Copahue's southwest face with Laguna Las Totoras in the foreground.
|Elevation||2,997 m (9,833 ft)|
|Location||Argentina and Chile|
|Last eruption||2012 to 2013|
Copahue (Spanish pronunciation: [koˈpawe]) is a stratovolcano nestled on the border between Argentina and Chile. There are nine volcanic craters along a 2 km (1.2 mi) line, and the eastern summit crater contains a briny, acidic 300 m (1000 ft) wide crater lake. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. Copahue means "sulphur waters" in Mapuche.
Copahue sits on a basement of sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Eocene to Pliocene. The modern volcano sits in a volcanically active area, with a caldera from the Pliocene, measuring 20 km by 15 km, lying to the east of Copahue. The modern volcano became active roughly 1.2 million years ago (Ma). The modern caldera formed 0.6 to 0.4 Ma, and produced large pyroclastic flows, extending up to 37 km from the volcano.
The modern structure is an elongated shield volcano, with a maximum thickness of 22 km and a minimum of 8 km. There have been at least six eruptions within the Holocene, with the most recent on December 22, 2012. The easternmost (and most active) crater contains a crater lake with a pH ranging between 0.18 and 0.30. Although the lake emptied during the 2000 eruption, it has returned to its previous levels.
On 27 May 2013, it was reported that a red alert had been issued and the evacuation of around 2,000 people was to begin.
The volcano erupted again in October 2013.
- "Copahue". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1507-09%3D. Retrieved 2005-02-11.
- "Chile and Argentina on alert over Copahue volcano eruption". BBC News. 23 December 2012.
- Naranjo, Jose; Polanco, Edmundo (2004). "The 2000 AD eruption of Copahue Volcano, Southern Andes". Revisita Geologica de Chile 31 (2): 279–292.
- González-Ferrán, Oscar (1995). Volcanes de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Geográfico Militar. p. 640 pp. ISBN 956-202-054-1. (in Spanish; also includes volcanoes of Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru)
- Biggar, John (2005). The Andes: A Guide for Climbers (3rd ed.). Andes Publishing (Scotland). p. 304 pp. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7.
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