P.N where he obtained the degree of "Quimico Bacteriologo y Parasitologo" (MSc in Chemistry, Bacteriology and Parasitology). He did postgraduate studies at the University of Illinois. After several years working as a chemist, he started to attend lectures in art history by Francisco de la Maza among others and decided to study history. In 1981 he obtained an M.Sc. in Mexican History at UNAM. Later on he started a Ph.D. in Mexican History at the same institution. He was a doctoral candidate at the time he died. He also studied Photography in Mexico and New York and contributed the photographs of his own books as well as classic books such as Mexican Art by Justino Fernandez.

Major works[edit]

Reyes-Valerio's main contributions were in the areas of Arte Indocristiano where he wrote 6 books and numerous journal articles and Azul Maya with the De Bonampak al Templo Mayor. El Azul maya en Mesoamérica and several journal publications.

He was a very active photographer and took the photographs for several books and to the general archive of the INAH. In 2009, his contribution was recognised by naming the Photographic Archive of the "Coordinacion Nacional de Monumentos Culturales" of INAH with his name.

He received several awards, including the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Rafael Ramirez Prize granted by the S.E.P., Premio Francisco Javier Clavijero granted by INAH and the Emeritus Researcher degree by INAH as well.

Publications[edit]

Books[edit]

  • 1960 Tepalcingo.
  • 1960 Trilogía Barroca.
  • 1964 Colegios de Tepotzotlán.
  • 1964 Juan Gersón. Tlacuilo de Tecamachalco.[disambiguation needed]
  • 1967 Tepotzotlán.
  • 1977 El Libro De Villard De Honnecourt. Manuscrito Del Siglo XIII.
  • 1978 Arte Indocristiano. Escultura del siglo XVI en México.
  • 1989 El pintor de conventos. Los murales del siglo XVI en la Nueva España, México, INAH
  • 1993 De Bonampak al Templo Mayor. El Azul maya en Mesoamérica.
  • 2000 Arte Indocristiano. Escultura y pintura del siglo XVI en México.

Photographic works[edit]

FototecaReyesValerio.jpg
  • 1965 Mexican Art. Justino Fernandez
  • 1967 Museo Nacional de Antropología. Eugenio Fishgrund
  • 1967 Museo Nacional de Historia. Eugenio Fishgrund
  • 1969 100 Obras Maestras del Museo Nacional de Antropología, México. Jose Bolea
  • 1974 Pintura del siglo XVII, por Diego Angulo Íñiguez,
  • 1974 El arte en América y Filipinas por Enrique Marco Dorta.
  • 1985 Arte Iberoamericano desde la colonización a la Independencia, por Santiago Sebastián, José de Mesa y Teresa Gisbert de Meza.

Journal papers and international conferences[edit]

