Controlled flight into terrain
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Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) describes an accident in which an airworthy aircraft, under pilot control, is unintentionally flown into the ground, a mountain, water, or an obstacle. The pilots are generally unaware of the danger until it is too late. The term was coined by engineers at Boeing in the late 1970s. Accidents where an aircraft is damaged and uncontrollable (also known as uncontrolled flight into terrain) are not considered CFIT.
According to Boeing, CFIT is a leading cause of airplane accidents involving the loss of life, causing more than 9,000 deaths since the beginning of the commercial jet age. CFIT was identified as a cause of 25% of USAF Class A Mishaps between 1993 and 2002.
While there are many reasons why a plane might crash into terrain, including bad weather and navigation equipment problems, pilot error is the most common factor found in CFIT accidents.
And, the most common type of pilot error in CFIT accidents, is the failure of the pilot(s) to know at all times what their position is, and how their actual position relates to the altitude of the surface of the Earth below and immediately ahead, on the course they are flying (a loss of situational awareness). Fatigue can cause even highly experienced professionals to make significant errors, which culminate in a CFIT accident.
CFIT accidents frequently involve a collision with terrain such as hills or mountains during conditions of reduced visibility, while conducting an approach to landing at the destination airport. Sometimes, a contributing factor can be subtle navigation equipment malfunctions which, if not detected by the crew, may mislead them into improperly guiding the aircraft, despite other information received from properly functioning equipment.
Prior to the installation of the first electronic warning systems, pilot simulator training, traditional procedures, crew resource management (CRM) and radar surveillance by air traffic services were the only defenses against CFIT. While those factors undoubtedly reduced the total amount of CFIT accidents, they did not eliminate them entirely. To prevent the continued occurrence of CFIT accidents, manufacturers developed terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS). The first generation of those systems was known as a ground proximity warning system (GPWS), which used a radar altimeter to assist in calculating terrain closure rates. That system was further improved with the addition of a GPS terrain database and is now known as an enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS). When combined with mandatory pilot simulator training, which emphasizes proper responses to any caution or warning event, the system has proved very effective in preventing further CFIT accidents.
Smaller aircraft often use a GPS database of terrain to provide terrain warning. The GPS database contains a database of nearby terrain and will present terrain that is near the aircraft in red or yellow depending on its distance from the aircraft.
Statistics show that aircraft fitted with a second-generation EGPWS have not suffered a CFIT accident if TAWS or EGPWS are properly handled (there are at least two CFIT accidents of planes with EGPWS/TAWS: 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash and the Mirosławiec air accident). As of 2007, 5% of the world's commercial airlines still lack a TAWS, leading to a prediction of two CFIT accidents in 2009. In the case of Mount Salak Sukhoi Superjet 100 crash, the TAWS was working but the pilot intentionally turned it off.
Many notable accidents have been ascribed to CFIT.
|TWA Flight 3||January 16, 1942||Fifteen minutes after takeoff from Las Vegas, the plane hit a sheer cliff on Potosi Mountain, 32 miles from the airport, at an elevation of 7,770 ft. No survivors among the 19 passengers and 3 crew on board, including movie star Carole Lombard and her mother. Cause was the deviation from the safe airway route, during a nighttime flight.|
|BSAA Star Dust||August 2, 1947||Due to a misjudgment of position, the flight crew appear to have believed that the aircraft was approaching the airport of Santiago, when in fact it was still above Tupungato mountain in the Andes. The plane vanished shortly after its last transmission estimating the time of its arrival at Santiago. Its wreckage was discovered fifty years later.|
|Superga air disaster||May 4, 1949||Collision with the hill of Superga, near Turin.|
|Pan Am Flight 151||June 21, 1951||Collision with hill, Liberia, Africa|
|United Airlines Flight 610||June 30, 1951||Crashed into Crystal Mountain, CO, after failing to make a required left turn, to remain on the flight planned course to Denver.|
|British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines Flight 304||October 29, 1953||Premature descent while intercepting ILS for SFO airport|
|TWA Flight 260||February 19, 1955||Crashed into Sandia Mountains, near Albuquerque, NM, while in instrument flight conditions. Suspected failure of a critical navigation instrument.|
|United Airlines Flight 409||October 6, 1955||Unexplained deviation from flight plan course; hit Medicine Bow Peak, CO|
|Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 810||December 9, 1956|
