Constitutional history of Ecuador

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Ecuador

Ecuador's first constitution as a republic was established in 1830, following the country's independence from Gran Colombia. Ecuador has had a total of twenty constitutions over the course of its history, which can be seen as a symptom of Ecuador's chronic instability.

After several years of political crisis, the government of Rafael Correa, elected in 2005 following the dismissal of Lucio Gutiérrez by Congress, proposed a new Magna Carta for the country with the goal of stability and social development. This constitution, approved in 2008, is the last episode of Ecuador's constitutional history.

Year Meeting place of the Constituent Assembly Notes
1830 Riobamba The Constituent Assembly for Ecuador's first constitution met August 14 and was presided over by José Fernández Salvador. Its objective was the creation of the Republic of Ecuador, and Juan José Flores was named the provisional president.
1835 Ambato The Constituent Assembly was presided over by José Joaquín de Olmedo and chose Vicente Rocafuerte as president.
1843 Quito The Constituent Assembly was presided over by Francisco Marcos and chose Juan José Flores as president. This third constitution was called la Carta de la Esclavitud (the Charter of Slavery). It provided that Congress would meet only every four years. The term of the president and the Chamber of Deputies was eight years. Senators were elected for 12 years.
1845 Cuenca The Constituent Assembly was presided over by Pablo Merino. This constitution legitimated the Marcist Revolution that overthrew Flores and installed a Provisional Triumvirate, led by Vicente Ramón Roca.
1850-1851 Quito The Constituent Assembly was presided over by Ramón de la Barrera. Diego Noboa was chosen as president.
1851 Guayaquil The Constituent Assembly was presided over by Pedro Moncayo. General José María Urbina was chosen as president.
1861 Quito The Constituent Assembly was presided over by General Juan José Flores. Gabriel García Moreno was chosen as president.
1869 Quito The Constituent Assembly was presided over by Rafael Carvajal. This eighth constitution was called la Carta Negra (Black Charter) and permitted the second presidency of Gabriel García Moreno. It imposed the death penalty for political crimes and prohibited cults and religions except Catholicism. Catholicism was a requirement for citizenship.
1878 Ambato The Constituent Assembly was presided over by General José María Urbina, following the overthrow of Antonio Borrero. General Ignacio de Ventimilla was chosen as president.
1883 Quito The Constituent Assembly was presided over by Francisco J. Salazar, the tenth constitution was drawn, and named José María Plácido Caamaño as president, after the dictatorship of Ignacio de Ventimilla.
1896-1897 Guayaquil The first liberal constitution, following the June 5 Revolution. General Eloy Alfaro was chosen as president. The constitution established freedom of religion, removed the death penalty, and held that all citizens were equal under the law.
1906 Quito The second liberal constitution. General Eloy Alfaro was chosen as president. This constitution was called "atheist" by the conservatives, because it separated church and state.
1928 Quito New constitution and election for the presidency of Isidro Ayora. Included the achievements of the Revolución Juliana of 1925.
1937 Quito Convened by dictator Federico Páez. It was dissolved when he was overthrown in the coup d'état led by General Alberto Enríquez Gallo.
1938 Quito Convened by Alberto Enríquez. The Constituent Assembly chose Aurelio Narváez as president. The constitution never went into effect because it was abrogated by Narváez.
1944 Quito A constitution was drawn up as a result of the Revolución de Mayo that overthrew president Carlos Arroyo del Río. José María Velasco Ibarra was named as president.
1946 Quito Convened by José María Velasco Ibarra after a coup d'état.
1966 Quito Convened by Clemente Yerovi. Otto Arosemena Gómez was chosen as president.
1978 Quito Convened by the military government. The election of Jaime Roldós Aguilera was permitted. It was approved by referendum and allowed the Ecuadorian state to return to democratic government.
1997-1998 Sangolquí Constitutional Assembly was installed as but then called itself Constituent. He drafted a new constitution and government legalized Fabián Alarcón.
2007-2008 Montecristi Convened by Rafael Correa. It installed the Asamblea Nacional Constituyente backed by una consulta popular and is approved by referendum en 2008.

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