Conventional Egyptian chronology

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For a general discussion, see Egyptian chronology. For a similar list, see List of Pharaohs.

The Conventional Egyptian chronology represents the scholarly consensus on the chronology of the rulers of ancient Egypt, taking into account well accepted developments during the 20th century but not including any of the major revision proposals that have also been made in that time.

All dates in the chronology are BC.

The dates of Dynasties 21 to 26 are from Kenneth Kitchen (1973), supplemented by Ian Shaw (2000). There is a 60 year discrepancy between the dates proposed by these two authors. There is no attempt to remove this discrepancy in the combined chronology presented below.

Protodynastic Period[edit]

Dynasty 0 c. 3100–2920 BC[edit]

Name Dates
Scorpion I c.3200 BC
Double Falcon c.3200 BC
Ny-Hor c.3200 BC
Hat-Hor c.3200 BC
Pe-Hor c.3200 BC
Hedj-Hor c.3200 BC
Iry-Hor c.3150 BC
Ka c.3100 BC
Crocodile c.3100 BC
King Scorpion c.3100 BC
Narmer c.3100 BC

Early Dynastic Period[edit]

1st Dynasty 2920-2770[edit]

First Dynasty
Name Dates
Menes ?
Hor-Aha c.3040 BC3020 BC
Djer c.3020 BC2970 BC
Djet (Wadji) c.2970 BC2960 BC
Merneith (Merytneit) ?
Den (Udimu) c.2960 BC2915 BC
Anedjib c.2915 BC2905 BC
Semerkhet c.2905 BC2890 BC
Qa'a c.2890 BC2860 BC

2nd Dynasty 2770-2650 BC[edit]

Second Dynasty
Name Dates
Hotepsekhemwy c.2860 BC2837 BC
Raneb c.2837 BC2827 BC
Ninetjer c.2827 BC2783 BC
Wneg c.2783 BC2780 BC
Senedj c.2780 BC2770 BC
Sneferka c.2770 BC2762 BC
Neferkare I Uncertain
Neferkasokar c.2762 BC2754 BC
Hudjefa Uncertain
Sekhemib-Perenmaat c.2780 BC2754 BC
Seth-Peribsen Uncertain
Ba Uncertain
Khasekhemwy c.2754 BC2727 BC

Old Kingdom[edit]

3rd Dynasty[edit]

4th Dynasty[edit]

5th Dynasty[edit]

6th Dynasty[edit]

7th Dynasty 2150-2134[edit]

In the kinglist summaries from the 3rd century BC historian Manetho, this is a group of 70 kings ruling 70 days: there is no evidence for this - it may be a later literary metaphor for chaos at the end of the Sixth Dynasty, chaos for which there is also no direct contemporary evidence.

8th Dynasty[edit]

Kings with Unknown Position[edit]

First Intermediate Period 2134 - 2040 BC[edit]

9th and 10th Dynasties 2135-1986 BC[edit]

11th Dynasty 2134-2040[edit]

(Dates from Baines and Ma'lek)

Middle Kingdom 2040 - 1640[edit]

11th Dynasty (continued)[edit]

In Dynasty 11 from Thebes the Antefs first appear.
Control of Egypt shifts from the Delta to Thebes and Red Sea connections to Nub.
  • Mentuhotep II (Nebhepetre) 2007-1986 (Ruled Upper Egypt.)
  • Mentuhotep II (Nebhepetre) 1986-1956 (United Upper and Lower Egypt.)
  • Mentuhotep III (Sankhkare) 1956-1944
  • Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) 1944-1937

Unknown Position[edit]

12th Dynasty 1991-1783[edit]

(Dates from Baines and Ma'lek cartouches from Budge)

Second Intermediate Period[edit]

13th Dynasty[edit]

21 kings for about 63 years then

Then 6 more kings for about 20 years

14th Dynasty[edit]

About 76 minor kings of the Delta, contemporary with the second half of the 13th dynasty. Egyptologist Donald B. Redford has suggested that these were ancestors of the Hyksos dynasty, later misconstrued as belonging to the names of Egyptian kings in Manetho (due to confusion between the Egyptian words for "Hyksos" and "Xois").[1]

Hyksos 15th Dynasty 1633-1525 BC[edit]

16th Dynasty[edit]

32 minor kings contemporary with the 15th and 17th dynasties.

