Copa Airlines

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Copa Airlines
Copa airlines logo.svg
IATA
CM
ICAO
CMP
Callsign
COPA
Founded June 21, 1944 (1944-06-21)
Commenced operations August 15, 1947 (1947-08-15)
Hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program

MileagePlus

ConnectMiles (starting July 2015)
Airport lounge Copa Club (in partnership with United)
Alliance
Subsidiaries Copa Airlines Colombia
Fleet size 98
Destinations 72
Company slogan Connected, everything is possible
Parent company Copa Holdings, S.A.
Headquarters Panama City, Panama
Key people Pedro Heilbron (CEO)
Jose Montero (CFO)
Revenue Increase US$2,249 million (FY 2012)[1]
Operating income Increase US$402,5 million (FY 2012)[1]
Net income Increase US$326.4 million (FY 2012)[1]
Website www.copa.com

Compañía Panameña de Aviación, S.A., (NYSECPA) (commonly referred to simply as "Copa Airlines")[2] is the flag carrier of Panama. It is headquartered in Panama City, Panama,[1] with its main hub at Tocumen International Airport. It operates more than 326 daily scheduled flights to 72 destinations in 30 countries around North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Copa is a subsidiary of Copa Holdings, S.A. as well as a member of the Star Alliance.[3] The airline is also the main operator and owner of Colombian airline AeroRepública, currently known as Copa Airlines Colombia.

Copa was founded in 1947 as the national airline of Panama and it began domestic operations to three cities in Panama shortly afterwards. The airline then abandoned its domestic flights in 1980, in favor of international flights. In 1998, Copa formed a strategic partnership with Continental Airlines, adopting a new brand image and the OnePass frequent flyer program, later replaced by MileagePlus (will be replaced by ConnectMiles in July 2015). [4]

As of 2013, Copa Airlines employed over 9,000 people, most of them residing in Panama and was one of the fastest growing and largest companies in the country. It is headed by Chief Executive Officer Pedro Heilbron.[5]

History[edit]

Inauguration[edit]

The airline was established as Compañía Panameña de Aviación (hence the acronym COPA) on June 21, 1944, and started operations on August 15, 1947. It was founded by a group of prominent Panamanian investors with assistance from Pan American World Airways, who took a 32% stake. It began operating domestic flights with a small fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft. The airline started its first international flights in the early 1970’s, with services to cities in Jamaica, Colombia, and Costa Rica.

Until the early 1980s, the airline had significant competition from Air Panamá Internacional, which had a higher profile. Copa discontinued domestic flights in 1980 and acquired its first jet, a Boeing 737-100. Today, the airline operates flights to San Juan, Puerto Rico, as well as to the Dominican Republic and Miami, Florida. Until the introduction of the Embraer 190 in 2005, the airline had an all-Boeing 737 fleet.

Expansion years[edit]

Expansion continued during the 1990s, when it began service to Buenos Aires, Argentina; Santiago, Chile; Bogotá, Colombia; Havana, Cuba; Guayaquil, Ecuador; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Caracas, Venezuela; and many other important Latin American cities.

In 1992, Copa Airlines signed a strategic alliance with El Salvador-based TACA Airlines, and the airline began flying from Tocumen International Airport, making it the first flight connection center in Latin and Central America. As a result, Tocumen was dubbed as the “Hub of the Americas” and several Latin American airlines such as LACSA of Costa Rica, Aviateca of Guatemala, and NICA of Nicaragua joined the alliance. The alliance ended in 1998 when the six-year agreement expired.

In 1998, Continental Airlines acquired 49% of the airline, marking the beginning of a comprehensive marketing and operating alliance. On May 19, 1999, Continental increased its stake to 51%. Since then, Copa has adopted a livery and corporate logo similar to Continental’s (now United). Copa participated in the OnePass frequent flyer program until Continental’s merger with United Airlines. In connection with the initial public offering in December 2005, Continental reduced its stake to approximately 27.3% and through a follow-on offering in 2006, further reduced it to approximately 10%.[1]

Since 1980, the Boeing 737 has been a backbone for the medium-long haul expansion of Copa Airlines. Pictured; a Boeing 737-800.

