Isotopes of copernicium

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Copernicium-277)
Jump to: navigation, search

Copernicium (Cn) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic mass cannot be given. Like all artificial elements, it has no stable isotopes. The first isotope to be synthesized was 277Cn in 1996. There are 6 known radioisotopes and 2 possible isomers. The longest-lived isotope is 285Cn with a half-life of 29 seconds.

Table[edit]

nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)  
isotopic mass (u)
 
half-life decay
mode(s)[n 1]
daughter
isotope(s)
nuclear
spin
excitation energy
277Cn 112 165 277.16364(15)# 1.1(7) ms
[0.69(+69-24) ms]
α 273Ds 3/2+#
281Cn 112 169 281.16975(42)# 0.1 s α 277Ds 3/2+#
282Cn 112 170 282.1705(7)# 0.8 ms SF (various) 0+
283Cn 112 171 283.17327(65)# 4 s α (90%) 279Ds
SF (10%) (various)
283mCn[n 2] 5 min SF (various)
284Cn 112 172 284.17416(91)# 97 ms SF (various) 0+
285Cn 112 173 285.17712(60)# 29 s α 281Ds 5/2+#
285mCn[n 2] 8.9 min α 281Ds
  1. ^ Abbreviations:
    SF: Spontaneous fission
  2. ^ a b This isomer is unconfirmed

Notes[edit]

  • Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends. Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
  • Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC which use expanded uncertainties.

Isotopes and nuclear properties[edit]

Nucleosynthesis[edit]

Super-heavy elements such as copernicium are produced by bombarding lighter elements in particle accelerators that induces fusion reactions. Whereas most of the isotopes of copernicium can be synthesized directly this way, some heavier ones have only been observed as decay products of elements with higher atomic numbers.[1]

Depending on the energies involved, the former are separated into "hot" and "cold". In hot fusion reactions, very light, high-energy projectiles are accelerated toward very heavy targets such as actinides, giving rise to compound nuclei at high excitation energy (~40–50 MeV) that may either fission or evaporate several (3 to 5) neutrons.[1] In cold fusion reactions, the produced fused nuclei have a relatively low excitation energy (~10–20 MeV), which decreases the probability that these products will undergo fission reactions. As the fused nuclei cool to the ground state, they require emission of only one or two neutrons, and thus, allows for the generation of more neutron-rich products.[2] The latter is a distinct concept from that of where nuclear fusion claimed to be achieved at room temperature conditions (see cold fusion).[3]

Cold fusion[edit]

The first cold fusion reaction to produce copernicium was performed by GSI in 1996, who reported the detection of two decay chains of copernicium-277.[4]

208
82
Pb
+ 70
30
Zn
277
112
Cn
+ n

In a review of the data in 2000, the first decay chain was retracted. In a repeat of the reaction in 2000 they were able to synthesize a further atom. They attempted to measure the 1n excitation function in 2002 but suffered from a failure of the zinc-70 beam. The unofficial discovery of copernicium-277 was confirmed in 2004 at RIKEN, where researchers detected a further two atoms of the isotope and were able to confirm the decay data for the entire chain.[5]

After the successful synthesis of copernicium-277, the GSI team performed a reaction using a 68Zn projectile in 1997 in an effort to study the effect of isospin (neutron richness) on the chemical yield.

208
82
Pb
+ 68
30
Zn
276-x
112
Cn
+ x n

The experiment was initiated after the discovery of a yield enhancement during the synthesis of darmstadtium isotopes using nickel-62 and nickel-64 ions. No decay chains of copernicium-275 were detected leading to a cross section limit of 1.2 picobarns (pb). However, the revision of the yield for the zinc-70 reaction to 0.5 pb does not rule out a similar yield for this reaction.

In 1990, after some early indications for the formation of isotopes of copernicium in the irradiation of a tungsten target with multi-GeV protons, a collaboration between GSI and the Hebrew University studied the foregoing reaction.

184
74
W
+ 88
38
Sr
272-x
112
Cn
+ x n

They were able to detect some spontaneous fission (SF) activity and a 12.5 MeV alpha decay, both of which they tentatively assigned to the radiative capture product copernicium-272 or the 1n evaporation residue copernicium-271. Both the TWG and JWP have concluded that a lot more research is required to confirm these conclusions.[1]

Hot fusion[edit]

In 1998, the team at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Research (FLNR) in Dubna, Russia began a research program using calcium-48 nuclei in "warm" fusion reactions leading to super-heavy elements. In March 1998, they claimed to have synthesized two atoms of the element in the following reaction.

