Copa Libertadores records and statistics

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This page details the records and statistics of the Copa Libertadores. The Copa Libertadores is an international premier club tournament played annually by the top clubs of South America. It includes 3-5 teams from all ten CONMEBOL members plus Mexico, whose clubs are invited guests to the tournament. It is typically held from February to June and it consists of six stages.

General performances[edit]

By club[edit]

For details on winning clubs, see List of Copa Libertadores finals.
Performance in the Copa Libertadores by club
Club
Won Runner-up Years won Years runner-up
Argentina Independiente 7 0 1964, 1965, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1984 &
Argentina Boca Juniors 6 4 1977, 1978, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007 1963, 1979, 2004, 2012
Uruguay Peñarol 5 5 1960, 1961, 1966, 1982, 1987 1962, 1965, 1970, 1983, 2011
Argentina Estudiantes 4 1 1968, 1969, 1970, 2009 1971
Paraguay Olimpia 3 4 1979, 1990, 2002 1960, 1989, 1991, 2013
Uruguay Nacional 3 3 1971, 1980, 1988 1964, 1967, 1969
Brazil São Paulo 3 3 1992, 1993, 2005 1974, 1994, 2006
Brazil Santos 3 1 1962, 1963, 2011 2003
Brazil Cruzeiro 2 2 1976, 1997 1977, 2009
Brazil Grêmio 2 2 1983, 1995 1984, 2007
Argentina River Plate 2 2 1986, 1996 1966, 1976
Brazil Internacional 2 1 2006, 2010 1980
Brazil Palmeiras 1 3 1999 1961, 1968, 2000
Colombia Atlético Nacional 1 1 1989 1995
Chile Colo-Colo 1 1 1991 1973
Argentina Racing 1 0 1967 &
Brazil Flamengo 1 0 1981 &
Argentina Argentinos Juniors 1 0 1985 &
Argentina Vélez Sarsfield 1 0 1994 &
Brazil Vasco da Gama 1 0 1998 &
Colombia Once Caldas 1 0 2004 &
Ecuador LDU Quito 1 0 2008 &
Brazil Corinthians 1 0 2012 &
Brazil Atlético Mineiro 1 0 2013 &
Colombia América de Cali 0 4 &
1985, 1986, 1987, 1996
Colombia Deportivo Cali 0 2 &
1978, 1999
Chile Cobreloa 0 2 &
1981, 1982
Argentina Newell's Old Boys 0 2 &
1988, 1992
Ecuador Barcelona 0 2 &
1990, 1998
Peru Universitario 0 1 &
1972
Chile Unión Española 0 1 &
1975
Chile Universidad Católica 0 1 &
1993
Peru Sporting Cristal 0 1 &
1997
Mexico Cruz Azul 0 1 &
2001
Brazil São Caetano 0 1 &
2002
Brazil Atlético Paranaense 0 1 &
2005
Brazil Fluminense 0 1 &
2008
Mexico Guadalajara 0 1 &
2010

By country[edit]

Country Winners Runners-up Winning clubs Runners-up
 Argentina 22 9 Independiente (7), Boca Juniors (6), Estudiantes (4), River Plate (2), Racing (1), Argentinos Juniors (1), Vélez Sársfield (1) Boca Juniors (4), River Plate (2), Newell's Old Boys (2), Estudiantes (1)
 Brazil 17 15 São Paulo (3), Santos (3), Grêmio (2), Cruzeiro (2), Internacional (2), Palmeiras (1), Flamengo (1), Vasco de Gama (1), Corinthians (1), Atlético Mineiro (1) São Paulo (3), Palmeiras (3), Grêmio (2), Cruzeiro (2), Internacional (1), Santos (1), São Caetano (1), Atlético Paranaense (1), Fluminense (1)
 Uruguay 8 8 Peñarol (5), Nacional (3) Peñarol (5), Nacional (3)
 Paraguay 3 4 Olimpia (3) Olimpia (4)
 Colombia 2 7 Atlético Nacional (1), Once Caldas (1) América de Cali (4), Deportivo Cali, (2), Atlético Nacional (1)
 Chile 1 5 Colo-Colo (1) Cobreloa (2), Colo-Colo (1), Unión Española (1), Universidad Católica (1)
 Ecuador 1 2 LDU Quito (1) Barcelona (2)
 Peru 0 2 &
Universitario (1), Sporting Cristal (1)
 Mexico 0 2 &
Cruz Azul (1), Guadalajara (1)