|1958 Bristol Britannia 312 crash||December 24, 1958|
|American Airlines Flight 320||February 3, 1959|
|Piedmont Airlines Flight 349||October 30, 1959|
|TAA Fokker Friendship disaster||June 10, 1960|
|Alitalia Flight 771||July 7, 1962|
|Aero Flight 217||November 8, 1963||DC-3. Crashed into a knoll on landing approach at Mariehamn, Finland. The root cause was a malfunctioning altimeter.|
|United Airlines Flight 389||August 16, 1965|
|American Airlines Flight 383||November 8, 1965|
|TABSO Flight 101||November 24, 1966||Crashed Bratislava, Slovakia, killing all 82 on board|
|Iberia Airlines Flight 062||November 4, 1967|
|TWA Flight 128||November 20, 1967||Crashed short of the runway, after descending below the minimum descent altitude (MDA), in non-visual conditions, while conducting a non-precision approach to the Cincinnati airport.|
|South African Airways Flight 228||April 20, 1968||Failure by crew to maintain a safe airspeed and altitude and a positive climb by not observing flight instruments during take-off.|
|Southern Airways Flight 932||November 14, 1970||Crashed near Huntington, West Virginia, killing all 75 on board|
|Alaska Airlines Flight 1866||September 4, 1971||Flew into the side of a canyon on approach to Juneau, Alaska. 111 fatalities (104 passengers, 7 crew)|
|Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571||October 13, 1972||Known less formally as the Andes flight disaster, October 13, 1972 to December 23, 1972, during which stranded snow-bound survivors resorted to cannibalism. The incident became the subject of feature films and best-selling books.|
|Braathens SAFE Flight 239||December 23, 1972|
|Eastern Air Lines Flight 401||December 29, 1972||The cockpit crew became fixated on a faulty landing gear light and had failed to realize that the autopilot had been switched off. The distracted crew did not recognize the plane's slow descent and the otherwise completely airworthy aircraft struck swampy ground in the Everglades, killing 101 out of 176 passengers and crew. This accident became the subject of books and made-for-television movies.|
|Delta Air Lines Flight 723||July 31, 1973|
|TWA Flight 514||December 1, 1974|
|Turkish Airlines Flight 452||September 19, 1976||Crashed into a hill 60 miles off the destination airport killing all 154 people on board.|
|Air New Zealand Flight 901||November 28, 1979||Crashed into Mount Erebus, Antarctica on November 28, 1979. There is still disagreement over the exact causes of the crash, but it is commonly accepted that a changing of pre-programmed coordinates without informing the pilots, the pilots' loss of situational awareness and whiteout conditions at the time were contributory factors leading to the crash. All 257 people on the plane were killed.|
|Dan-Air Flight 1008||April 25, 1980||Crashed into high terrain in Tenerife after turning the wrong way in a holding pattern. All 146 people aboard were killed.|
|Inex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308||December 1, 1981||Struck Corsica's Mt. San Pietro and crashed shortly before it was scheduled to land. All 180 people on board were killed.|
|VASP Flight 168||June 8, 1982||Highest death toll of aviation accidents in Brazil for 24 years.|
|Avianca Flight 011||November 27, 1983|
|1984 Biman Bangladesh Airlines Fokker F27 crash||August 5, 1984||Worst air disaster in history of Bangladeshi aviation.|
|Eastern Air Lines Flight 980||January 1, 1985||Struck Mount Illimani in Bolivia at an altitude of 19,600 feet. The flight took off from Silvio Pettirossi International Airport in Asunción, Paraguay, and intended to reach El Alto International Airport in La Paz, Bolivia. All 19 passengers and 10 crew were killed on impact.|
|1986 Mozambican Tupolev Tu-134 crash||October 19, 1986||President Machel of Mozambique and 33 others die when their off course plane descends and flies into the Lebombo Mountains.|
|Avianca Flight 410||March 17, 1988|
|Air France Flight 296||June 26, 1988||Crashed into trees while performing a flyover for an airshow at Mulhouse-Habsheim Airport. Out of 130 passengers and six crew members, three passengers died in the post-impact fire.|
|Indian Airlines Flight 113||October 19, 1988||The aircraft hit an electric mast in Ahmedabad, India, five miles (eight km) out on approach in poor visibility. All six crew members and 124 of 129 passengers were killed.|
|Independent Air Flight 1851||February 8, 1989|
|Flying Tiger Line Flight 66||February 19, 1989|
|Surinam Airways Flight 764||June 7, 1989|
|Indian Airlines Flight 605||February 14, 1990||Crashed short of the runway during final approach to Bangalore, killing 92 on board.|
|Death of Stevie Ray Vaughan, East Troy, Wisconsin||August 27, 1990||Bell 206B Jet Ranger helicopter flown into the side of a hill in heavy fog.|
|Alitalia Flight 404, Zurich||November 14, 1990||DC-9-32 flown into side of mountain on landing approach due to defective ILS gear, killing all 40 passengers and 6 crew. Lack of proper crew resource management has been identified as contributing cause.|
|Air Inter Flight 148||January 20, 1992||Crashed into Mt. Ste. Odile in the Vosges Mountains whilst on approach into Strasbourg Entzheim Airport.|
|Thai Airways International Flight 311||July 31, 1992||Crashed on approach to Kathmandu. All 113 people on board were killed, 59 days before the PIA Flight 268 accident at Kathmandu.|
