Convoy Battles of World War II

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Convoy Battles of World War II occurred when convoys of cargo ships assembled for mutual defense, and were attacked by enemy submarines, surface ships, and/or aircraft. Most were in the North Atlantic from 1939 to 1943, and involved attacks by U-Boat wolfpacks. Convoy battles also occurred in the Mediterranean Sea and western Pacific Ocean.

Convoy Escort Date Located[1] Warships Bombers U-Boats[1] Ships Sunk[1] Tonnage Lost(GRT)[1]
HX 65 24 August 1940 0 12[2] 3[3] 7[3] 42,311[3]
HX 72 (none)[4] 20 September 1940 9 11 72,727
SC 7 16 October 1940 7 20 79,592
HX 79 19 October 1940 5 12 75,069
HX 84[5] HMS Jervis Bay 5 November 1940 Scheer 0 0 5 33,331
HX 90 (none)[6] 1 December 1940 7 11 73,958
HG 53 8 February 1941[7] Hipper[7] 5[7] 1[7] 9[7] 15,218[7]
SL 64 (none)[7] 12 February 1941[7] Hipper[7] 7[7] 32,806[7]
HX 112 5th EG[8] 15 March 1941 5 5 34,505
SC 26 1 April 1941 8 10 51,969
OB 318 3rd EG[9] 7 May 1941 4 9 50,985
HX 126 HMS Aurania[10] 19 May 1941 11 9 51,862
OG 69 24 July 1941 8 7 11,303
OG 71 17 August 1941 8 10 15,185
SC 42 NEF EG 24[11] 9 September 1941 0 0 19 16 68,259
HG 73 19 September 1941 5 10 25,818
GM 2 Force H[12] 25 September 1941[13] 2 × BB[14] 62[15] 11[13] 1[16] 12,427[16]
SC 48 EG 4.1.15[17] 15 October 1941 9 11 49,835
HG 76 36th EG[18] 16 December 1941 10 4 18,383
NA 2 31 January 1942 4 1 1,190
ONS 67 TU 4.1.5[19] 21 February 1942[19] 0[19] 0[19] 5[19] 8[19] 54,750[20]
MW 10[21] 21 March 1942 Littorio 9 3 2 17,031
PQ 13 28 March 1942 9 2 11,507
ONS 92 A-3[22] 11 May 1942 0 0 6 7 36,284
ONS 100 C-1[22] 8 June 1942 0 0 6 5 20,478
MW 11[23] 12 June 1942 6 2 12,915
GM 4[23] Force X 14 June 1942 0 4 29,129
PQ 17 1st EG 1 July 1942 190[24] 9 16 102,311
ON 115 C-3[22] 29 July 1942 0 0 12 3 21,456
SC 94 C-1[22] 5 August 1942 0 0 17 11 53,421
WS.5.21.S[25] 10 August 1942 316 2 9 88,812
ON 122[26] B-6[22] 22 August 1942 0 0 14 4 17,235
ON 127 C-4[22] 9 September 1942 0 0 12 8 51,619
PQ 18 12 September 1942 77 5 3 19,689
SC 100 C-4[22] 18 September 1942 0 0 17 5 26,331
QP 14 20 September 1942 7 6 23,474
RB 1[27] 23 September 1942 0 0 9 3 11,525
SC 104 B-6[22] 12 October 1942 0 0 17 8 43,970
HX 212 A-3[22] 26 October 1942 0 0 13 6 51,918
SL 125 27 October 1942 0 10 12 80,005
SC 107 C-4[22] 30 October 1942 0 0 16 15 82,817
ON 144 B-6[22] 15 November 1942 0 0 13 6 26,321
ON 153 B-7[22] 15 December 1942 0 0 13 4 19,551
JW 51B[28] 24 December 1942 2 × CA 0 1 0
ONS 154 C-1[22] 26 December 1942[29] 0[30] 0[30] 16[29] 14[30] 69,378[31]
TM 1 B-5[28] 3 January 1943 0 0 14 7 56,453
SC 118 B-2[22] 4 February 1943 0 0 20 11 59,765
ON 166 A-3[22] 21 February 1943 0 0 19 14 88,001
UC 1[32] 44th EG[33] 22 February 1943 0 0 11 3 26,682
81[34] 8 × DD 1 March 1943 10 × MTB 114 0 8 37,324
SC 121 A-3[22] 6 March 1943 0 0 26 12 55,661
HX 228 B-3[22] 10 March 1943 0 0 19 5 25,515
UGS 6[35] 12 March 1943 0 0 17 4 28,018
HX 229 B-4[22] 16 March 1943 0 0 43 13 93,502
SC 122 B-5[22] 17 March 1943 0 0 43 9 53,094
RS 3 27 March 1943 7 3 15,389
HX 231 B-7[22] 4 April 1943 0 0 11 6 41,494
ONS 5 B-7[22] 28 April 1943 0 0 55 13 61,958
TS 37 30 April 1943 1 7 43,255
JW 55B[36] 22 December 1943 Scharnhorst 0 2 0
JW 56A 25 January 1944 0 4 4 21,584
Hi-40[37] Shimushu[38] 19 February 1944[38] 0[38] 0[38] 2[38] 5[38] 28,075[37]
Hi-71[39] 6th EG 17 August 1944 0 0 6 5 73,071[40]
Hi-81[41] 8th EG 15 November 1944[41] 0 1 6[42] 3[41] 36,100[42]