By city[edit]

City Winners Runners-up Winning clubs Runners-up
Argentina Buenos Aires
10
6
Boca Juniors (6), River Plate (2), Argentinos Juniors (1), Vélez Sársfield (1) Boca Juniors (4), River Plate (2)
Uruguay Montevideo
8
8
Peñarol (5), Nacional (3) Peñarol (5), Nacional (3)
Argentina Avellaneda
8
0
Independiente (7), Racing (1) &
Brazil São Paulo
5
6
São Paulo (3), Palmeiras (1), Corinthians (1) São Paulo (3), Palmeiras (3)
Brazil Porto Alegre
4
3
Grêmio (2), Internacional (2) Grêmio (2), Internacional (1)
Argentina La Plata
4
1
Estudiantes (4) Estudiantes (1)
Paraguay Asunción
3
4
Olimpia (3) Olimpia (4)
Brazil Belo Horizonte
3
2
Cruzeiro (2), Atlético Mineiro (1) Cruzeiro (2)
Brazil Santos
3
1
Santos (3) Santos (1)
Brazil Rio de Janeiro
2
1
Flamengo (1), Vasco de Gama (1) Fluminense (1)
Chile Santiago
1
3
Colo-Colo (1) Colo-Colo (1), Unión Española (1), Universidad Católica (1)
Colombia Medellín
1
1
Atlético Nacional (1) Atlético Nacional (1)
Colombia Manizales
1
0
Once Caldas (1) &
Ecuador Quito
1
0
LDU Quito (1) &
Colombia Cali
0
6
&
América de Cali (4), Deportivo Cali, (2)
Peru Lima
0
2
&
Universitario (1), Sporting Cristal (1)
Chile Calama
0
2
&
Cobreloa (2)
Argentina Rosario
0
2
&
Newell's Old Boys (2)
Ecuador Guayaquil
0
2
&
Barcelona (2)
Mexico Mexico City
0
1
&
Cruz Azul (1)
Brazil São Caetano do Sul
0
1
&
São Caetano (1)
Brazil Curitiba
0
1
&
Atlético Paranaense (1)
Mexico Guadalajara
0
1
&
Guadalajara (1)

All-time top ten table[edit]

List is current as of the end of 2011.

Rank Club Years Titles Games W D L GF GA GD Pts
1 Uruguay Nacional 38 3 325 142 89 94 484 359 125 515
2 Uruguay Peñarol 39 5 319 147 71 99 492 374 118 512
3 Argentina River Plate 30 2 291 144 70 77 475 314 161 502
4 Argentina Boca Juniors 22 6 220 117 50 53 344 208 136 401
5 Paraguay Olimpia 35 3 260 101 78 81 366 321 45 381
6 Paraguay Cerro Porteño 34 0 263 96 79 88 352 342 10 367
7 Colombia América de Cali 19 0 196 89 55 52 287 211 76 322
8 Chile Colo-Colo 29 1 211 85 48 78 312 297 15 303
9 Chile Universidad Católica 23 0 198 78 51 69 310 280 30 285
10 Bolivia Bolívar 27 0 195 77 41 77 289 288 1 272

Number of participating clubs by country[edit]