  • 1980 “La pintura mural del siglo XVI en México”. (en libro en homenaje a Erwin Walter Palm, Heidelberg, Alemania) Jahrbuch für geschichte von staat, wirtschaft II, pp. 629–635.
  • 1987 El estilo yucateco en la arquitectura, The Dictionary of Art, MacMillan Publishers, Londres.
  • 1987 El estilo poblano en la arquitectura, The Dictionary of Art, McMillan Publishers, Londres.
  • 1999 Giacomo Chiari, David Ajó, C. Reyes-Valerio y F. Zuane, “Application of photoluminescence spectroscopy to the investigation of materials used in works of Art” en Proceedings. 6th International Conference On Non Destructive Testing and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural Environmental Heritage, vol. I, págs. 1717 a 1726, Italia.
  • 2000 Giacomo Chiari, R.Giustetto, C.Reyes-Valerio and G.Richiardi, Maya Blue Pigment: A Palygorskite-Indigo complex, XXX Congresso Associazione Italiana di Cristallografia, Martina Franca (Ottobre 2000)
  • 2001 David Ajó, G. Chiari & C. Reyes-Valerio. “Characterization of Maya Blue by Photoluminescence Spectroscopy”. Poster presentado en el 32nd International Symposium of ARCHAEOMETRY, May-15-19, 2000 Ciudad de México, México y que será publicado próximamente.
  • 2001 G. Chiari, R. Giustetto, J. Drusik, M Schilling, C. Reyes-Valerio: “Maya Blue structure: Some New Insides, DHA20 Amsterdam 2001 Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage, Amsterdam, 1–2 November 2001.
  • 2001 Chiari G, Giustetto R, Reyes-Valerio C & Ricchiardi G Powder Refinement of Maya Blue: A Palygorskite-Indigo Complex: (OS05:TUam03:G6). April 8 - 12th, 2001, European Union of Geosciences EUGXI Programme
  • 2002 G. Chiari, R. Giustetto, E. Cechi, A. Masic, C. Reyes-Valerio y G. Bonani: “Dating Mesoamerican Paintings by 145C AMS. Measurements of the Indigo contained in the Maya Blue Pigment: Work in Progress”, Archeometria 3000, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Marzo 2001, Roma, Italia.
  • 2002 C. Chiari, R. Giustetto, C. Reyes-Valerio and G. Ricchiardi “Crystal Structure Refinement of Maya Blue from Powder Synchrotron Diffraction”, Symposium OS05 Recent Advances in the Physics and Chemistry, European Journal of Mineralogy, Italia.
  • 2003 M. Sánchez del Río, C. Reyes- Valerio, A. Somogyi, P. Martinetto, E. Dooryhée, M. Suárez Barrios, L. Alianelli, R. Felici, Maya Blue: a Millenary Organo- Clay Pigment Revisited, EUROCLAY 2003, June 22–26, 2003, Modena, ITALY
  • 2003 Reyes-Valerio, Constantino, Maya Blue, Nature of the Pigment and the Men who produced it, University College London, University of London, October 9, 2003.
  • 2003 Reyes-Valerio, Constantino, Arte Indocristiano, a Legacy of two Cultures, Birbeck College, University of London, October 8, 2003.
  • 2004 M. Sanchez del Rio, P. Martinetto, C. Reyes-Valerio, E. Dooryhée, N. Peltier, M. Suárez, and L. Alianelli "Synthesis and acid-resistance of Maya blue pigment", Applied Clay Science
  • 2004 M. Sanchez del Rio, P. Martinetto, A. Somogyi, C. Reyes-Valerio, E. Dooryhée, N. Peltier, L. Alianelli, B. Moignard, L. Pichon, T. Calligaro, J.-C. Dran, "Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment”, Spectrochimica Acta B 59 (2004) 1619-1625
  • 2004 M. Sanchez del Rio, P. Martinetto, C. Reyes-Valerio, E. Dooryhée, and M. Suárez "Synthesis and acid-resistance of the Maya blue pigment", Archaeometry.
  • 2005 M. Sanchez del Rio, A. Sodo, S. G. Eeckhout, T. Neisius, P. Martinetto, E. Dooryhée and C. Reyes-Valerio "Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, Volume 238, Issues 1-4, August 2005, Pages 50–54
  • 2005 M. Sánchez del Río, M. Suárez, E. García Romero, L. Alianelli, R. Felici, P. Martinetto, E. Dooryhée, C. Reyes-Valerio, F. Borgatti, B. Doyle, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, M. Pedio and S. Nannarone "Mg K-edge XANES of sepiolite and palygorskite" Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, Volume 238, Issues 1-4, August 2005, Pages 55–60
  • 2006 Manuel Sánchez del Río, Constantino Reyes-Valerio, Michel Picquart, Emmanuel Haro-Poniatowski, Enrique Lima, Víctor Hugo Lara, Patricia Castillo, Humberto Vázquez, Víctor Hugo Uc, Sandra Páez, Sonia Menéndez Castro, Karen Mahé Lugo Romera, Pedro Bosch, Corina Solis “Nuevas Investigaciones Sobre El Azul Maya” La Ciencia De Materiales Y Su Impacto En La Arqueologia VOLUMEN III, Octubre 2006, Pp 11–20. ISBN 970-773-269-5
  • 2006 M. Sánchez Del Río, P. Martinetto, C. Reyes-Valerio, E. Dooryhée, M. Suárez, “Synthesis And Acid Resistance Of Maya Blue Pigment”, Archaeometry Vol 48, February 2006, Pages 115
  • 2006 M. Sánchez del Río, P. Martinetto, C. Solís, and C. Reyes-Valerio, “PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, August 2006, Pages 628-632