References[edit]

  • Blair, Clay (1975). Silent Victory. New York: J.B. Lippincott Company. 
  • Blair, Clay (1996). Hitler's U-Boat War:The Hunters 1939–1942. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-58839-8. 
  • Blair, Clay (1998). Hitler's U-Boat War:The Hunted 1942–1945. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-45742-9. 
  • Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1. 
  • Dönitz, Karl (1958). Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 560. ISBN 978-0306807640. 
  • Edwards, Bernard (1999). Donitz and the Wolf Packs. Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1-86019-927-5. 
  • Greene, Jack; Massignani, Alessandro (1998). The Naval War in the Mediterranean 1940–1943. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-885119-61-5. 
  • Hague, Arnold (2000). The Allied Convoy System 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-019-3. 
  • Irving, David (1968). The Destruction of Convoy PQ.17. Simon and Schuster. 
  • Milner, Marc (1985). North Atlantic Run. Naval Institute Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-87021-450-0. 
  • Rohwer, J. and Hummelchen, G. (1992). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-105-X. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Famous Convoy Battles". uboat.net. Guðmundur Helgason. Retrieved 6 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.32
  3. ^ a b c "Convoy HX.65". Arnold Hague Convoy Database. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Edwards, p.26
  5. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.41
  6. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.42&43
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.50
  8. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.54
  9. ^ Blair, (1996) p.278
  10. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.62
  11. ^ Milner, p.67
  12. ^ Greene & Massignani, p.182
  13. ^ a b Greene & Massignani, p.184
  14. ^ Greene & Massignani, p.187
  15. ^ Greene & Massignani, p.185
  16. ^ a b Greene & Massignani, p.191
  17. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.90
  18. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.108
  19. ^ a b c d e f Abbazia, Patrick (September 1975). "When the Good Shepherds Were Blind". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. p. 50. 
  20. ^ "Convoy ON.67". Andrew Hague convoy database. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  21. ^ Greene & Massignani, pp.216–222
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Milner, p.286
  23. ^ a b Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.145&146
  24. ^ Irving, p.19
  25. ^ Vego, Milan. "MAJOR CONVOY OPERATION TO MALTA, 10–15 AUGUST 1942 (OPERATION PEDESTAL)". United States Naval War College. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  26. ^ Milner, pp.148-150
  27. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.164&165
  28. ^ a b Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.184
  29. ^ a b Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.183
  30. ^ a b c "Convoy ONS 154". J. Gordon Mumford. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  31. ^ "Convoy ON.154". Andrew Hague convoy database. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  32. ^ Blair, (1998) pp.811-812
  33. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.195
  34. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.197&198
  35. ^ Hague, p.181
  36. ^ Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.250
  37. ^ a b "Hisendan". Nifty.com. Retrieved 17 November 2013. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f Cressman, pp. 213 & 214
  39. ^ Blair, (1975) pp.676–678
  40. ^ "Convoy HI-71 And USS HARDER's Last Battles". MilitaryPhotos.net. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  41. ^ a b c Cressman, pp. 274 & 275
  42. ^ a b Blair, (1975) pp.748 & 749