Country Number
of clubs
Clubs
 Brazil 27 Atlético Mineiro, Atlético Paranaense, Bahia, Bangu, Botafogo, Corinthians, Coritiba, Criciúma, Cruzeiro, Flamengo, Fluminense, Goias, Grêmio, Guarani, Internacional, Juventude, Náutico, Palmeiras, Paraná, Paulista, Paysandu, Santo André, Santos, São Caetano, São Paulo, Sport, Vasco da Gama
 Peru 22 Alfonso Ugarte, Alianza Lima, Atlético Chalaco, Atlético Torino, Cienciano, Coronel Bolognesi, Defensor Arica, Defensor Lima, Deportivo Municipal, Juan Aurich, León de Huánuco, Melgar, Real Garcilaso, San Agustín, Sport Boys, Sport Huancayo, Sporting Cristal, Union Huaral, Universidad César Vallejo, Universidad San Martín, Universidad Técnica de Cajamarca, Universitario
 Argentina 21 Argentinos Juniors, Arsenal, Banfield, Boca Juniors, Colón, Estudiantes, Ferro Carril Oeste, Gimnasia y Esgrima (LP), Godoy Cruz, Huracán, Independiente, Lanús, Newell's Old Boys, Quilmes, Racing, River Plate, Rosario Central, San Lorenzo, Talleres, Tigre, Velez Sarsfield
 Venezuela 20 Atlético San Cristobal, Caracas, Deportivo Anzoátegui, Deportivo Galicia, Deportivo Italia, Deportivo Lara, Deportivo Portugués, Deportivo Táchira, Estudiantes de Mérida, Maracaibo, Marítimo, Mineros, Minervén, Pepeganga Margarita, Portuguesa, Trujillanos, Unión Deportiva Canarias, Universidad de Los Andes, Valencia, Zamora
 Chile 19 Audax Italiano, Cobreloa, Cobresal, Colo-Colo, Concepción, Coquimbo Unido, Everton, Huachipato, Iquique, Magallanes, O'Higgins, Palestino, Rangers, Santiago Wanderers, Unión Española, Unión San Felipe, Universidad Católica, Universidad de Chile, Universidad de Concepción
 Bolivia 17 Always Ready, Aurora, Blooming, Bolívar, Chaco Petrolero, Deportivo Municipal, Guabirá, Jorge Wilstermann, La Paz, Litoral, Oriente Petrolero, Real Potosí, San Jose, The Strongest, Universitario, Universitario (La Paz), 31 de Octubre
 Mexico 17 América, Atlas, Cruz Azul, Estudiantes Tecos, Guadalajara, Jaguares, León, Monterrey, Morelia, Necaxa, Pachuca, San Luis, Santos Laguna, Toluca, Tijuana, UANL, UNAM
 Ecuador 16 América, Barcelona, Deportivo Cuenca, Deportivo Quito, El Nacional, Club Sport Emierdec, ESPOLI, Everest, Filanbanco, Independiente del Valle, LDU Quito, Olmedo, Técnico Universitario, Universidad Católica, Valdez, 9 de Octubre
 Colombia 15 América, Atlético Bucaramanga, Atlético Nacional, Boyacá Chicó, Cúcuta Deportivo, Deportes Tolima, Deportivo Cali, Deportivo Pasto, Independiente Medellín, Junior, Millonarios, Once Caldas, Santa Fe, Tuluá, Unión Magdalena
 Uruguay 12 Bella Vista, Cerro, Danubio, Defensor Sporting, Fénix, Liverpool, Montevideo Wanderers, Nacional, Peñarol, Progreso, Racing, Rocha
 Paraguay 10 Atlético Colegiales, Cerro Porteño, Guaraní, Libertad, Nacional, Olimpia, Sol de América, Sportivo Luqueño, Tacuary, 12 de Octubre

Clubs[edit]

By semifinal appearances[edit]

