Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

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Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark
konvertibilna marka  (Croatian)  (Bosnian)
конвертибилна марка  (Serbian)
Convertible Marks.jpg
Convertible marks banknotes of both entities
ISO 4217 code BAM
Central bank Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Website www.cbbh.ba
User(s)  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Inflation -0.4%
 Source The World Factbook, 2009 est.
Pegged with euro = 1.95583 convertible marks
Subunit
 1/100 fening
Symbol KM
Plural The language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
Coins 5, 10, 20, 50 feninga, 1, 2, 5 maraka
Banknotes 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 maraka

The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is divided into 100 fenings (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Latin: feninga, Serbian Cyrillic: фенинга). It is locally abbreviated KM (Latin) or КМ (Cyrillic).

History[edit]

The convertible mark was established by the 1995 Dayton Agreement and replaced the Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar, Croatian kuna and Republika Srpska dinar as the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1998. Mark refers to the German mark, the currency to which it was pegged at par.

Etymology[edit]

The names derive from German Mark and Pfennig, hence the occasional local spelling of the subdivision as pfeniga.

Plurals[edit]

Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian have a complicated case system. In combination with the numbers 2, 3, and 4, nouns use the paucal form, which is marke in this case. In combination with numbers 5 or more, nouns use the genitive plural, or maraka. As for the fening, the paucal is feninga with a short unstressed a, whereas the genitive plural is feninga with a long unstressed a.

These matters should be noted when one uses the local names in English. For example, "ten feningas" is incorrect as the final "a" in "feninga" already indicates the plural. The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CBBH) uses "fenings" as the English plural.[1] Likewise, "ten marks" is correct, not "ten marakas".

Coins[edit]

In December 1998, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 & 50 fenings. Coins of 1,2 and 5 marka were introduced later. The coins were designed by Bosnian designer Kenan Zekic[2] and minted at the Royal mint in Llantrisant.

Coins of the marka (1998–present)[1]
Image Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse minting issue withdrawal lapse
[1] 5 fening 18 mm 2,66g nickel-plated steel reeded Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, denomination Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, year 2005~present 5 January 2006 Current
[2] 10 fening 20 mm 3.9 g copper-plated steel plain Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, denomination Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, country name, year 1998~present 9 December 1998 Current
[3] 20 fening 22 mm 4,5 g reeded 1998~present
[4] 50 fening 24 mm 5,15 g 1998~present
[5] 1 marka 23,25 mm 4,95 g nickel-plated steel milled and smooth denomination, country name, indented and inverted triangles* Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2000~present 31 July 2000 Current
[6] 2 marka 25,75 mm 6,9 g cupro-nickel (inner ring),
golden 5.5% nickel brass combination (outer ring)
peace dove 2000~present
[7] 5 marka 30 mm 10,35 g nickel-brass (inner ring),
copper-nickel (outer ring)
milled 2005~present 5 January 2006
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.
  • The triangles are intended for the visually impaired.

Banknotes[edit]

In 1998, notes were introduced in denominations of 50 fenings, 1 mark, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 marks. 200-mark notes were added in 2002, whilst the 50-fening, 1 and 5 mark notes were later withdrawn from circulation. All current notes are valid throughout the country.

The banknotes are issued by the Central Bank of Bosnia Herzegovina, with distinct designs for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, except for the 5 and 200-mark note. On the notes of the Republika Srpska inscriptions are printed in Cyrillic then Lation script and vice versa. Banknotes, with the exception of the 200-mark note, are printed by the French company Oberthur.[3]

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina issues[edit]

Republika Srpska issues[1]
Image Value Dimensions Watermark Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
50 feninga/фенинга 120 mm × 60 mm Central Bank monogram repeated vertically Skender Kulenović  ? No date (1998) 22 June 1998 1 January 2003[4] 1 April 2018[5]
1 marka/марка 120 mm × 60 mm Ivan Frano Jukić  ? 1 January 2009[6]
10 maraka/марака 130 x 65 mm Mehmedalija Mak Dizdar  ? No date (1998)
(2008)
(2012)
Current
20 maraka/марака 138 x 68 mm Antun Branko Šimić  ? 27 June 1998
[8] [9] 50 maraka/марака 146 x 71 mm Musa Ćazim Ćatić  ? No date (1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2009)
(2012)
[10] [11] 100 maraka/марака 154 x 74 mm Nikola Šop  ? No date (1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2012)
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre.