Journal Papers in Spanish[edit]

  • 1962 El Nicho de Hueyapan, BOLETÍN INAH, núm.9, pp. 9–10.
  • 1962 El templo de la Merced de Quecholac, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 11, pp. 14–15.
  • 1963 Las pinturas de Juan Gersón en Tecamachalco, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 12, pp. 9–10.
  • 1967 Las pinturas en papel de amate de Ixmiquilpan, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 27, pp. 25–28.
  • 1967 Testamento de Lorenzo Rodríguez, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 28, pp. 36–38.
  • 1967 Una pintura indígena en Cuauhtinchan, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 29, pp. 1–6.
  • 1967 El escultor indígena de Tetepango, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 30, pp. 9–12.
  • 1968 La pila bautismal de Zinacantepec BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 31, pp. 24–27.
  • 1968 El retablo de Santiago Tlatelolco, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 32 pp. 38–40.
  • 1969 La capilla abierta de Huaquechula, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 35, pp. 19–21.
  • 1969 La obra indígena de Tepeapulco, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 37, pp. 13–18.
  • 1969 Los constructores de Santo Domingo, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 38, pp. 42–44.
  • 1969 La fuente de Tochimilco, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 39, pp. 4–6.
  • 1970 El Retablo de San Bartolomé Solotepec I, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 40, pp. 55–58.
  • 1970 El Retablo de San Bartolomé Solotepec II, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 41, pp. 45–47.
  • 1970 Los indios pintores de Tlatelolco, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 41, pp. 50–54.
  • 1970 Los tlacuilos y tlacuicuic de Itzmiquilpan, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 42, pp. 9–13.
  • 1970 Tres retablos de Isidoro Vicente de Balbás, BOLETÍN INAH, núm. 42, pp. 117–120
  • 1975 Iconografía de un grabado de Valadés, CUADERNOS DE CULHUACÁN, núm.1, pp. 13–18.
  • 1976 La capilla abierta de Actopan y sus murales, CUADERNOS DE CULHUACÁN, núm. 2, pp. 33–36.
  • 1977 Cosmovisión del artista indio del siglo XVI, BOLETÍN CHURUBUSCO núm.1, pp. 23–36.
  • 1979 Una pintura mural desconocida en Tecamachalco, BOLETÍN CHURUBUSCO, núm. 3, pp. 93–109.
  • 1979 Comentario à la ponencia: “Consideraciones en torno al llamado estilo tequitqui” del Dr. Enrique Marco Dorta (Madrid), en (Libro) La dicotomía entre arte culto y arte popular, UNAM, pp. 157–161.
  • 1979 Comentario à la ponencia “El estilo a la fachada de la catedral de Zacatecas”, Libro La dicotomía entre arte culto y arte popular, UNAM, pp. 183–184.
  • 1982 El arte tequitqui o Indocristiano. Historia del Arte Mexicano Salvat, núm. 3, pp. 98–117.
  • 1985 Una técnica para montar cortes estratigráficos de pintura, RESTAURACIÓN núm.1, pp. 4–5.
  • 1989 Las pictografías nahuas en el arte indocristiano. (Primer Coloquio de Documentos Pictográficos de Tradición náhuatl), en libro Primer Coloquio de Documentos Pictográficos, UNAM, pp. 72–77.
  • 1986 El origen de una pintura mural de Metztitlán, ANTROPOLOGÍA, 9 pp. 17–18.
  • 1987 Participación indígena en el arte novohispano de Cuauhtinchan, S. Juan Bautista Cuauhtinchan.
  • 1996 Las pictografías nahuas de San Mateo Xóloc BOLETÍN MONUMENTOS HISTÓRICOS 12 pp. 28–33.
  • 2000 “El enigma de Tula y los tulanes o toltecas” ARQUEOLOGÍA, HISTORIA Y ANTROPOLOGIA. IN MEMORIAM JOSÉ LORENZO BAUTISTA, México, INAH, 2000, pp. 331–348.
  • 2001 “Acercamiento a fray Bernardino de Sahagún.” Ponencia aprobada para el libro homenaje al maestro Carlos Martínez Marín (UNAM: en proceso de publicación).

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