Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel

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Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel
Type privileges and immunities; international criminal law
Drafted 9 December 1994
Signed 15 December 1994[1]
Location New York City, United States
Effective 15 January 1999
Condition 22 ratifications
Signatories 43
Parties 91
Depositary United Nations Secretary-General
Languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish

The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel is a United Nations treaty that has the goal of protecting United Nations peacekeepers and other UN personnel.


The convention was first proposed in 1993 by New Zealand and Ukraine. Drafted by the International Law Commission, the convention was adopted as a resolution of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1994 It was drafted by the International Law Commission.


Parties to the convention agree to criminalise the commission of murders or kidnappings of UN or association personnel as well as violent attacks against the equipment, official premises, private accommodation, or means of transport of such persons. Parties to the convention also agree to criminalise the attempted commission or threatened commission of such acts. "UN personnel" refers to individuals engaged or deployed by the UN Secretary-General as members of the military, police, or civilian components of a UN operation; it also includes officials of the UN specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency. "Associated personnel" includes other personnel—such as members of non-governmental organizations—assigned to act in an official capacity by UN personnel.

A central provision of the convention is the principle of aut dedere aut judicare—that a party to the treaty must either (1) prosecute a person who commits an offence against UN or associated personal or (2) send the person to another state that requests his or her extradition for prosecution of the same crime.

The convention states that the military and police components of a UN operation—including vehicles, aircraft, and vessels—shall bear distinctive UN identification and that all UN and associated personnel shall carry appropriate identification. The treaty also states that the UN and associated personnel shall respect and abide by the domestic laws of the host state.

Ratifications and parties[edit]

By the end of 1995, the convention had been signed by 43 states and it came into force on 15 January 1999 after it had been ratified by 22 states. As of June 2013, the treaty has been ratified by 91 states. The states that signed the convention but have not yet ratified it are Haiti, Honduras, Malta, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, and the United States.

Optional Protocol[edit]

On 8 December 2005, the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Safety of United Naitons and Associated Personnel was adopted by the UN General Assembly. The Optional Protocol simply expands the scope of what constitutes a "UN operation" to include "delivering humanitarian, political or development assistance in peacebuilding" and "delivering emergency humanitarian assistance". The Optional Protocol was signed by 34 states, came into force on 19 August 2010, and by June 2013 had been ratified by 28 states.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ First signed by Argentina, Canada, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Portugal, Sweden, and Ukraine.


External links[edit]