Republika Srpska issues[edit]

Republika Srpska issues[1]
Image Value Dimensions Watermark Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
50 feninga/фенинга 120 mm × 60 mm Central Bank monogram repeated vertically Branko Ćopić house and books No date (1998) 22 June 1998 1 January 2003[4] 1 April 2018[5]
1 marka/марка 120 mm × 60 mm Ivo Andrić The Bridge on the Drina 1 January 2009[6]
10 maraka/марака 130 x 65 mm Aleksa Šantić Loaf of bread No date (1998)
(2008)
(2012)
Current
20 maraka/марака 138 x 68 mm Filip Višnjić Gusle (musical instrument) 27 June 1998
[12] [13] 50 maraka/марака 146 x 71 mm Jovan Dučić pen, eyeglasses and book No date (1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2009)
(2012)
[14] [15] 100 maraka/марака 154 x 74 mm Petar Kočić pen, eyeglasses and book No date (1998)
(2002)
(2007)
(2008)
(2012)
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre.

Nationwide issues[edit]

The portrait of Meša Selimović, a writer, was featered by consensus between both entities on all 5 KM notes used between 1998 and 2010.

On 15 May 2002 a 200 KM banknote, designed by Robert Kalina, was introduced during a promotion that was held in the Central Bank of BH. The reverse design which depicts a bridge is meant to resemble the euro banknotes, which were also designed by Robert Kalina. After an international tender the Austrian Company Oesterreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck GmbH (OeBS) in Vienna was chosen to print the notes. Inititally six million were ordered.[7]

Nationwide issues[1]
Image Value Dimensions Watermark Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse printing issue withdrawal lapse
5 maraka/марака 122 x 62 mm Central Bank monogram repeated vertically Meša Selimović Trees No date (1998) 22 June 1998 1 January 2010[8] 1 April 2018[5]
[16] [17] 200 maraka/марака 156 x 76 mm image of the Bridge on River Drina[9] Ivo Andrić The Bridge on the Drina No date (2002) 15 May 2002 Current
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre.

Exchange rates[edit]

Initially the mark was pegged to the German mark at par. Since the replacement of the German mark by the euro in 2002, the Bosnian convertible mark uses the same fixed exchange rate to euro that the German mark has (that is, 1 EUR = 1.95583 BAM).

Current BAM exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From XE.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From OANDA.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD HRK

See also[edit]

Currencies of Former Yugoslavia
territory 1918 1920 1941 1944 1992 1994 1995 1998 1999 2002 2003 2007 territory
 Macedonia Serbian dinar
(Kingdom of Serbia)
Yugoslav dinar
(Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1920-1929,
Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1929-1941)
Bulgarian lev Yugoslav dinar
(DF Yugoslavia 1944–1946,
FPR Yugoslavia 1946–1963,
SFR Yugoslavia 1963-1992,
FR Yugoslavia 1992-1999,
Serbia 1999-2003,
Republika Srpska 1994-1998)
Macedonian denar Macedonia
 Serbia   Serbian dinar (Occupied Serbia)     Serbian dinar Serbia
Kosovo Albanian lek
(Kosovo and Western Macedonia)
German mark Euro   Kosovo
 Montenegro Montenegrin perper
(Kingdom of Montenegro)
Italian lira
(Occupied Montenegro)
Montenegro
 Slovenia Yugoslav krone
(State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs)
German Reichsmark Slovenian tolar Slovenia
 Croatia   Independent State of Croatia kuna Croatian dinar   Croatian kuna Croatia
Republic of Serbian Krajina Krajina dinar
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar
(Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska dinar Yugoslav dinar

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Available at: http://www.cbbh.ba/index.php?id=19&lang=en
  2. ^ Website of Kenan Zekic. Available at: http://kenanzekic.com.ba/
  3. ^ Mulic, Josef (2000). Papirini novac na tlu bosne i hercegovine od 1918. godine do danas
  4. ^ a b http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=306
  5. ^ a b c http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=854
  6. ^ a b http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=538
  7. ^ http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=312
  8. ^ http://www.cbbh.ba/index.php?id=638&lang=en
  9. ^ Central Bank. http://cbbh.ba/index.php?id=312M