Constitution 1857 National Park
|Constitution 1857 National Park|
|Location||Ensenada Municipality, Baja California, Mexico|
|Nearest city||Ensenada, Baja California|
|Area||5,009 hectares (12,380 acres)|
|Established||April 27, 1962|
|Governing body||Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources|
|Designated:||February 2, 2010|
Constitution 1857 National Park is located in the pine forests of Sierra de Juárez mountain range in the northern part of Baja California, Mexico. The park is an important preserve for a large number of native wild animals like Bighorn Sheep and Mule Deer. The park is characterized by the large variety of coniferous species.
The park was created by decree of the Mexican federal government on April 27, 1962. It was important to create a protected area to preserve the forest and the ecosystem that it sustains. The park is deeply appreciated for its beauty and the existence of small lakes. The park is named after the 1857 Constitution of Mexico.
Constitution 1857 National Park is a 5,009 hectare mountainous area located in the northern part of Baja California, Mexico. The city of Ensenada, Baja California is located approximately 96 kilometres (60 mi) from the park on federal highway 3, near the village of Ojos Negros. The highest elevations reach a maximum of 2,000 meters (6,560 ft) above sea level. 
The park is mostly located in the valley on the Hansen Plain characterized by granite and sand beds surrounded by Sierra de Juárez. Hansen Lake (Juárez Lake) is located in the center of the park at an elevation of 1,800 meters (5,905.5 ft) above sea level. Hansen Lake is the main lake on the park but there are several dry lakes on the Hansen Plain that hold water for only part of the year. Hansen Plain is thought to have formed during the Mesozoic Era. Sierra de Juárez is a subdivision of the mountain range Cordillera Baja California which is an extension of the Sierra Nevada mountain range.
A temperate subhumid climate cool winters and warm summers. Winter is considered the wet season; several rainstorms and a few snowstorms allow several lakes to appear on the Hansen Plain. During the winter, many of the lakes freeze over due to shallow depths and low temperatures at night. During the summer the rate of evaporation and low humidity dry most of the lakes that appeared during the wet season.
Flora and fauna
Constitution 1857 National Park and Sierra de San Pedro Mártir National Park are the main terrestrial wildlife refuges on the peninsula of Baja California with a large number of native plant and animal species that are important for the region.
Sierra Juárez contains several coniferous species; the most abundant are: pinus jeffreyi, pinus ponderosa, pinus cembroide, pinus quadrifolia, pinus monophylla, juniperus, arctostaphylos drupacea, artemisa ludoviciana, and adenostoma esparcifolium. The flora shares many species with the Laguna Mountains and San Jacinto Mountains in southwest California. The lower elevations of the Sierra Juárez are characterized by chaparral and desert shrub.
The fauna throughout the park exhibits a large number of mammals primarily: mule deer, bighorn sheep, cougar, bobcat, ringtail cat, coyote, rabbit, squirrel and more than 30 species of bats. The park is also home to many avian species like: bald eagle, golden eagle, falcon, woodpecker, black vulture, crow, several species of Sittidae and duck.
- "Ramsar List". Ramsar.org. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Decreto del Parque Nacional Constitución de 1857. Consultado el 6 de enero de 2009.
- Parque Nacional Constitución de 1857. Guía de Parques y Areas Protegidas - México, de la web de Eocturismolatino.com. Consultado el 6 de enero de 2009.