Conversion to Christianity
Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. It has been called the foundational experience of Christian life. Conversion to Christianity primarily involves belief (faith) in the Christian God, thinking that they are far short of the Christian God's apparent "glory and holiness" (sin), repentance of "sin", and confession of their belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and the all-sufficient and only means by whom one's sin can be atoned for and therefore the only route to salvation.[John 14:6] While conversion to Christianity may simply involve a personal choice to identify with Christianity rather than with another religion, many Christians understand it to mean that the individual attains eternal salvation by a genuine conversion experience or act—a "radical transformation of self."
Conversion has also been described as the point of transition from "natural life" to spiritual life. In this sense it is seen as both a "radical change of heart and life" and also a more gradual process in which the convert's spiritual nature develops through Christian culture and education. According to theologian Charles Curran, conversion is the central moral message of Jesus. Curran describes it as an "awakening to a consciousness of the presence of divine reality" in one's life. The Gospel of Matthew quotes Jesus as teaching, "Truly I say to you, unless you are converted and become like children, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven."[Matthew 18:3]
Social scientists have shown great interest in the Christian conversion as a religious experience that believers describe as strengthening their faith and changing their lives. Christianization, defined as the "reformulation of social relations, cultural meanings, and personal experience in terms of (commonly accepted or supposed) Christian ideals," should be distinguished from conversion. Christianization is the broader cultural term, and typically has involved efforts to systematically convert an entire continent or culture from existing beliefs to Christianity.
- 1 Examples from the New Testament
- 2 Methods and procedures vary
- 3 Conversion as Decision
- 4 Conversion through baptism and confirmation/chrismation
- 5 Conversion from Islam to Christianity
- 6 Conversions/transfers to another Christian denomination
- 7 Post-Reformation
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Examples from the New Testament
As Luke tells the story, it was the miraculous catch of fish that awakened Peter's consciousness to an awareness that there was more to Jesus than meets the eye. Peter found himself in the presence of someone or something which elicited from him that most natural of all gestures of awe, reverence, and holy fear—he fell on his knees. This gesture was accompanied by a confession of his own wretched condition: "Leave me, Lord; I am a sinful man".[Lk 5:9] Once again, however, this insight is incomplete. Immediately a new life, a new direction is held out to Peter. "Do not be afraid; from now on it is men you will catch".[5:11] And Peter followed Jesus, leaving everything behind.
The Gospels speak of the coming of the Kingdom with power from on high and while Jesus was alive on earth he was still under the Jewish Law being obedient to its rules and regulations. Jesus though was given all authority in heaven and on earth, even the authority to forgive sins which before only God could do. While alive on the cross he did forgive the thief who asked him because he had that authority. In Matthew 28:19-20, Jesus' last command was for his disciples to go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything he had commanded.
In Acts 1-2 we see the start of the Christian church with the Holy Spirit coming down, and Peter preaching to the crowd about how their sins, along with the help of wicked men, crucified the savior. Their response was "what shall we do?" Peter's response to their faith was, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off—for all whom the Lord our God will call.”
Another dramatic conversion to Christianity occurred in the life of the Apostle Paul[Acts 9] whose formal name had been Saul of Tarsus. He was a zealot for the cause of Second Temple Judaism who had been "breathing threats and murder against the disciples of the Lord".[Acts 9:1] While traveling to Damascus to arrest Jewish Christians, he fell to the ground upon being surrounded by a bright light "from heaven". He heard a voice accusing him: "Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?"[9:4] The experience rendered him temporarily blind. The voice directed him to go on to Damascus where he was cured and baptized by Ananias of Damascus, was described as being filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to passionately proclaim the Christian gospel (good news).
In the book of Romans there is a description of what transpires through water baptism.[6:2-4] We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer? (repentance) Or don’t you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life. (Being immersed in water through baptism is like Jesus being buried in the tomb and being brought up out of the water is like Jesus' resurrection to a new life, i.e., born again by water and Spirit)
Hanigan perceives a common "death and rebirth" experience in these and other conversions which he describes as "encounters with the living God". His analysis is that these individuals responded not so much out of a sense of guilt, but from their awe, reverence, and holy fear of God's presence. The pattern, he writes, begins with God taking initiative in the individual's life. Then, the person responds by acknowledging and confessing personal lostness and sinfulness, and then accepting a call to holiness.
Methods and procedures vary
The exact understanding of what it means to convert, as well as the mode and significance of baptism, varies somewhat among denominations. The procedure for conversion itself depends on the sponsoring denomination and hinges on meeting the ritual and substantive requirements for such conversion. A person converting to Christianity often chooses to experience baptism as a sign of their conversion. It is required by some churches and denominations as a prerequisite to membership.