238
92
U
+ 48
20
Ca
286-x
112
Cn
+ x n (x=3,4)

The product, copernicium-283, had a claimed half-life of 5 minutes, decaying by spontaneous fission.[6]

The long half-life of the product initiated first chemical experiments on the gas phase atomic chemistry of copernicium. In 2000, Yuri Yukashev in Dubna repeated the experiment but was unable to observe any spontaneous fission with half-life of 5 minutes. The experiment was repeated in 2001 and an accumulation of eight fragments resulting from spontaneous fission were found in the low-temperature section, indicating that copernicium had radon-like properties. However, there is now some serious doubt about the origin of these results. To confirm the synthesis, the reaction was successfully repeated by the same team in January 2003, confirming the decay mode and half-life. They were also able to calculate an estimate of the mass of the spontaneous fission activity to ~285, lending support to the assignment.[7]

The team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, United States entered the debate and performed the reaction in 2002. They were unable to detect any spontaneous fission and calculated a cross section limit of 1.6 pb for the detection of a single event.[8]

The reaction was repeated in 2003–2004 by the team at Dubna using a slightly different set-up, the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS). This time, copernicium-283 was found to decay by emission of a 9.53 MeV alpha-particle with a half-life of 4 seconds. Copernicium-282 was also observed in the 4n channel (emitting 4 neutrons).[9]

In 2003, the team at GSI entered the debate and performed a search for the five-minute SF activity in chemical experiments. Like the Dubna team, they were able to detect seven SF fragments in the low temperature section. However, these SF events were uncorrelated, suggesting they were not from actual direct SF of copernicium nuclei and raised doubts about the original indications for radon-like properties.[10] After the announcement from Dubna of different decay properties for copernicium-283, the GSI team repeated the experiment in September 2004. They were unable to detect any SF events and calculated a cross section limit of ~1.6 pb for the detection of one event, not in contradiction with the reported 2.5 pb yield by Dubna team.

In May 2005, the GSI performed a physical experiment and identified a single atom of 283Cn decaying by SF with a short half-time suggesting a previously unknown SF branch.[11] However, initial work by Dubna team had detected several direct SF events but had assumed that the parent alpha decay had been missed. These results indicated that this was not the case.

The new decay data on copernicium-283 were confirmed in 2006 by a joint PSI–FLNR experiment aimed at probing the chemical properties of copernicium. Two atoms of copernicium-283 were observed in the decay of the parent flerovium-287 nuclei. The experiment indicated that contrary to previous experiments, copernicium behaves as a typical member of group 12, demonstrating properties of a volatile metal.[12]

Finally, the team at GSI successfully repeated their physical experiment in January 2007, and detected three atoms of copernicium-283, confirming both the alpha and SF decay modes.[13]

As such, the 5 minutes SF activity is still unconfirmed and unidentified. It is possible that it refers to an isomer, namely copernicium-283b, whose yield is dependent upon the exact production methods.

233
92
U
+ 48
20
Ca
281-x
112
Cn
+ x n

The team at FLNR studied this reaction in 2004. They were unable to detect any atoms of copernicium and calculated a cross section limit of 0.6 pb. The team concluded that this indicated that the neutron mass number for the compound nucleus had an effect on the yield of evaporation residues.[9]

Decay products[edit]

List of copernicium isotopes observed by decay
Evaporation residue Observed copernicium isotope
285Fl 281Cn[14]
294Uuo, 290Lv, 286Fl 282Cn[15]
291Lv, 287Fl 283Cn[16]
292Lv, 288Fl 284Cn[17]
293Lv, 289Fl 285Cn[9]

Copernicium has been observed as decay products of flerovium. Flerovium currently has five known isotopes, all of which have been shown to undergo alpha decays to become copernicium nuclei, with mass numbers between 281 and 285. Copernicium isotopes with mass numbers 281, 284 and 285 to date have only been produced by flerovium nuclei decay. Parent flerovium nuclei can be themselves decay products of livermorium or ununoctium. To date, no other elements have been known to decay to copernicium.[18]

For example, in May 2006, the Dubna team (JINR) identified copernicium-282 as a final product in the decay of ununoctium via the alpha decay sequence. It was found that the final nucleus undergoes spontaneous fission.[15]

294
118
Uuo
290
116
Lv
+ 4
2
He
290
116
Lv
286
114
Fl
+ 4
2
He
286
114
Fl
282
112
Cn
+ 4
2
He

