Copahue

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Copahue
Copahue Volcano.jpg
Copahue's southwest face with Laguna Las Totoras in the foreground.
Elevation 2,997 m (9,833 ft)[1]
Location
Copahue is located in Argentina
Copahue
Copahue
Location on Argentina/Chile border
Location Argentina and Chile
Range Andes
Coordinates 37°51′S 71°10′W / 37.850°S 71.167°W / -37.850; -71.167Coordinates: 37°51′S 71°10′W / 37.850°S 71.167°W / -37.850; -71.167[1]
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption September to November 2014 (ongoing)[1]
The crater lake at the eastern summit of Copahue Volcano.
Copahue Crater Lake.

Copahue (Spanish pronunciation: [koˈpawe]) is a stratovolcano nestled on the border between Argentina and Chile. There are nine volcanic craters along a 2 km (1.2 mi) line, and the eastern summit crater contains a briny, acidic 300 m (1000 ft) wide crater lake. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments.[1] Copahue means "sulphur waters" in Mapuche.[2]

Copahue sits on a basement of sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Eocene to Pliocene.[3] The modern volcano sits in a volcanically active area, with a caldera from the Pliocene, measuring 20 km by 15 km, lying to the east of Copahue. The modern volcano became active roughly 1.2 million years ago (Ma).[3] The modern caldera formed 0.6 to 0.4 Ma, and produced large pyroclastic flows, extending up to 37 km from the volcano.[3]

Satellite image of the December 2012 eruption

The modern structure is an elongated shield volcano, with a maximum thickness of 22 km and a minimum of 8 km.[3] There have been at least six eruptions within the Holocene, with the most recent on December 22, 2012.[2] The easternmost (and most active) crater contains a crater lake with a pH ranging between 0.18 and 0.30.[3] Although the lake emptied during the 2000 eruption, it has returned to its previous levels.

On 27 May 2013, it was reported that a red alert had been issued and the evacuation of around 2,000 people was to begin.[2]

The volcano erupted again in October 2013, and July 4, 2014.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Copahue". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1507-09%3D. Retrieved 2005-02-11.
  2. ^ a b c "Chile and Argentina on alert over Copahue volcano eruption". BBC News. 23 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Naranjo, Jose; Polanco, Edmundo (2004). "The 2000 AD eruption of Copahue Volcano, Southern Andes". Revisita Geologica de Chile 31 (2): 279–292. 

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