Conversion to Christianity
Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. It has been called the foundational experience of Christian life. Conversion to Christianity primarily involves belief (faith) in God, acknowledgement of falling far short of God's glory and holiness (sin), repentance of sin, and confession of Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the all-sufficient and only means by whom one's sin can be atoned for and therefore the only route to salvation.
Conversion has also been described as the point of transition from "natural life" to spiritual life. In this sense it is seen as both a "radical change of heart and life" and also a more gradual process in which the convert's spiritual nature develops through Christian culture and education. According to theologian Charles Curran, conversion is the central moral message of Jesus. He describes it as an "awakening to a consciousness of the presence of divine reality" in one's life. The Gospel of Matthew quotes Jesus as teaching, "Truly I say to you, unless you are converted and become like children, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven."
Social scientists have shown great interest in the Christian conversion as a religious experience that believers describe as strengthening their faith and changing their lives. Christianization, defined as the "reformulation of social relations, cultural meanings, and personal experience in terms of (commonly accepted or supposed) Christian ideals," should be distinguished from conversion. Christianization is the broader cultural term, and typically has involved efforts to systematically convert an entire continent or culture from existing beliefs to Christianity.
Some New Testament examples
The conversion of the Apostle Peter, as recorded in the Bible,
As Luke tells the story, it was the miraculous catch of fish that awakened Peter's consciousness to an awareness that there was more to Jesus than meets the eye. Peter found himself in the presence of someone or something which elicited from him that most natural of all gestures of awe, reverence, and holy fear—he fell on his knees. This gesture was accompanied by a confession of his own wretched condition: "Leave me, Lord; I am a sinful man".
The Gospels speak of the coming of the Kingdom with power from on high and while Jesus was alive on earth he was still under the Jewish Law being obedient to its rules and regulations. Jesus though was given all authority in heaven and on earth, even the authority to forgive sins which before only God could do. While alive on the cross he did forgive the thief who asked him because he had that authority. In, Jesus' last command was for his disciples to go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything he had commanded.
Inwe see the start of the Christian church with the Holy Spirit coming down, and Peter preaching to the crowd about how their sins, along with the help of wicked men, crucified the savior. Their response was "what shall we do?" Peter's response to their faith was, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off—for all whom the Lord our God will call.”
Another dramatic conversion to Christianity occurred in the life of the Apostle Paul
In the book of Romans there is a description of what transpires through water baptism.
Hanigan perceives a common "death and rebirth" experience in these and other conversions which he describes as "encounters with the living God". His analysis is that these individuals responded not so much out of a sense of guilt, but from their awe, reverence, and holy fear of God's presence. The pattern, he writes, begins with God taking initiative in the individual's life. Then, the person responds by acknowledging and confessing personal lostness and sinfulness, and then accepting a call to holiness.
Methods and procedures vary
The exact understanding of what it means to convert, as well as the mode and significance of baptism, varies somewhat among denominations. The procedure for conversion itself depends on the sponsoring denomination and hinges on meeting the ritual and substantive requirements for such conversion. A person converting to Christianity often chooses to experience baptism as a sign of their conversion. It is required by some churches and denominations as a prerequisite to membership.
Conversion is generally understood to be undertaken by a person who explicitly chooses to convert. In some denominations, this may include any person above the age of reason (typically between seven and 14 years of age, according to denomination). The official reception is usually preceded by a period of instruction in the faith.
Conversion through salvation
Conversion through salvation is predominantly a Protestant Christian position. It is variously called being saved, born again, and converted. It holds that conversion to Christianity begins with salvation. A major tenet of the Protestant Reformation was that justification, i.e., salvation, is attained by faith alone (Sola Fide). The exact understanding of what it means to attain salvation varies somewhat among denominations. It primarily involves belief (faith) in God, repentance of sin, and confession of Jesus Christ as the Son of God. In some denominations, these are all accomplished through the sinner's prayer.
The Protestant position further asserts that (1) all things necessary for salvation and concerning faith and life are taught in the Bible clearly enough for the ordinary believer to find it there and understand; and (2) scripture alone (Sola Scriptura) is their authority.
