The Copenhagen–Tartu school of biosemiotics is a loose network of scholars working within the discipline of biosemiotics at the University of Tartu and the University of Copenhagen. The school has been instrumental in developing biosemiotics as a new perspective on the study of life, in the biological and environmental sciences. Notable semioticians working in the Copenhagen–Tartu school are: Kalevi Kull, Jesper Hoffmeyer, Peeter Torop, Claus Emmeche, Timo Maran, Mihhail Lotman.
- Emmeche, Claus; Kull, Kalevi (eds.) 2011. Towards a Semiotic Biology: Life is the Action of Signs. London: Imperial College Press.
- Hoffmeyer Jesper 2008. Biosemiotics: An Examination into the Signs of Life and the Life of Signs. Scranton, University of Scranton Press.
- Kull, Kalevi; Deacon, Terrence; Emmeche, Claus; Hoffmeyer, Jesper; Stjernfelt, Frederik 2009. Theses on biosemiotics: Prolegomena to a theoretical biology. Biological Theory: Integrating Development, Evolution, and Cognition 4(2): 167–173.
- Kull, Kalevi; Emmeche, Claus; Favareau, Donald 2008. Biosemiotic questions. Biosemiotics 1(1): 41–55.
- The institution of semiotics in Estonia. 2011. Sign Systems Studies 39(2/4). Compiled by Kalevi Kull, Silvi Salupere, Peeter Torop, Mihhail Lotman 
- Favareau, Donald (ed.) 2010. Essential Readings in Biosemiotics: Anthology and Commentary. Berlin: Springer.
- Barbieri, Marcello (ed.) 2008. Introduction to Biosemiotics: The New Biological Synthesis. Berlin: Springer.
- Deely, John 2010. Semiotics Seen Synchronically: The View from 2010. New York: Legas, pp. 32, 95–97.