In 2000, Copa Airlines inaugurated service to Los Angeles, Cancún, and Orlando, as well as to São Paulo; in 2001, it began service to Quito, Ecuador. In 2004, it began service to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. Copa also announced in August of that year a codeshare agreement with Mexico's Mexicana de Aviación, which lasted until 2007.

On June 1, 2005, Copa Airlines acquired 90% of the Colombian domestic air carrier AeroRepública, having earlier announced a codeshare plan with the carrier. Copa rebranded AeroRepública to Copa Airlines Colombia in 2010, increased destinations and modernized the fleet. On December 15, 2005, parent company Copa Holdings, S.A., launched an IPO of 14 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange thus becoming the fourth Latin American airline to be traded on the exchange, after LAN Airlines of Chile and Brazilian carriers Gol Transportes Aéreos and TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aéreas).

In 2006, Copa Airlines began service to six new destinations: Manaus, Brazil; Maracaibo, Venezuela; Montevideo, Uruguay; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; San Pedro Sula, Honduras; and Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic. In addition, Copa Airlines took delivery of six Embraer 190s and two Boeing 737s.

In 2007, Copa Airlines added services to Córdoba, Argentina; Guadalajara, Mexico; Punta Cana, Dominican Republic; and Washington, D.C.. Copa Airlines added four Embraer 190s and two Boeing 737s (-800 series). That same year, the airline joined the SkyTeam alliance as a associate member.

Embraer 190, mainly deployed for regional flights across Central America.

During 2008, Copa Airlines added five new destinations and received four Embraer 190s and one Boeing 737-800. The new destinations are Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Valencia, Venezuela; Oranjestad, Aruba; and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. In May 2008, Continental Airlines sold its remaining 4.38 million shares of Copa Airlines for $35.75 a share, yielding a net profit of approximately $149.8 million.[6]

That same year, Copa Airlines' CEO Pedro Heilbron announced on the ALTA airline leaders forum in Cancún that the airline had decided to leave SkyTeam and were in exclusive talks with Star Alliance.[7]

In 2009, Copa Airlines announced it would withdraw from SkyTeam on October 24, the same date that partner Continental Airlines left the alliance.[8] The company added two Boeing 737-800s.[9] and announced a firm order for 13 Boeing 737-800s with the new Boeing signature "Sky Interior".[10]

In 2010, Copa Airlines began service to St. Maarten, received nine Boeing 737-800s and announced that it would join Star Alliance in mid-2012 to rejoin old partner Continental Airlines (now United) and become the first Latin American airline to join the alliance. That same year, Copa Airlines announced a firm order to purchase 32 Boeing 737-800 planes valued at $1.7 billion, thus becoming the largest plane order in the airline's history. The Boeing 737-800 are set for delivery between 2015 and 2018, with an option to acquire ten additional 737-800 aircraft.[11]

On June 2012, Copa Airlines became one of the first Latin American airlines to enter to the Star Alliance.

In 2011, Copa Airlines began service to Toronto; Brasilia and Porto Alegre, Brazil; Chicago; Cúcuta, Colombia; Montego Bay, Jamaica; Monterrey, Mexico and Asunción, Paraguay;[12][13][14][15] and Nassau, The Bahamas. It also passed from a four bank hub to a six bank hub and increased frequencies to several destinations.[clarification needed]

That same year, Copa Airlines launched a mobile version of its website (m.copaair.com), giving passengers the chance to get a mobile pass and check flight status and other services. Additionally, the airline announced a new codeshare agreement with TAME, which became effective in January 2012. Copa Airlines also became the first airline in Latin America to have the new Boeing 737-800NG Sky Interior with improved performance in its fleet.