Conversion is generally understood to be undertaken by a person who explicitly chooses to convert. In some denominations, this may include any person above the age of reason (typically between seven and 14 years of age, according to denomination). The official reception is usually preceded by a period of instruction in the faith.
A conversion cannot take place before a person is awakened spiritually at which time they then can respond to the call, repent believe and be converted. God takes the initial step in conversion to stir and awaken to spiritual life those who previously were spiritually dead (see Eph 2:1-10) .
Conversion as Decision
Conversion as a decision for salvation is predominantly a Protestant Christian position. It is variously called being saved, born again, and converted. It holds that conversion to Christianity results in salvation. A major tenet of the Protestant Reformation was that justification, i.e., salvation, is attained by faith alone (Sola Fide). The exact understanding of what it means to attain salvation varies somewhat among denominations. It primarily involves belief (faith) in God, repentance of sin, and confession of Jesus Christ as the Son of God. In some denominations, these are all accomplished through the sinner's prayer.
The Protestant position further asserts that (1) all things necessary for salvation and concerning faith and life are taught in the Bible clearly enough for the ordinary believer to find it there and understand; and (2) scripture alone (Sola Scriptura) is their authority.
Protestants typically view profession of faith in Christ as savior (salvation) as the only step of conversion to Christianity. To them, baptism has more to do with public confession of faith in Christ than with salvation. They consider being baptized as identifying the individual with Christ through Christ's death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, being obedient to Christ's command,[Matt. 28:19-20] but as not essential for one's eternal salvation. Proponents find biblical support for this understanding in the account of the "penitent" thief, hanging on another cross beside Jesus, asking Jesus to "...remember me when You come in Your kingdom!" Jesus' straightforward reply was "Today, you will be with me in paradise." They point out that Jesus offered him unconditional salvation, apparently without necessity for baptism or any other prerequisite, based solely on the man's belief and confession.[Luke 23:42-43] Further evidence is taken from the biblical implication that Jesus never personally baptized anyone: "In fact it was not Jesus who baptized, but his disciples",[John 4:2] and yet he is the all-sufficient Savior. That interpretation, taken together with the New Testament's consistent representation of Jesus as "savior," leads them to their conclusion that baptism is a matter of obedience and identification, not being necessary for salvation.
Evangelical, fundamentalist, and Pentecostal Christians emphasize the need for a conversion experience that involves a personal, and sometimes intense, encounter of the individual with the power of God. Generally, these denominations teach that those without such a conversion experience are not saved and therefore are not true Christians. These groups frequently refer to personal salvation as being "born again", or "born from above". This term comes from Jesus' conversation with a Pharisee named Nicodemus, a member of the Jewish ruling council.[John 3:1-21]Jesus told him, "no one can see the kingdom of God without being born again."[John 3:3-7] 
Some other Protestant denominations place less emphasis on a conversion experience, and rely mostly on the individual's personal statement of belief in and commitment to Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. Some would expect the convert to receive believer's baptism to join the church, while other denominations will accept evidence of infant baptism.
Conversion through baptism and confirmation/chrismation
The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglicanism and Lutheranism all believe that baptism is the rite through which a person enters the Church and becomes Christian. Therefore, a non-Christian converting to any of these churches would be received into the Church through baptism, followed by confirmation (Latin Rite Catholic or Anglican) or chrismation (Orthodox or Eastern Catholic) as well as the convert's First Holy Communion. This would be preceded by a catechumenate, a period where the prospective convert learns about the Christian faith. The length of the catechumenate varies, although one year is generally the minimum (as this allows the prospective convert to experience all of the Church's festivals).
Procedures for receiving a person baptized in another Christian communion vary. Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans will generally accept the original baptism as valid (if done in the name of the Trinity) and receive the person through confirmation and First Communion. Practices among the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox vary, with some churches who rebaptize converts, considering their former baptism to be invalid, and other churches accepting the original baptism and receiving through chrismation and First Communion.