Team No. of appearances Years in semifinals
Uruguay Peñarol 20 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1974, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1987, 2011
Argentina River Plate 15 1966, 1967, 1970, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1995, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2004, 2005
Argentina Boca Juniors 14 1963, 1965, 1966, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1991, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2012
Uruguay Nacional 13 1962, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1980, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1988, 2009
Argentina Independiente 12 1964, 1965, 1966, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1979, 1984, 1985, 1987
Paraguay Olimpia 12 1960, 1961, 1979, 1980, 1982, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1994, 2002, 2013
Colombia América 10 1980, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2003
Brazil São Paulo 9 1972, 1974, 1992, 1993, 1994, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2010
Brazil Santos 8 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2012
Ecuador Barcelona 7 1971, 1972, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1998
Brazil Grêmio 7 1983, 1984, 1995, 1996, 2002, 2007, 2009
Brazil Palmeiras 6 1961, 1968, 1971, 1999, 2000, 2001
Argentina Estudiantes 6 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1983, 2009
Brazil Cruzeiro 6 1967, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1997, 2009
Paraguay Cerro Porteño 6 1973, 1978, 1993, 1998, 1999, 2011
Chile Universidad Católica 5 1962, 1966, 1969, 1984, 1993
Chile Colo-Colo 5 1964, 1967, 1973, 1991, 1997
Brazil Internacional 5 1977, 1980, 1989, 2006, 2010
Peru Universitario 4 1967, 1971, 1972, 1975
Colombia Atlético Nacional 4 1989, 1990, 1991, 1995
Colombia Deportivo Cali 4 1977, 1978, 1981, 1999
Chile Universidad de Chile 4 1970, 1996, 2010, 2012
Argentina San Lorenzo 4 1960, 1973, 1988, 2014
Colombia Millonarios 3 1960, 1973, 1974
Brazil Flamengo 3 1981, 1982, 1984
Chile Cobreloa 3 1981, 1982, 1987
Argentina Racing 3 1967, 1968, 1997
Ecuador LDU Quito 3 1975, 1976, 2008
Mexico América 3 2000, 2002, 2008
Mexico Guadalajara 3 2005, 2006, 2010
Argentina Vélez Sársfield 3 1980, 1994, 2011
Argentina Newell's Old Boys 3 1988, 1992, 2013
Brazil Botafogo 2 1963, 1973
Chile Unión Española 2 1971, 1975
Peru Alianza Lima 2 1976, 1978
Argentina Argentinos Juniors 2 1985, 1986
Argentina Rosario Central 2 1975, 2001
Paraguay Libertad 2 1977, 2006
Brazil Corinthians 2 2000, 2012
Colombia Santa Fe 2 1961, 2013
Brazil Atlético Mineiro 2 1978, 2013
Bolivia Bolivar 2 1986, 2014
Paraguay Guaraní 1 1966
Argentina Huracán 1 1974
Peru Defensor Lima 1 1974
Venezuela Portuguesa 1 1977
Chile Palestino 1 1979
Brazil Guarani 1 1979
Chile O'Higgins 1 1980
Bolivia Jorge Wilstermann 1 1981
Colombia Deportes Tolima 1 1982
Venezuela Atlético San Cristóbal 1 1983
Venezuela Universidad de Los Andes 1 1984
Ecuador El Nacional 1 1985
Bolivia Blooming 1 1985
Uruguay Danubio 1 1989
Colombia Junior 1 1994
Ecuador Emelec 1 1995
Peru Sporting Cristal 1 1997
Brazil Vasco da Gama 1 1998
Mexico Cruz Azul 1 2001
Brazil São Caetano 1 2002
Colombia Independiente Medellín 1 2003
Colombia Once Caldas 1 2004
Brazil Atlético Paranaense 1 2005
Colombia Cúcuta Deportivo 1 2007
Brazil Fluminense 1 2008
Uruguay Defensor Sporting 1 2014
Paraguay Nacional 1 2014
Teams were finalists in years that are bold.

Note: 1) In 1966 and 1967, the finalists qualified via semi-final group stage which consisted of one group of four teams and a second group of three teams. The seven teams are marked as semifinalists in the table. 2) From 1971 to 1987, the finalists qualified via a semifinal group stage which consisted of two groups of three teams. The six teams are marked as semifinalists in the table.

By country[edit]