In 2012, the company announced five new destinations: Las Vegas, United States; Recife, Brazil; Willemstad, Curaçao; Liberia, Costa Rica; and Iquitos, Peru.[16][17] On June of the same year, Copa Airlines became an official member of the Star Alliance along with AviancaTaca.

Copa also increased flight frequencies to several destinations and inaugurated an interline agreement with Air Panama (Panama's second-largest airline) which consists of the linkage of all tourist destinations in Panama with those in Latin America. The agreement became effective June 1, 2012, when Air Panama began flights from Tocumen airport to Isla Colón, Bocas del Toro.[18]

In 2013, Copa increased the frequency to several destinations and included two new destinations in the United States: Boston and Tampa.[19][20]

Aviation Partners Boeing (APB) announced 10 October 2013, that Copa Airlines placed an order to retrofit some of its existing Boeing Next Generation 737's Blended Winglets with APB's new Split Scimitar Winglets, as part of its environmental strategy. The new APB winglet technology will save Copa more than $21 million in jet fuel costs fleetwide and more than 63,000 tons of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) outputs per year.[21]

In January 2014, Copa Airlines announced three new destinations and revealed its business strategy for the year, which included the delivery of eight new Boeing 737-800 aircraft and the increase of flight frequencies to some destinations. The new destinations are Montreal, Canada; Fort Lauderdale, United States and Georgetown, Guyana.[22] In July, it added Campinas, Brazil; and Santa Clara, Cuba.[23] In April 2014, Copa Airlines became the first airline in Latin America and the third in the world to implement the Split Scimitar Winglets on its Boeing 737 NG fleet.

Destinations[edit]

Copa Airlines currently flies to 72 destinations in 30 countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.

Fleet[edit]

As of March 2015, Copa Airlines operated a total of 98 aircraft, with an average fleet age of 4.3 years.[24] The Boeing customer code for Copa Airlines is V3, yielding model numbers such as 737-8V3, representing in this example a Boeing 737-800 aircraft manufactured for Copa Airlines.

Copa Airlines Fleet
Aircraft In Service Orders Engines Passengers Notes
J Y Total
Boeing 737-700 17 - CFM56-7B22
12
112
124
Older aircraft to be replaced with Boeing 737-800s.
Boeing 737-800 55 35 CFM56-7B26
16
16
138
144
154
160
Deliveries through 2018.

55 aircraft to get Split Scimitar winglets by 2018. Replacing older Boeing 737-700s.

Embraer 190 26 - GE CF34-10E6
10
84
94
Total 98 35
  • Copa Airlines was the first Latin American customer of the Embraer E-190. The airline also operated the longest scheduled Boeing 737-700 flight in the world between Panama City and Montevideo in Uruguay until it was overtaken by Scandinavian Airlines's Stavanger to Houston service.[25][26]
  • The average age of Copa Airlines aircraft is approximately 4.3 years.[9]
  • In October 2004, Copa Airlines announced an order to purchase ten Embraer E-190 aircraft with options for an additional 20 new aircraft. Later orders were increased by exercising five options. Six aircraft were delivered in the first quarter of 2007.[1]
  • In June 2007 the airline took delivery of its seventh Embraer E-190 aircraft, the first of five that year. The aircraft are configured with 10 seats in Clase Ejecutiva (Business Class) and 84 seats in economy.[27][28]
  • On 31 May 2007, the airline made firm commitments to purchase four Boeing 737-Next Generation(series -800) and ten Embraer E-190, representing an investment of approximately $1.1 billion.[1][29]
  • On 30 December 2008, Copa announced the order for four additional Boeing 737-800.[9][30][31]
  • On 16 July 2009, the airline announced an order for 13 Boeing 737-800 that will come with the new Boeing's signature "Sky Interior".[10]
  • On 30 November 2010, Copa and Boeing announced the purchase of 22 Boeing 737-800 planes, set for delivery between 2015 and 2018, with an option to acquire ten more Boeing 737-800, valued approximately at $1.7 billion. This was the largest plane order in Copa Airlines history.
  • On 4 April 2013, Copa Airlines received the first of the Next-Generation 737s, which is registration HP-1831CMP.[32]
  • In 2012, the airline began investigating the acquisition of the re-engineered Boeing 737 MAX family, but has not made a final decision.
  • On 8 April 2014, the carrier received its first Boeing 737-800 (registered HP-1836CMP) with Split Scimitar winglets and expects to retrofit all the Boeing 737s with the new winglets.