In the claimed synthesis of ununoctium-293 in 1999, copernicium-281 was identified as decaying by emission of a 10.68 MeV alpha particle with half-life 0.90 ms.[19] The claim was retracted in 2001. This isotope was finally created in 2010 and its decay properties contradicted the previous data.[14] |}

Nuclear isomerism[edit]

First experiments on the synthesis of 283Cn produced a SF activity with half-life ~5 min.[18] This activity was also observed from the alpha decay of flerovium-287. The decay mode and half-life were also confirmed in a repetition of the first experiment. Later, copernicium-283 was observed to undergo 9.52 MeV alpha decay and SF with a half-life of 3.9 s. It has also been found that alpha decay of copernicium-283 leads to different excited states of darmstadtium-279.[9] These results suggest the assignment of the two activities to two different isomeric levels in copernicium-283, creating copernicium-283a and copernicium-283b.

Copernicium-285 has only been observed as a decay product of flerovium-289 and livermorium-293; during the first recorded synthesis of flerovium, one flerovium-289 was created, which alpha decayed to copernicium-285, which itself emitted an alpha particle in 29 seconds, releasing 9.15 or 9.03 MeV.[9] However, in the first experiment to successfully synthesize livermorium, when livermorium-293 was created, it was shown that the created nuclide alpha decayed to flerovium-289, decay data for which differed from the known values significantly. Although unconfirmed, it is highly possible that this is associated with an isomer. The resulting nuclide decayed to copernicium-285, which emitted an alpha particle with a half-life of around 10 minutes, releasing 8.586 MeV. Similar to its parent, it is believed to be a nuclear isomer, copernicium-285b.[20]

Chemical yields of isotopes[edit]

Cold fusion[edit]

The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for cold fusion reactions producing copernicium isotopes directly. Data in bold represent maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents an observed exit channel.

Projectile Target CN 1n 2n 3n
70Zn 208Pb 278Cn 0.5 pb, 10.0, 12.0 MeV
68Zn 208Pb 276Cn <1.2 pb, 11.3, 12.8 MeV

Hot fusion[edit]

The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for hot fusion reactions producing copernicium isotopes directly. Data in bold represents maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents an observed exit channel.

Projectile Target CN 3n 4n 5n
48Ca 238U 286Cn 2.5 pb, 35.0 MeV 0.6 pb
48Ca 233U 281Cn <0.6 pb, 34.9 MeV

Fission of compound nuclei with Z=112[edit]

Several experiments have been performed between 2001 and 2004 at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Dubna studying the fission characteristics of the compound nucleus 286Cn. The nuclear reaction used is 238U+48Ca. The results have revealed how nuclei such as this fission predominantly by expelling closed shell nuclei such as 132Sn (Z=50, N=82). It was also found that the yield for the fusion-fission pathway was similar between 48Ca and 58Fe projectiles, indicating a possible future use of 58Fe projectiles in superheavy element formation.[21]

Theoretical calculations[edit]

Evaporation residue cross sections[edit]

The below table contains various targets-projectile combinations for which calculations have provided estimates for cross section yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield is given.