Country Semifinals Number
of clubs
Clubs
 Argentina 65 11 River Plate (15), Boca Juniors (14), Independiente (12), Estudiantes (6), San Lorenzo (4), Racing (3), Vélez Sársfield (3), Newell's Old Boys (3), Argentinos Juniors (2), Rosario Central (2), Huracan (1)
 Brazil 55 15 São Paulo (9), Santos (8), Grêmio (7), Palmeiras (6), Cruzeiro (6), Internacional (5), Flamengo (3), Botafogo (2), Corinthians (2), Atlético Mineiro (2), Vasco de Gama (1), São Caetano (1), Atlético Paranaense (1), Fluminense (1), Guarani (1)
 Uruguay 35 4 Peñarol (20), Nacional (13), Danubio (1), Defensor Sporting (1)
 Colombia 28 10 América (10), Atlético Nacional (4), Deportivo Cali (4), Millonarios (3), Santa Fe (2), Junior (1), Once Caldas (1), Cúcuta Deportivo (1), Independiente Medellín (1), Deportes Tolima (1)
 Paraguay 22 5 Olimpia (12), Cerro Porteño (6), Libertad (2), Guaraní (1), Nacional (1)
 Chile 21 7 Universidad Católica (5), Colo-Colo (5), Universidad de Chile (4), Cobreloa (3), Unión Española (2), Palestino (1), O'Higgins (1)
 Ecuador 12 4 Barcelona (7), LDU Quito (3), El Nacional (1), Emelec (1)
 Peru 8 4 Universitario (4), Alianza Lima (2), Sporting Cristal (1), Defensor Lima (1)
 Mexico 7 3 Guadalajara (3), América (3), Cruz Azul (1)
 Bolivia 4 3 Bolivar (2), Jorge Wilstermann (1), Blooming (1)
 Venezuela 3 3 Portuguesa (1), Universidad de Los Andes (1), Atlético San Cristóbal (1)

Unbeaten sides[edit]

Finals success rate[edit]

Only one club has appeared in the finals of the Copa Libertadores more than once with a 100% success rate:

Nine clubs have appeared in the final once, being victorious on that occasion:

On the other end, fourteen clubs have appeared in the finals and have never won the tournament. Five of those clubs have appeared in the finals more than once, losing on each occasion:

Consecutive participations[edit]

Peñarol have the record number of consecutive participations with 15 from 1965 to 1979.

Consecutive finals[edit]

Two clubs have appeared in a record four consecutive finals:

Defending the trophy[edit]

Fifty-three tournaments have been completed as of the end of 2013. Eleven of the fifty-seven attempts to defend the trophy (19.2%) have been successful and has been accomplished by six clubs:

Of the 24 clubs to win the tournament, 18 have never defended it. Six of those clubs have won the trophy more than once and had more than one attempt to do so:

Since the start of current format in 2005, two title-holders have failed to advance past the group stage:

Winning other trophies[edit]

Although not an official title or recognized achievement, only one club has the distinction of winning the Copa Libertadores, their national league, and another domestic tournament in the same year/season, known colloquially as the treble:[T 1]

  1. ^ Note: trebles are not possible for all South American clubs since most countries do not have a domestic cup.

In addition Santos, six other clubs have achieved a continental double, in which a club win the Copa Libertadore in addition to their domesitc league in the same year:

In addition to the double, these clubs have gone on to win other trophies in that same time frame:

  • Peñarol won the Intercontinental Cup in 1961
  • Nacional won the Intercontinental Cup and Copa Interamericana in 1971, and the Intercontinental Cup in 1980
  • Olimpia won the Intercontinental Cup and Copa Interamericana in 1979
  • Argentinos Juniors won the Copa Interamericana in 1985
  • River Plate won the Intercontinental Cup and Copa Interamericana in 1986
  • Colo-Colo won the Copa Interamericana in 1991

Biggest wins[edit]

Biggest two-leg win[edit]

  • The largest margin of victory over two legs is thirteen goals when Peñarol beat Everest 14–1 overall in 1963; the score lines per match was 5–0 and 9–1

Most goals in a match[edit]

Most goals over two legs or more[edit]

  • The most goals over two legs is fifteen goals when Peñarol beat Everest 14–1 overall in 1963; the score lines per match was 5–0 and 9–1
    • In instances where a third match was needed, the record is seventeen goals when Peñarol beat Santos 9–8 in 1965; the score lines per match were 5–4, 3–2, and 2–1
  • The most goals over two legs in a finals is ten when LDU Quito drew Fluminense 5–5 overall in 2008; the score lines per match were 4–2 and 3–1
    • In instances where a third match was needed, the record is thirteen goals, done twice:
      • Peñarol beat River Plate 8–5 overall in 1966; the score lines were 2–0, 3–2, and 4–2
      • Cruzeiro also beat River Plate 8–5 overall in 1976; the scores lines were 4–1, 2–1, and 3–2

Players[edit]

Appearances[edit]