Liveries[edit]

During the last 20 years, Copa Airlines has had multiple liveries on their aircraft.

Since its founding in 1947, Copa Airlines used several liveries during the update of its fleet from turboprops to jetliners. Also, it has special liveries within its fleet. In November 2003, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Republic of Panama, Copa Airlines adorned its fleet of Boeing 737-700s with a special livery depicting the official centennial logo and portrait of the first president of Panama, Manuel Amador Guerrero.

In 2006, a Copa Airlines Embraer 190 sported a special livery denoting it was the 200th Embraer 190 produced by the Brazilian plane manufacturer Embraer.

On 3 February 2011, the Tourism Authority of Panama worked alongside Copa Airlines to create a special livery for a Boeing 737-800 (registered HP-1534CMP) depicting a butterfly logo of Panama and the URL "visitpanama.com". This was part of an effort to promote tourism in Panama. As of 2013, the plane no longer has the logo on the left forward side.

On 6 March 2012, a new Copa Airlines Boeing 737-800 (registered HP-1728CMP) carried with the Star Alliance livery. Also, it introduced a redesigned font style in the Copa Airlines' logo. This plane was inactive until 21 June, when it was exhibited in the celebration of the company's official integration to the Star Alliance. The aircraft began service six days later, making the first scheduled non-stop passenger flight from Panama to Las Vegas. On 30 May 2012, another new Boeing 737-800 (registered HP-1823CMP) received the Star Alliance livery.

Copa received a new Boeing 737-800 (registered HP-1825CMP) in October 2012, sporting a livery depicting Frank Gehry's Biomuseo, a museum that opened in Panama City in October 2013.

In March 2013, a newly-built Boeing 737-800 for Copa Airlines (registered HP-1830CMP) was painted with the Star Alliance livery scheme. This was the third aircraft in the fleet with the former Star Alliance livery.

In August 2014, Copa Airlines worked with the Panama Canal Authority to launch a special campaign in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Panama Canal. The campaign included the implementation of a special livery, which has a graphic image of the locks, on the back of two Boeing 737-800 aircraft and is expected to be implemented on more than 40 aircraft of the fleet.

From 1947 to present, Copa Airlines has used the following liveries:

  • Compañia Panameña de Aviación - (1947–1961)
  • Vuele Copa - (1961–1965)
  • Copa Panama (original) - White fuselage with a red or green cheatline (1965–1971)
  • Copa Panama (1st upgrade) - Red and orange cheatline with white fuselage (1971–1980)
  • Copa Panama (2nd upgrade) - Red and yellow cheatline with white fuselage (1980–1990)
  • Copa "Billboard Style" - Red and yellow cheatline with white fuselage, and "Copa" logo in the front part of the widebody and tail. (1990–1999)
  • Copa Airlines - white and gray fuselage, with gold cheatline in the middle, and the well-known globe logo. (1999–present)

The white and gray livery has been used by Copa Airlines since 1999, after Continental raised its ownership of the company to 51% in that year. Although Continental ceased operations on March 2012 as a result of its merger with United Airlines, Copa and United still use the same livery and the "globe" logo design, but the font styles of both airlines has changed.

Services[edit]

Business Class[edit]

A Copa Airlines Boeing 737-800 departing Los Angeles International Airport, in California (2014).

Business seats are available on all aircraft. Business Class passengers check in at separate counters and are given priority with boarding and baggage handling, access to the Copa/United Club and other airline lounges, and bonus miles for the MileagePlus program. In-flight service includes pre-departure beverages, multi course meals, and pilows and blankets (depending on the type and duration of the flight) on international flights. Business Class also is equipped with reclinable leather seats with footrests and adjustable headrest, a 110-volt power outlet, a large tray table, an USB port, and a personal Audio-Video-on-Demand (AVOD) screen.

