Tribuni militum consulari potestate

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The tribuni militum consulari potestate ("military tribunes with consular authority"), in English commonly also Consular Tribunes, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC.

Origin and dissolution of the office[edit]

According to the histories of Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, the magistracy of the tribuni militum consulari potestate was created during the Conflict of the Orders, along with the magistracy of the censor, in order to give the Plebeian order access to higher levels of government without having to reform the office of consul; plebeians could be elected to the office of Consular Tribune.[1]

The choice whether a collegium of Consular Tribunes or consuls were to be elected for a given year was made by senatus consultum,[2] thereby (according to Livy) accounting for the periods of either office interspersed with the other. The number of Consular Tribunes varied from 2 to 6, and because they were considered colleagues of the two censors, there is sometimes mention of the "eight tribunes".

Modern scholars now believe, however, that the creation of the consular tribunes was due to the changing military and administrative requirements of the expanding Roman state.[3] In the beginning during the 440s, the consular tribunes, elected from the three ancient tribes of the Titienses, Ramnenses, and Luceres, were part of an overall redesign of the military structure of the Roman state to maximise military efficiency, which included the creation of the Censorship (responsible for taking the census to identify the numbers of men capable of military duty) and the Quaestorship (responsible for the supply of money and goods for the armies).[4] Originally patrician office holders, they were referred to as "military tribunes", and were responsible for leading the armies into battle. It was only much later that they were given the anachronistic addition of "with consular power", in an attempt to distinguish them from the Military tribunes who were the legionary officers of the middle and late Republic.[5]

The tribunes, like their consular predecessors, exercised consular imperium, indicating they must have been elected by the comitia centuriata, and that the current needs of the state could not be served by the previous consular system.[6] From their initial number of three, the consular tribunes were increased to four for the first time in 426 BC in response to the military situation which saw the Roman state capture and annex Fidenae.[7]

Then in 405 BC, the number of consular tribunes was increased to six for the first time; and after that, apart from the very occasional year in which eight or ten consular tribunes are recorded, the Roman state was led by six consular tribunes for almost every year down to the dissolution of the office and the reintroduction of the consulship in 366 BC. The increase was due to the need for the consular tribunes to not only handle the military affairs of Rome, but also the administrative needs of the city as well.[8]

According to Livy, the practice of electing consular tribunes came to a definitive end in 366 BC, when the Lex Licinia Sextia took effect, allowing the Plebeian order access to the office of consul. Modern understanding of this process interprets the change to one where Rome’s position in Latium had become sufficiently secure to allow the urban duties of the consular tribunes to be discharged by other office holders with different levels of imperium.[9] Thus the reorganization of the Roman state in 367/6 BC. saw the replacement of the six consular tribunes with five officials with distinct functions: the head of state became the two consuls, who would wage Rome’s wars and lead the Senate's deliberations. In addition there was one praetor who would oversee lawsuits in the city, while two curule aediles would undertake all other administrative duties within the city, such as the organization and holding of public games and overseeing and controlling the markets in Rome.[10]

Consular Tribunes by year[edit]

Presented by Varronian chronology. For more information on deciphering early Roman names, see Roman names.

444 BC

438 BC

434 BC

  • Ser. Cornelius Cossus
  • M. Manlius Capitolinus
  • Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Praetextatus

433 BC

  • M. Fabius Vibulanus
  • M. Folius Flaccinator
  • L. Sergius Fidenas

432 BC

  • L. Pinarius Mamercinus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • Sp. Postumius Albus Regillensis

426 BC

  • T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus
  • C. Furius Pacilus Fusus
  • M. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
  • A. Cornelius Cossus

425 BC

  • A. Sempronius Atratinus
  • L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • L. Horatius Barbatus

424 BC

  • Ap. Claudius Crassus
  • Sp. Nautius Rutilus
  • L. Sergius Fidenas
  • Sex. Iulius Iullus

422 BC

  • L. Manlius Capitolinus
  • Q. Antonius Merenda
  • L. Papirius Mugillanus

420 BC

  • L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • M. Manlius Vulso
  • A. Sempronius Atratinus

419 BC

  • Agrippa Menenius Lanatus
  • P. Lucretius Tricipitinus
  • Sp. Nautius Rutilus
  • C. Servilius Axilla

418 BC

  • L. Sergius Fidenas
  • M. Papirius Mugillanus
  • C. Servilius Axilla

417 BC

  • P. Lucretius Tricipitinus
  • Agrippa Menenius Lanatus
  • C. Servilius Axilla
  • Sp. Rutilius Crassus

416 BC

  • A. Sempronius Atratinus
  • M. Papirius Mugillanus
  • Q. Fabius Vibulanus
  • Sp. Nautius Rutilus

415 BC

  • P. Cornelius Cossus
  • C. Valerius Potitus Volusus
  • N. Fabius Vibulanus
  • Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus

414 BC

  • Cn. Cornelius Cossus
  • L. Valerius Potitus
  • Q. Fabius Vibulanus
  • P. Postumius Albinus Regillensis

408 BC

407 BC

406 BC

  • P. Cornelius Rutilus Cossus
  • Cn. Cornelius Cossus
  • N. Fabius Ambustus
  • L. Valerius Potitus

405 BC

  • T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus
  • Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • C. Iulius Iullus
  • A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • M'. Aemilius Mamercinus

404 BC

  • C. Valerius Potitus Volusus
  • M'. Sergius Fidenas
  • P. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Cn. Cornelius Cossus
  • K. Fabius Ambustus
  • Sp. Nautius Rutilus