Protestants typically view profession of faith in Christ as savior (salvation) as the only step of conversion to Christianity. To them, baptism has more to do with public confession of faith in Christ than with salvation. They consider being baptized as identifying the individual with Christ through Christ's death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, being obedient to Christ's command,
Evangelical, fundamentalist, and Pentecostal Christians emphasize the need for a conversion experience that involves a personal, and sometimes intense, encounter of the individual with the power of God. Generally, these denominations teach that those without such a conversion experience are not saved and therefore are not true Christians. These groups frequently refer to personal salvation as being "born again", or "born from above". This term comes from Jesus' conversation with a Pharisee named Nicodemus, a member of the Jewish ruling council.
Some other Protestant denominations place less emphasis on a conversion experience, and rely mostly on the individual's personal statement of belief in and commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. Some would expect the convert to receive believer's baptism to join the church, while other denominations will accept evidence of infant baptism.
Conversion through baptism and confirmation/chrismation
The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglicanism and Lutheranism all believe that baptism is the rite through which a person enters the Church and becomes Christian. Therefore, a non-Christian converting to any of these churches would be received into the Church through baptism, followed by confirmation (Latin Rite Catholic or Anglican) or chrismation (Orthodox or Eastern Catholic) as well as the convert's First Holy Communion. This would be preceded by a catechumenate, a period where the prospective convert learns about the Christian faith. The length of the catechumenate varies, although one year is generally the minimum (as this allows the prospective convert to experience all of the Church's festivals).
Procedures for receiving a person baptized in another Christian communion vary. Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans will generally accept the original baptism as valid (if done in the name of the Trinity) and receive the person through confirmation and First Communion. Practices among the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox vary, with some churches who rebaptize converts, considering their former baptism to be invalid, and other churches accepting the original baptism and receiving through chrismation and First Communion.
Conversions/transfers to another Christian denomination
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2009)|
In groups and denominations that practice believer's baptism, all people who declare themselves "being born again" and who have not previously been baptized as a believer are rebaptized, as baptism is not seen as a sacrament, but as a ritual expression of an interior conversion.
Some denominations accept one's baptism performed by another denomination. Nearly always, the baptism must have been with water and performed in the name of the Trinity. Such converts are usually received by a formal rite which normally also includes taking Communion in the denomination.
In the Catholic, Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, converts also receive the sacrament of Confirmation/Chrismation at reception into the Church, except when they come from a Church about which it is accepted that the sacrament has been administered validly (as in the case of an Eastern Orthodox person converting to Catholicism).
In the Latin Church (the largest branch of the Roman Catholic Church), children who convert after having attained the age of reason, but before confirmation age, are generally not confirmed until they have attained that age. In the Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, where infants are chrismated and receive First Communion at baptism, there is no such limitation.
(See Baptism comparative summary).
The majority of Protestant churches practice infant baptism. However, most do not deem baptism as essential for salvation. They view it to be a sacrament or ordinance that is an outward symbolic sign of one's identification with Christ and membership in the Christian community. Protestants that do not practice infant baptism include Apostolics, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, Churches of Christ, Pentecostals, and Seventh-day Adventists.
Comparison between Protestants
This table summarizes the classical views of three different Protestant beliefs.
|Conversion||Through the means of grace, resistible||Through the means of grace by the work of the Holy Spirit, irresistible||Involves free will and is resistible|
- Conversion of the Jews
- Engel Scale
- List of converts to Christianity
- Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA)
- The Rage Against God
- Hanigan, James P. "Conversion and Christian Ethics." Online: http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/apr1983/v40-1-article3.htm. Accessed 17 June 2009
- Spilka, Bernard et al. The Psychology of Religion, Third Edition: An Empirical Approach. Guilford Press, 2003, ISBN 1-57230-901-6
- Oscar S. Kriebe. Conversion and Religious Experience, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. ISBN 0-554-51750-7
- Curran, Charles. A New Look at Christian Morality. Fides, 1970. ASIN: B0029MW7YO
- Peter G. Stromberg. Language and Self-Transformation: A Study of the Christian Conversion Narrative. Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-521-03136-2
- Hefner, Robert W. Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives on a Great Transformation. University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 0-520-07836-5
- Fletcher, Richard. The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity. University of California Press, 1999. ISBN 0-520-21859-0
- Witherington, Ben. Troubled Waters: Rethinking the Theology of Baptism. Baylor University Press, 2007. ISBN 1-60258-004-9.
- Rhodes, Ron. Complete Guide to Christian Denominations. Harvest House, 2005. ISBN 0-7369-1289-4
- What Do We Mean by Sola Scriptura? by Dr. W. Robert Godfrey
- "Becoming A Christian". Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- Table drawn from, though not copied, from Lange, Lyle W. God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006. p. 448.