Thebes 17th Dynasty 1606-1539 BC[edit]

About 15 kings in all, contemporary with the 15th dynasty, the last three being

New Kingdom[edit]

18th Dynasty[edit]

Eighteenth Dynasty
Name Dates
Ahmose I (Nebpehtyre) 1550 BC1525 BC
Amenhotep I (Djeserkare) 1525 BC1504 BC
Thutmose I (Akheperkare) 1504 BC1492 BC
Thutmose II Akheperenre) 1492 BC1479 BC
Thutmose III (Menkheperre) 1479 BC1425 BC
Hatshepsut (Maatkare) 1479 BC1457 BC
Amenhotep II (Akheperure) 1427 BC1401 BC
Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) 1401 BC1391 BC
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) 1391 BC1353 BC
Akhenaten (Neferkheperure-waenre) 1353 BC1334 BC
Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) 1336 BC1334 BC
Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) 1334 BC1325 BC
Kheperkheprure Ay 1325 BC1321 BC
Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) 1321 BC1292 BC

19th Dynasty[edit]

Nineteenth Dynasty
Name Dates
Ramesses I 1292 - 1290
Seti I 1290 - 1279
Ramses II (the "Great") 1279 - 1213
Merneptah 1213 - 1203
Amenmesse 1203 - 1199
Seti II 1199 - 1193
Siptah 1193 - 1187
Twosret 1187 - 1185

20th Dynasty[edit]

Twentieth Dynasty
Name Dates
Setnakhte 1186 BC – 1183 BC
Ramesses III 1183 BC – 1152 BC
Ramesses IV 1152 BC – 1146 BC
Ramesses V 1146 BC – 1142 BC
Ramesses VI 1142 BC – 1134 BC
Ramesses VII 1134 BC – 1126 BC
Ramesses VIII 1129 BC – 1125 BC
Ramesses IX 1125 BC – 1107 BC
Ramesses X 1107 BC – 1103 BC
Ramesses XI 1103 BC – 1072/1069 BC

Third Intermediate Period[edit]

21st Dynasty[edit]

Theban High Priests of Amun[edit]

22nd Dynasty[edit]

23rd Dynasty[edit]

24th Dynasty[edit]

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty
Name Dates
Tefnakhte I 732 - 725 BC
Bakenranef (Bocchoris) 725 - 720 BC

25th Dynasty[edit]

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty
Name Dates
Alara 780-760
Piye c. 752 BC721 BC
Shabaka 721 BC707 BC
Shebitku 707 BC690 BC
Taharqa 690664 BC
Tantamani 664656 BC (died 653 BC)

Early Kings of Sais[edit]

Late Period[edit]

26th Dynasty[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Redford, Donald B. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals, and Day-Books. Missisauga, ON: Benben Publications, 1986.
  • Predynastic Egypt is from Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt.
  • The dates of Dynasties 1 to 10 are from Baines and Malek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford, 1980).
  • The dates of Dynasties 11 to 20 are from Kitchen, "The Basics of Egyptian Chronology in Relation to the Bronze Age", in Astrom (ed) High, Middle or Low (Gothengurg, 1987), taking his low chronology.
  • Ken Kitchen uses textual artifacts such as the form and sequence of the blessings and curses used to bind contracts, the price of slaves as mentioned in everything from cuneiform texts to the Bible in context with the political and cultural interactions of the Ancient Near East to get a range or spread of about a century plus or minus for his chronologies.
  • Kenneth Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1973, Warminster).
  • Ian Shaw: The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by (Oxford, 2000)

External links[edit]