|PIA Flight 268||September 28, 1992||Kathmandu. The approach to Kathmandu is difficult, as the airport is located in an oval-shaped valley surrounded by mountains. Flight 268 was approximately 900 feet below the designated approach path and crashed into a steep cloud-covered hillside. All 167 people on the plane were killed.|
|SAM Colombia Flight 501||May 19, 1993||Crashed near Mt. Panamo Frontino, killing all 132 people on board the Boeing 727-100|
|Asiana Airlines Flight 733||July 26, 1993||While approaching in bad weather, a Boeing 737-500 crashed into a mountain near Mokpo, South Korea. 68 of 106 on board were killed.|
|Ansett New Zealand Flight 703||June 5, 1995|
|American Airlines Flight 1572||November 12, 1995|
|American Airlines Flight 965||December 20, 1995||Crashed into a mountain near Buga, Colombia. The crew failed to recognize a series of navigational errors they had made, and forgot that they had deployed the air brakes. All eight crew members and 151 of the 155 passengers were killed.|
|1996 Croatia USAF CT-43 crash||April 3, 1996||A modified Boeing 737 crashed into a mountain in Croatia.|
|Vnukovo Flight 2801||August 29, 1996||All 141 people aboard a Tupolev Tu-154M were killed, when the aircraft crashed into Operafjellet during approach to Svalbard Airport, Longyear, Svalbard, Norway. This airport does not provide any approach service.|
|1996 New Hampshire Learjet crash||December 24, 1996||Found November 13, 1999|
|Korean Air Flight 801||August 6, 1997||A Boeing 747-300 crashed into Nimitz Hill on approach to Guam, killing 228 of 254 people aboard. The fatigued crew were following outdated flight maps, while ATC had modified its MSAW system to eliminate false alarms.|
|Garuda Indonesia Flight 152||September 26, 1997||An Airbus A300, registered PK-GAI, crashed in Pancur Batu, Pematang Siantar, North Sumatera, becoming the worst air disaster in Indonesian aviation history.|
|Kenya Airways Flight 431||January 30, 2000||Impacted ocean after takeoff from Félix Houphouët-Boigny International Airport, killing all 10 crew and 159 out of 169 passengers. The pilots put the plane into a descent in response to an erroneous stall warning.|
|Air Philippines Flight 541||April 19, 2000||Crashed in Island Garden City of Samal, Davao del Norte, killing all 131 people on board. It is also currently the deadliest air disaster in the Philippines.|
|Crossair Flight 3597||November 24, 2001||Flight from Berlin to Zurich that crashed during its landing approach, killing 24 people.|
|Air China Flight 129||April 15, 2002|
|Kam Air Flight 904||February 3, 2005|
|2006 Slovak Air Force Antonov An-24 crash||January 19, 2006|
|Armavia Flight 967||May 3, 2006|
|Atlasjet Flight 4203||November 30, 2007|
|Santa Bárbara Airlines Flight 518||February 21, 2008|
|2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash||April 10, 2010||Polish president Lech Kaczyński was among those killed the crash.|
|Airblue Flight 202||July 28, 2010||Crashed into the Margalla Hills near Islamabad, Pakistan|
|RusAir Flight 9605||June 20, 2011||Crashed near Petrozavodsk Airport (PES, ULPB). Tu-134 RA-65691.|
|First Air Flight 6560||August 20, 2011||Was an internal Canadian charter flight from Yellowknife Airport, Northwest Territories, to Resolute Bay Airport, Nunavut. It crashed approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) east of the Resolute Bay, Airport runway, in poor weather attempting a go-around after a failed ILS landing. 12 of the 15 people on board were killed.|
|Royal Norwegian Air Force C-130J||March 15, 2012||Crashed into Kebnekaise, Sweden en route to Kiruna Airport, killing the 5 officers on board. C-130J-30 'Siv'.|
|Mount Salak Sukhoi Superjet 100 crash||May 9, 2012||Aircraft crashed while on a demonstration flight, killing all 45 on board. The pilots had intentionally turned off the terrain warning system and were speaking to potential customers when the impact occurred.|
- Acronyms and abbreviations in avionics
- Air safety
- Digital fly-by-wire
- Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
- Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW)
- "Boeing: Commercial Airplanes - Jetliner Safety - Industry's Role in Aviation Safety". Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved June 2013.
- [dead link]
- Boeing Training Aid Addresses Leading Accident Cause, Feb. 20, 1997
- Air Force Magazine, February 2004, Published by Air Force Association, 1501 Lee Highway, Arlington, VA 22209-1198, USA.
- (Parmet, AJ and Ercoline, WR, Chapter 6, Spatial Orientation in Flight. In Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine, 4th Edition, 2008, Davis, Johnson, Stepanek and Fogarty, Eds. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
- Honeywell Aerospace EGPWS Website
- David Learmount (January 13, 2009). "Forecasts 2009 - Safety and security are in the doldrums". flightglobal.com. Flight International. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
- Accident description for S2-ABJ at the Aviation Safety Network
- "AROUND THE WORLD; 49 Die in Bangladesh As Plane Plunges". The New York Times. 6 August 1984. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- CFIT articles in SKYbrary: The single point of reference in the network of aviation safety knowledge