Continuity of government
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (October 2013)|
COG was developed by the British government before and during World War II to counter the threat of Luftwaffe bombing during the Battle of Britain. The need for continuity-of-government plans gained new urgency with nuclear proliferation.
During the Cold War, Denmark built two bunker complexes, named REGAN Vest and REGAN Øst (Danish: "REGeringsANlæg", translated: "Government Complex West and Government Complex East"), in Jutland and Zealand respectively. The idea was to have half of the government and the royal family in one bunker, and the other half in the other, allowing continuity of government, even if one of the bunkers were destroyed or cut off.
The Centre d'Opération des Forces Aériennes Stratégiques (COFAS) is a hardened command centre for French nuclear forces at Taverny Air Base in Taverny, Val d'Oise. The alternate national command center is located at Mont Verdun near Lyon.
Germany operated a government bunker (Regierungsbunker) to house the German government, parliament and all federal personnel needed to keep the government working in the event of war or severe crisis. It was decommissioned in 1997.
The Norwegian government operate a nuclear bunker called Sentralanlegget in Buskerud County. The bunker is meant to accommodate the Norwegian Royal Family and the government in case of a nuclear/military attack on the nation, and also function as a wartime headquarters. There is also a bunker beneath Høyblokka in downtown Oslo.
Very little is known about Russia's COG plans, one sprawling underground facility residing in tunnels cut into Mount Yamantau is likely to be related to the survival of Russia's government, given its size and decades long construction history.
During the Cold War the Klara skyddsrum ("Complete shelter", "Klara bunker") was built underneath Stockholm. The bunker is designed to accommodate two thirds of the government and between 8,000 to 12,000 civilians in the case of a military attack on Stockholm. It is designed as a very large, two-story oval, with multiple entrances. During peace time, parts of it are used as a parking garage.
The primary British COG headquarters is at the Ministry of Defence in Whitehall. The Central Government War Headquarters was previously maintained in a quarry complex near Corsham, Wiltshire. The above-ground support facility was RAF Rudloe Manor.
- Each facility is counterpart to its peacetime equivalent.
- Camp David → Executive Office of the President
- Cheyenne Mountain → North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)
- Mount Weather → Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) (Used temporarily for Members of Congress in Sept. 2001)
- Raven Rock Mountain Complex → The Pentagon (Department of Defense)
- United States Strategic Command Center (Offutt Air Force Base) → United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM)
- Unknown → United States Congress (The Greenbrier was to be used until 1992, when it was decommissioned)
- Former site:
- Also, mobile systems are used for additional command and control.
- E-4, EC-135, and E-6 are all airborne command centers.
- Air Force One is the term for any USAF plane the President of the United States travels on. However, the term normally refers to a Boeing VC-25A the President normally uses. While the VC-25A is equipped with numerous systems to ensure its survival, in an emergency, it would be recommended that the President use the National Airborne Operations Center, a Boeing E-4 specially built to serve as a survivable mobile command post. The Secretary of Defense may also use it, as a member of the National Command Authority. It is also possible that the President would authorize the Vice President to use it, depending on the circumstances.
- An E-6 Mercury, is USSTRATCOM's Airborne Command Post, designed to take over in case USSTRATCOM's headquarters is destroyed or incapable of communicating with strategic forces.
- NORAD owns and operates a Mobile Consolidated Command Center
- Critical Infrastructure Protection
- Decapitation strike
- Disaster recovery
- Government in exile
- Shadow government (disambiguation)
- Temporary capital
- Continuity of Government Commission
- Continuity of Operations Plan
- Designated survivor
- National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive
- Wartime Information Security Program
- Senate Report 93-549
- Federal Emergency Management Agency
- Washington Post article - Back to the Bunker
- CBS News Article - 'Shadow Government' News to Congress
- Video: COVER UP - Behind the Iran Contra Affair - Pt 3 specifically, also Pt 1 Pt 2
- Summary of Executive Powers
- Congressman DeFazio denied access to Continuity of Government files
- Spencer S. Hsu, "Bush Changes Continuity Plan: Administration, Not DHS, Would Run Shadow Government," Washington Post, May 10, 2007; Page A12.