Conversion from Islam to Christianity
Multiple studies have been done to better understand the reasons that lead to conversion from Islam to Christianity. Dudley Woodberry and Russell Shubin present the following list of reasons based on their research:
1. A Sure Salvation 2. The person of Jesus 3. A holy book: the Bible 4. The explanatory power of Christianity 5. Dreams and visions 6. The love of God
Another study, by Catholic priest and scholar Jean-Marie Gaudeul, provides the following list of reasons, which he gathered from reading conversion narratives:
1. Jesus is so attractive 2. Christ and Christianity satisfy a thirst for the truth 3. Finding a new family in the Christian Church 4. The need for forgiveness 5. A thirst for God, and specifically a personal relationship with God
Duane Alexander Miller, upon evaluating the studies of Woodberry and Shubin, and Gaudeul, and other studies done by Greenham on Palestinian converts, Cate and Singer on Iranian converts, and Syrjanen on Pakistani converts, suggests the following comprehensive list which takes into account all the research existing to date:
1. Jesus is so attractive 2. Christ and Christianity satisfy a thirst for the truth and have superior explanatory power 3. Love and friendship in the context of the Church 4. The need for forgiveness/a sure salvation 5. A thirst for God, and specifically a personal relationship with God 6. Dreams and visions 7. Disappointment with Islam
Conversions/transfers to another Christian denomination
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2009)|
In groups and denominations that practice believer's baptism, all people who declare themselves "being born again" and who have not previously been baptized as a believer are rebaptized, as baptism is not seen as a sacrament, but as a ritual expression of an interior conversion.
Some denominations accept one's baptism performed by another denomination. Nearly always, the baptism must have been with water and performed in the name of the Trinity. Such converts are usually received by a formal rite which normally also includes taking Communion in the denomination.
In the Catholic, Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, converts also receive the sacrament of Confirmation/Chrismation at reception into the Church, except when they come from a Church whose sacrament has been administered validly (as in the case of an Eastern Orthodox person converting to Catholicism).
In the Latin Church (the largest branch of the Roman Catholic Church), children who convert after having attained the age of reason, but before confirmation age, are generally not confirmed until they have attained that age. In the Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, where infants are chrismated and receive First Communion at baptism, there is no such limitation.
The majority of Protestant churches practice infant baptism. However, most do not deem baptism as essential for salvation. They view it to be a sacrament or ordinance that is an outward symbolic sign of one's identification with Christ and membership in the Christian community. Protestants that do not practice infant baptism include Apostolics, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, Churches of Christ, Pentecostals, and Seventh-day Adventists.
Comparison between Protestants
This table summarizes three different Protestant beliefs.
|Conversion||Monergistic, through the inner calling of the Holy Spirit, irresistible.||Monergistic, through the means of grace, resistible.||Synergistic, resistible due to the common grace of free will.|
- Forced conversion to Christianity
- List of converts to Christianity
- Conversion of the Jews
- Engel Scale
- Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (RCIA)
- The Rage Against God, a book by Peter Hitchens
- Hanigan, James P. "Conversion and Christian Ethics." Online: http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/apr1983/v40-1-article3.htm. Accessed 17 June 2009
- Spilka, Bernard et al. The Psychology of Religion, Third Edition: An Empirical Approach. Guilford Press, 2003, ISBN 1-57230-901-6
- Oscar S. Kriebe. Conversion and Religious Experience, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008. ISBN 0-554-51750-7
- Curran, Charles. A New Look at Christian Morality. Fides, 1970. ASIN: B0029MW7YO
- Peter G. Stromberg. Language and Self-Transformation: A Study of the Christian Conversion Narrative. Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-521-03136-2
- Hefner, Robert W. Conversion to Christianity: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives on a Great Transformation. University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 0-520-07836-5
- Fletcher, Richard. The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity. University of California Press, 1999. ISBN 0-520-21859-0
- Witherington, Ben. Troubled Waters: Rethinking the Theology of Baptism. Baylor University Press, 2007. ISBN 1-60258-004-9.
- Rhodes, Ron. Complete Guide to Christian Denominations. Harvest House, 2005. ISBN 0-7369-1289-4
- What Do We Mean by Sola Scriptura? by Dr. W. Robert Godfrey
- "Becoming A Christian". Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- Woodberry, Dudley; Shubin, R (March 2001). "Muslims Tell...'Why I Chose Jesus'". Mission Frontiers.
- Gaudeul, Jean-Marie (1999). Called from Islam to Christ. UK: Monarch.
- Greenham, Ant (February 2010). "A Study of Palestinian Muslim Conversions to Christ" (PDF). St Francis Magazine 6 (1): 116–175. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Cate, P; Singer, D (1980). A Survey of Muslim Converts in Iran. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Miller, Duane Alexander (October 2014). "An Exploration of Christ's Converts from Islam: Reasons Given for their Conversions". Journal of Asian Mission 15 (2): 15–25. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang, 2006), 70, note 171. Calvin generally defends Augustine’s “monergistic view.”
- http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Monergism and Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang, 2006), 65.
- Roger E. Olson, Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 18. “Arminian synergism” refers to “evangelical synergism, which affirms the prevenience of grace.”