On long-haul flights, a courtesy kit containing toiletry items, hot towels and bottled water are offered.

Economy Class[edit]

Economy seats are available on all aircraft. Economy seats on brand-new Boeing 737-800s feature an adjustable headrest and a personal AVOD with a 5 inches (13 cm) touch screen, while older 737-800's provide entretainment on flip down screens above the seats. All Boeing 737 and Embraer E-190 are also equipped with a radio antenna, which allows passengers to listen a wide list of songs and instrumentals from twelve channels. Food and snacks are available on domestic, short, and some medium-haul international flights. Full meals are complimentary on all other medium and long-haul international flights. Alcoholic drinks are complimentary for economy passengers on all flights.

MileagePlus[edit]

Main article: MileagePlus
Logo of MileagePlus.

MileagePlus is Copa Airlines' frequent flyer program through a partnership with United Airlines, offering frequent travelers the ability to purchase tickets with miles. Customers accrue miles from flight segments flown on Copa Airlines, United Airlines, and other partners. MileagePlus offers additional benefits to its Premier members; status tiers are marketed as Premier Silver, Premier Gold, Premier Platinum, and Premier 1K.

Benefits of Premier status include priority check-in, priority boarding, complimentary upgrades, and discounted airport lounge memberships (United Club/Copa Club). Due to the Continental-United merger, Copa Airlines phased out the OnePass frequent flyer program on December 31, 2011, and adopted the MileagePlus program on March 3, 2012.[33]

On March 2015, Copa Airlines announced that it would phase out the MileagePlus program in favor of a new frequent flyer program called ConnectMiles.[34] [35] The new program is expected to be fully implemented by July 2015.

Copa Airlines also offers frequent flyer partnerships with the following car rental companies:

Copa Club[edit]

Copa Club is the membership airport lounge program of Copa Airlines jointly operated with United Airlines. Copa Club lounge is located in its hub at Tocumen International Airport, Panama City, Panama. The lounges offer amenities for travelers and members also have access to affiliated lounges around the world. The Copa Club locations in Central America and the Caribbean includes:

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Copa Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:
(This list does not include Star Alliance airlines)

Incidents and accidents[edit]

During its history, Copa Airlines had the following incidents and accidents:

Copa Airlines Reported Incidents
Flight Date Aircraft Location Description Casualties
Fatal Serious Minor Uninjured Ground
201[36] June 6, 1992 Boeing 737-200 near Tucutí, Darien Flight 201, a leased Boeing 737-200 Advanced (registered HP-1205CMP), flipped and crashed in the Darien Gap during a flight from Panama City to Cali after an instrument failure. All forty passengers and the seven crew members lost their lives. This is the first and only fatal accident in Copa Airlines history to date. 47 0 0 0 0
301[37] November 19, 1993 Boeing 737-100 Tocumen International Airport The plane (registered HP-873CMP) was damaged beyond repair, when it veered off the runway upon landing at Tocumen International Airport at 19:19 local time following a flight from Miami, Florida, with 86 passengers and six crew members. The pilots had not managed to properly align the aircraft with the runway because of severe crosswinds, which led to the nosegear being torn off. There were no reported injuries. 0 0 0 92 0

Hijackings[edit]

Since its foundation in 1947, Copa Airlines has suffered one hijacking attempt:

  • On 7 August 1994, a hijacking attempt occurred on board a Copa flight from Panama City to Guatemala City. Then it was reported as misunderstanding by Panamanian authorities.[38]

In popular culture[edit]