403 BC

  • M'. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • L. Valerius Potitus
  • Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis
  • M. Quinctilius Varus
  • L. Iulius Iullus
  • M. Furius Fusus
  • M. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
  • M. Postumius

402 BC

  • C. Servilius Ahala
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • L. Verginius Tricostus Esquilinus
  • Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus
  • A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus
  • M'. Sergius Fidenas

401 BC

  • L. Valerius Potitus
  • M. Furius Camillus
  • M'. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • Cn. Cornelius Cossus
  • K. Fabius Ambustus
  • L. Iulius Iullus

400 BC

  • P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus
  • P. Manlius Vulso
  • L. Titinius Pansa Saccus
  • P. Maelius Capitolinus
  • Sp. Furius Medullinus
  • L. Publilius Philo Vulscus

399 BC

  • Cn. Genucius Augurinus
  • L. Atilius Priscus
  • M. Pomponius Rufus
  • C. Duillius Longus
  • M. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus
  • Volero Publilius Philo

398 BC

  • L. Valerius Potitus
  • M. Valerius Lactucinus Maximus
  • M. Furius Camillus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus

397 BC

  • L. Iulius Iullus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • L. Sergius Fidenas
  • A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
  • P. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus

396 BC

  • L. Titinius Pansa Saccus
  • P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus
  • P. Maelius Capitolinus
  • Q. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus
  • Cn. Genucius Augurinus
  • L. Atilius Priscus

395 BC

  • P. Cornelius Cossus
  • P. Cornelius Scipio
  • K. Fabius Ambustus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • M. Valerius Lactucinus Maximus

394 BC

  • M. Furius Camillus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • C. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • L. Valerius Publicola
  • Sp. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
  • P. Cornelius

391 BC

  • L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus
  • Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus
  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • Agrippa Furius Fusus
  • C. Aemilius Mamercinus

390 BC

389 BC

  • L. Valerius Publicola
  • L. Verginius Tricostus
  • P. Cornelius
  • A. Manlius Capitolinus
  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis

388 BC

  • T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • L. Iulius Iullus
  • L. Aquilius Corvus
  • L. Lucretius Flavus Tricipitinus
  • Ser. Sulipicius Rufus

387 BC

  • L. Papirius Cursor
  • Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo
  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • Licinus Menentius Lanatus
  • L. Valerius Publicola
  • L. Cornelius

386 BC

  • M. Furius Camillus
  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • L. Horatius Pulvillus
  • P. Valerius Potitus Publicola

385 BC

  • A. Manlius Capitolinus
  • P. Cornelius
  • T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus
  • L. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus
  • L. Papirius Cursor
  • Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo

384 BC

  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • P. Valerius Potitus Publicola
  • M. Furius Camillus
  • Ser. Sulpicius Rufus
  • C. Papirius Crassus
  • T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus

383 BC

  • L. Valerius Publicola
  • A. Manlius Capitolinus
  • Ser. Sulpicius Rufus
  • L. Lucretius Flavus Tricipitinus
  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • M. Trebonius

382 BC

  • Sp. Papirius Crassus
  • L. Papirius Mugillanus
  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • C. Sulpicius Camerinus
  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus

381 BC

  • M. Furius Camillus
  • A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
  • L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus
  • M. Fabius Ambustus

380 BC

  • L. Valerius Publicola
  • P. Valerius Potitus Publicola
  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Licinus Menentius Lanatus
  • C. Sulpicius Peticus
  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo
  • Ti. Papirius Crassus
  • L. Papirius Mugillanus

379 BC

  • P. Manlius Capitolinus
  • C. Manlius
  • L. Iulius Iullus
  • C. Sextilius
  • M. Albinius
  • L. Antistius

378 BC

  • Sp. Furius
  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • Licinus Menenius Lanatus
  • P. Cloelius Siculus
  • M. Horatius
  • L. Geganius Macerinus

377 BC

  • L. Aemilius Mamercinus
  • P. Valerius Potitus Publicola
  • C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus
  • Ser. Sulpicius Rufus
  • L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • C. Quinctius Cincinnatus

376 BC

  • L. Papirius Mugillanus
  • Licinus Menenius Lanatus
  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus

370 BC

  • L. Furius Medullinus
  • A. Manlius Capitolinus
  • Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus
  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • P. Valerius Potitus Publicola
  • C. Valerius Potitus

369 BC

  • Q. Servilius Fidenas
  • C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus
  • A. Cornelius Cossus
  • M. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • M. Fabius Ambustus

368 BC

  • T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus
  • Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus
  • Sp. Servilius Structus
  • L. Papirius Crassus
  • L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus

367 BC

  • A. Cornelius Cossus
  • M. Cornelius Maluginensis
  • M. Geganius Macerinus
  • P. Manlius Capitolinus
  • L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus
  • P. Valerius Potitus Publicola

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Forsythe, pgs. 234-235
  2. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe condita libri, IV, 12, 4
  3. ^ Forsythe, pg. 236
  4. ^ Forsythe, pg. 236
  5. ^ Bringmann, Hans; Smyth, W. J. (trans.) A History of the Roman Republic (2007), pg. 15
  6. ^ Forsythe, pg. 236
  7. ^ Forsythe, pg. 236
  8. ^ Forsythe, pg. 236-237
  9. ^ Forsythe, pg. 237
  10. ^ Forsythe, pg. 237

References[edit]

  • Forsythe, Gary A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War, University of California Press (2005)
  • Tribunus