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In the 20th century, only one Constituent Cortes was officially opened (Cortes are "opened" in accordance with a mediaeval royal proclamation), and that was the Republican Cortes in 1931. It drafted a new constitution but its work was overturned by the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
The Cortes in 1977 enacted a new Spanish constitution which it had drafted. It was never officially considered "constituent", as the assembly chosen in the 1977 general elections was not mandated at the time to create a new constitution, but to rule under the constitution of the former dictatorship - the so called Leyes Fundamentales (fundamental laws).
But, King Juan Carlos pressed for the 1977 Cortes to draft a new constitution. For that reason, the body is referred to as a constituent Cortes for the purposes of this deliberation.
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