In the movie The Tailor of Panama, a Copa Airlines 737-700 is shown.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Copa 2012 Annual Report Form 20-F". Copa Holdings. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013. Avenida Principal y Avenida de la Rotonda, Costa del Este Complejo Business Park, Torre Norte Parque Lefevre, Panama City Panama (Address of Principal Executive Offices) 
  2. ^ "Terms and Conditions of this web page". Copa Airlines. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  3. ^ "Star Alliance". Copa Airlines. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Copa Airlines history and how we became the leader in the Latinamerican aviation industry". Copa Airlines. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  5. ^ "Corporate social responsibility". Copa Airlines. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  6. ^ "Continental Selling Shares In Alliance Partner Copa". Aviation Week. May 20, 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2015. (subscription required (help)). 
  7. ^ "Copa and TACA poised to join Star". Flightglobal.com. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  8. ^ "Copa Airlines leaves Skyteam". May 13, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c "Copa Airlines takes delivery of its # 8 Boeing 737-800". February 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b "Boeing, Panama's Copa Airlines Announce Order for 13 737-800s" (Press release). Boeing. July 16, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Copa Airlines completes new order for up to 32 Boeing 737 Next-Generation aircraft" (Press release). Copa Airlines. November 30, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Nuevo destino: Chicago, Estados Unidos" [New Destination: Chicago, United States] (Press release) (in Spanish). Copa Airlines. June 13, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Copa Holdings Celebrates Five Years of Trading on the New York Stock Exchange by Announcing Expansion Plans" (Press release). Copa Airlines. June 13, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Copa Airlines anuncia planes de expansión, desde hoy inicia servicio a cuatro ciudades y añade tres nuevos destinos" [Copa Airlines Announces Expansion Plans, launches service to four cities and adds three new destinations today] (Press release) (in Spanish). Copa Airlines. June 15, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Copa Airlines anuncia vuelo directo y sin escalas, entre Panamá y Brasilia, capital de Brasil" [Copa Airlines Announces Nonstop direct, between Panama and Brasilia, capital of Brazil] (Press release) (in Spanish). Copa Airlines. March 14, 2011. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  16. ^ "Copa Airlines begins new nonstop service between Las Vegas and Panamá" (Press release). Copa Airlines. June 27, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  17. ^ "Copa Airlines announces new route between Panama and Iquitos, Peru" (Press release). Copa Airlines. April 9, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Conectarán Isla Colón con Latinoamérica" [Isla Colon connected with Latin America]. La Prensa (Panama City). January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  19. ^ Jackovics, Ted (July 17, 2013). "Copa Airlines to start Tampa-Panama service in December". The Tampa Tribune. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  20. ^ Weiss, Bob (July 15, 2013). "All Things Travel: Copa Airlines Begins Logan Service". WBZ News. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Copa Airlines Orders Split Scimitar Winglets" (Press release). Aviation Partners Boeing. October 9, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Copa Airlines Announces 2014 Growth Plans, Three New Destinations" (Press release). Copa Airlines accessdate=January 29, 2015. January 22, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Copa Airlines Announces Two New Destinations, Strengthens Its Route Network" (Press release). Copa Airlines. July 23, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  24. ^ "Hub of the Americas". Copa Airlines. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Great Circle Mapper". 
  26. ^ "SAS Launches Stavanger-Houston Service" (Press release). SAS. March 31, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  27. ^ "Copa Airlines Takes Delivery of Its Seventh Embraer 190". Copa Airlines. June 22, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Copa Airlines takes delivery of Embraer aircraft" (Press release). November 18, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Copa Airlines takes delivery of its # 7 Boeing 737-800". 2008-06-06. 
  30. ^ "Copa Airlines firm order for four Boeing 737-800". December 30, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Copa Airlines firms orders". September 2008. 
  32. ^ "Boeing Rolls Out First Next-Generation 737 at Higher Production Rate". Boeing. March 18, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  33. ^ "United Hub - United Airlines News, Products, MileagePlus®, Mobile, Web and More". Onepassmergerupdates.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  34. ^ "Introduction". Copa Airlines. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  35. ^ "Introduction". Copa Airlines. Retrieved March 18, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Database: 6 June 1992". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Database: 19 November 1003". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Database: 7 August 1994". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 

External links[edit]