Ever Hugo Almeida holds the record for most matches played with 113 games, all for Olimpia. He is also the only person to have made over 100 appearances in the tournament.[1]

Ever Hugo Almeida has played a record 113 matches in the Copa Libertadores.
Rank Country Player Appearances Goals From To Clubs
1 Paraguay Ever Hugo Almeida 113 1 1973 1990 Olimpia
2 Colombia Antony de Ávila 94 29 1983 1998 América de Cali, Barcelona SC
3 Bolivia Vladimir Soria 93 4 1986 2000 Bolívar
4 Colombia Willington Ortiz 92 19 1973 1988 Millonarios, América de Cali, Deportivo Cali
5 Uruguay Pedro Rocha 88 36 1962 1979 Peñarol, São Paulo, Palmeiras
6 Ecuador Alberto Spencer 87 54 1960 1972 Peñarol, Barcelona SC
Bolivia Carlos Borja 87 11 1979 1997 Bolívar
8 Paraguay Juan Battaglia 85 22 1978 1990 Cerro Porteño, América de Cali
9 Colombia Álex Escobar 83 14 1985 2000 América de Cali, LDU Quito
10 Argentina Clemente Rodríguez 82 2 2001 2013 Boca Juniors, Estudiantes

Goalscoring[edit]

All-time top scorers[edit]

Alberto Spencer is the all-time goalscorer of the Copa Libertadores with 54 goals to his name between 1960 and 1972.[2]

Rank Country Player Goals Games Goal Ratio Debut Clubs
1 Ecuador Alberto Spencer 54 87 0.62 1960 Peñarol, Barcelona SC
2 Uruguay Fernando Morena 37 77 0.48 1973 Peñarol
3 Uruguay Pedro Virgilio Rocha 36 88 0.41 1962 Peñarol, São Paulo, Palmeiras
4 Argentina Daniel Onega 31 47 0.66 1966 River Plate
5 Uruguay Julio Morales 30 76 0.39 1966 Nacional
6 Colombia Antony de Ávila 29 94 0.31 1983 América de Cali, Barcelona SC
Argentina Juan Carlos Sarnari 29 62 0.47 1966 River Plate, Universidad Católica, Universidad de Chile, Santa Fe
Brazil Luizão 29 43 0.67 1998 Vasco da Gama, Corinthians, Grêmio, São Paulo
9 Argentina Juan Carlos Sánchez 26 53 0.49 1973 Jorge Wilstermann, Blooming, San Jose
Argentina Luis Artime 26 40 0.65 1966 Independiente, Nacional

Top scorer award[edit]

The top scorer award is for the player who amassed the most goals in the tournament.

Hat-tricks[edit]

Other goalscoring records[edit]

Other records[edit]

  • Alejandro Bernal saw the red card in the 22nd second of a game for his team Atlético Nacional in the tournament. The game was Atlético Nacional vs. Nacional de Montevideo in 2014.

Most victories[edit]

Most defeats[edit]

Coaches[edit]

Records[edit]

Locales[edit]

Countries[edit]

  • Argentina has provided the most number of titles, with 22 titles won by seven different clubs
  • Brazil has the highest number of different winning clubs, with ten. They have also provided the highest number of finalists with twelve. They have also provided the highest number of different participating clubs, with 27.
  • Only on two occasions has two clubs from the same country played each other in the finals, both from them involving Brazilian clubs:
  • Teams from Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela, and Mexico have never won the tournament. Teams from Bolivia and Venezuela have yet to provide a finalist.

Cities[edit]

  • The most successful city in the history of the Copa Libertadores is Buenos Aires, which has seen a record four teams win ten total titles
  • Fifteen cities have hosted a trophy ceremony. São Paulo, Brazil has hosted the highest number of trophy ceremony with 11 times in three stadiums

Stadiums[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ever Almeida's matches in Copa Libertadores
  2. ^ (Spanish) Ases del Mundo: Alberto Spencer
  3. ^ "CRUZEIRO CAMPEÓN". Conmebol.com. 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  4. ^ "Alianza - Estudiantes: Rápido, histórico y letal". Dechalaca.com. 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010. 

External links[edit]