Screenshot of Contiki 2.6 running on 41 nodes forming an IPv6/RPL/6lowpan network in the Cooja Contiki network simulator.
|Company / developer||Adam Dunkels|
|Source model||Open source|
|Latest release||2.7 / November 15, 2013|
Contiki is an open source operating system for networked, memory-constrained systems with a particular focus on low-power wireless Internet of Things devices. Examples of where Contiki is used include street lighting systems, sound monitoring for smart cities, radiation monitoring systems, and alarm systems. Contiki was created by Adam Dunkels in 2002 and has been further developed by a world-wide team of developers from Atmel, Cisco, Enea, ETH Zurich, Redwire, RWTH Aachen University, Oxford University, SAP, Sensinode, SICS, ST Microelectronics, Zolertia, and many others. The name Contiki comes from Thor Heyerdahl's famous Kon-Tiki raft.
Despite providing multitasking and a built-in TCP/IP stack, Contiki only needs about 10 kilobytes of RAM and 30 kilobytes of ROM. A full system, complete with a graphical user interface, needs about 30 kilobytes of RAM.
Contiki is designed to run on classes of hardware devices that are severely constrained in terms of memory, power, processing power, and communication bandwidth. A typical Contiki system has memory on the order of kilobytes, a power budget on the order of milliwatts, processing speed measured in megahertz, and communication bandwidth on the order of hundreds of kilobits/second. This class of systems includes both various types of embedded systems as well as a number of old 8-bit computers.
Contiki provides three network mechanisms: the uIP TCP/IP stack, which provides IPv4 networking, the uIPv6 stack, which provides IPv6 networking, and the Rime stack, which is a set of custom lightweight networking protocols designed specifically for low-power wireless networks. The IPv6 stack was contributed by Cisco and was, at the time of release, the smallest IPv6 stack to receive the IPv6 Ready certification. The IPv6 stack also contains the RPL routing protocol for low-power lossy IPv6 networks and the 6LoWPAN header compression and adaptation layer for IEEE 802.15.4 links.
The Rime stack is an alternative network stack that is intended to be used when the overhead of the IPv4 or IPv6 stacks is prohibitive. The Rime stack provides a set of communication primitives for low-power wireless systems. The default primitives are single-hop unicast, single-hop broadcast, multi-hop unicast, network flooding, and address-free data collection. The primitives can be used on their own or combined to form more complex protocols and mechanisms.
Many Contiki systems are severely power-constrained. Battery operated wireless sensors may need to provide years of unattended operation and with little means to recharge or replace its batteries. Contiki provides a set of mechanisms for reducing the power consumption of the system on which it runs. The default mechanism for attaining low-power operation of the radio is called ContikiMAC. With ContikiMAC, nodes can be running in low-power mode and still be able to receive and relay radio messages.
The Contiki system includes a network simulator called Cooja. Cooja simulates networks of Contiki nodes. The nodes may belong to either of three classes: emulated nodes, where the entire hardware of each node is emulated, Cooja nodes, where the Contiki code for the node is compiled for and executed on the simulation host, or Java nodes, where the behavior of the node must be reimplemented as a Java class. A single Cooja simulation may contain a mixture of nodes from either of the three classes. Emulated nodes can also be used to include non-Contiki nodes in a simulated network.
To run efficiently on memory-constrained systems, the Contiki programming model is based on protothreads. A protothread is a memory-efficient programming abstraction that shares features of both multi-threading and event-driven programming to attain a low memory overhead of each protothread. The kernel invokes the protothread of a process in response to an internal or external event. Examples of internal events are timers that fire or messages being posted from other processes. Examples of external events are sensors that trigger or incoming packets from a radio neighbor.
Protothreads are cooperatively scheduled. This means that a Contiki process must always explicitly yield control back to the kernel at regular intervals. Contiki processes may use a special protothread construct to block waiting for events while yielding control to the kernel between each event invocation.
Contiki supports per-process optional preemptive multi-threading, inter-process communication using message passing through events, as well as an optional GUI subsystem with either direct graphic support for locally connected terminals or networked virtual display with VNC or over Telnet.
A full installation of Contiki includes the following features:
- Multitasking kernel
- Optional per-application pre-emptive multithreading
- TCP/IP networking, including IPv6
- Windowing system and GUI
- Networked remote display using Virtual Network Computing
- A web browser (claimed to be the world's smallest)
- Personal web server
- Simple telnet client
The Contiki operating system has been or is being ported to the following systems:
- Atmel ARM
- Atmel AVR
- Freescale MC13224
- Microchip dsPIC
- Microchip PIC32 (PIC32MX795F512L)
- TI MSP430
- TI CC2430
- Apple II family[a]
- Atari 8-bit[a]
- Atari ST
- Atari Portfolio
- Casio Pocket Viewer
- Commodore PET[a]
- Commodore VIC-20[a]
- Commodore 64[a]
- Commodore 128[a]
- Sharp Wizard
- x86-based Unix-like systems, on top of GTK+ as well as directly using the X Window System
- cc65 based development
- Contiki OS.
- Contiki: Bringing IP to Sensor Networks
- "Community", Contiki OS.
- Out in the Open: The Little-Known Open Source OS That Rules the Internet of Things
- Dunkels, Adam (May 2003), "Full TCP/IP for 8 Bit Architectures", Proceedings of the First ACM/Usenix International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys), San Francisco.
- Durvy, Mathilde; Abeillé, Julien; Wetterwald, Patrick; O'Flynn, Colin; Leverett, Blake; Gnoske, Eric; Vidales, Michael; Mulligan, Geoff; Tsiftes, Nicolas; Finne, Niclas; Dunkels, Adam (November 2008), "Making sensor networks IPv6 ready", Proceedings of the Sixth ACM Conference on Networked Embedded Sensor Systems (SenSys) (poster session), Raleigh, NC, US: ACM.
- Newsroom, Cisco, 2008.
- Dunkels, Adam; Österlind, Fredrik; He, Zhitao (November 2007), "An adaptive communication architecture for wireless sensor networks", Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Networked Embedded Sensor Systems (SenSys), Sydney, AU.
- Dunkels, Adam, The ContikiMAC Radio Duty Cycling Protocol (PDF).
- "Start", Contiki OS.
- Dunkels, Adam; Schmidt, Oliver; Voigt, Thiemo; Ali, Muneeb (November 2006), "Protothreads: Simplifying event-driven programming of memory-constrained embedded systems", Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), Boulder, CO, USA.
- "Protothread", Code, Google.
- Stein, H, Running Contiki under Windows, Trix, archived from the original on 2003-12-09.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Contiki.|
- Official website
- C64Web: a web site run from an unmodified 1982 built Commodore 64
- "Tools Contiki", Hitmen, AT: C02: unofficial website for historic ports of the 1.x version.
- "Minimal Contiki OS for LPC2103", Manishshakya, NP.
- Contiki 2.5 config file and disk image generator, A2 retro systems.
- Contiki porting on PIC32 (SEED-EYE BOARD), IT: SSSUP.