DNS = Di-nuclear system; σ = cross section

Target Projectile Cn Channel (product) σmax Model Ref
208Pb 70Zn 278Cn 1n (277Cn) 1.5 pb DNS [22]
208Pb 67Zn 275Cn 1n (274Cn) 2 pb DNS [22]
238U 48Ca 286Cn 4n (282Cn) 0.2 pb DNS [23]
244Pu 40Ar 284Cn 4n (280Cn) 0.1 pb DNS [23]
250Cm 36S 286Cn 4n (282Cn) 5 pb DNS [23]
252Cf 30Si 282Cn 3n (279Cn) 10 pb DNS [23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Barber, R. C.; et al. (2009). "Discovery of the element with atomic number 112". Pure and Applied Chemistry 81 (7): 1331. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-08-03-05. 
  2. ^ Armbruster, P.; Munzenberg, G. (1989). "Creating superheavy elements". Scientific American 34: 1331–1339. OSTI 6481060. 
  3. ^ Fleischmann, M.; Pons, S. (1989). "Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium". Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry 261 (2): 301–308. doi:10.1016/0022-0728(89)80006-3. 
  4. ^ S. Hofmann, et al. (1996). "The new element 112". Zeitschrift für Physik A 354 (1): 229–230. doi:10.1007/BF02769517. 
  5. ^ Morita, K. (2004). "Decay of an Isotope 277112 produced by 208Pb + 70Zn reaction". In Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Cherepanov, E. A. Exotic Nuclei: Proceedings of the International Symposium. World Scientific. pp. 188–191. doi:10.1142/9789812701749_0027. 
  6. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (1999). "Search for new isotopes of element 112 by irradiation of 238U with 48Ca". European Physical Journal A 5 (1): 63–68. Bibcode:1999EPJA....5...63O. doi:10.1007/s100500050257. 
  7. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (2004). "Second Experiment at VASSILISSA separator on the synthesis of the element 112". European Physical Journal A 19 (1): 3–6. Bibcode:2004EPJA...19....3O. doi:10.1140/epja/i2003-10113-4. 
  8. ^ Loveland, W.; et al. (2002). "Search for the production of element 112 in the 48Ca+238U reaction". Physical Review C 66 (4): 044617. arXiv:nucl-ex/0206018. Bibcode:2002PhRvC..66d4617L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.66.044617. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V.; Lobanov, Yu.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Shirokovsky, I.; Tsyganov, Yu.; Gulbekian, G.; Bogomolov, S.; Gikal, B. N. et al. (2004). "Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions 233,238U, 242Pu, and 248Cm+48Ca". Physical Review C 70 (6): 064609. Bibcode:2004PhRvC..70f4609O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.70.064609.  edit
  10. ^ Soverna, S. (2003). Indication for a gaseous element 112. Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung. 
  11. ^ Hofmann, S.; et al. (2005). Search for Element 112 Using the Hot Fusion Reaction 48Ca + 238U. Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung. p. 191. 
  12. ^ Eichler, R; Aksenov, NV; Belozerov, AV; Bozhikov, GA; Chepigin, VI; Dmitriev, SN; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, HW; Gorshkov, VA (2007). "Chemical Characterization of Element 112". Nature 447 (7140): 72–75. Bibcode:2007Natur.447...72E. doi:10.1038/nature05761. PMID 17476264. 
  13. ^ Hofmann, S.; et al. (2007). "The reaction 48Ca + 238U -> 286112* studied at the GSI-SHIP". European Physical Journal A 32 (3): 251–260. Bibcode:2007EPJA...32..251H. doi:10.1140/epja/i2007-10373-x. 
  14. ^ a b Public Affairs Department (26 October 2010). "Six New Isotopes of the Superheavy Elements Discovered: Moving Closer to Understanding the Island of Stability". Berkeley Lab. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  15. ^ a b Oganessian, Y. T.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Lobanov, Y. V.; Abdullin, F. S.; Polyakov, A. N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tsyganov, Y. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Gikal, B. N.; Mezentsev, A. N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Subotic, K.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Vostokin, G. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Moody, K. J.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Wilk, P. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Landrum, J. H.; Wild, J. F.; Lougheed, R. W. (2006-10-09). "Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions". Physical Review C 74 (4): 044602. Bibcode:2006PhRvC..74d4602O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.74.044602. Retrieved 2008-01-18.  edit
  16. ^ Oganessian1, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Popeko, A. G.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Buklanov, G. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gikal, B. N.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Gulbekian, G. G. et al. (1999). "Synthesis of nuclei of the superheavy element 114 in reactions induced by 48Ca". Nature 400 (6741): 242. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..242O. doi:10.1038/22281.  edit
  17. ^ Oganessian, Y. T.; Utyonkov, V.; Lobanov, Y.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Shirokovsky, I.; Tsyganov, Y.; Gulbekian, G.; Bogomolov, S.; Gikal, B. et al. (2000). "Synthesis of superheavy nuclei in the 48Ca+244Pu reaction: 288Fl". Physical Review C 62 (4): 041604. Bibcode:2000PhRvC..62d1604O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.62.041604.  edit
  18. ^ a b Holden, N. E. (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9. 
  19. ^ Ninov, V.; et al. (1999). "Observation of Superheavy Nuclei Produced in the Reaction of 86Kr with 208Pb". Physical Review Letters 83 (6): 1104–1107. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.1104N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.1104. 
  20. ^ Patin, J. B.; et al. (2003). Confirmed results of the 248Cm(48Ca,4n)292116 experiment (Report). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. pp. 7. https://e-reports-ext.llnl.gov/pdf/302186.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
  21. ^ seeFlerov lab annual reports 2001–2004
  22. ^ a b Feng, Zhao-Qing (2007). "Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions". Physical Review C 76: 044606. arXiv:0707.2588. Bibcode:2007PhRvC..76d4606F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.76.044606. 
  23. ^ a b c d Influence of entrance channels on formation of superheavy nuclei in massive fusion reactions. 


Isotopes of roentgenium Isotopes of copernicium Isotopes of ununtrium
Table of nuclides