Copper(II) fluoride

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Copper(II) fluoride
Ball-and-stick model of the unit cell of copper(II) fluoride
Ball-and-stick model of part of a layer in the crystal structure of copper(II) fluoride
Ball-and-stick model of two layers stacked in the crystal structure of copper(II) fluoride
Actual picture
Identifiers
CAS number 7789-19-7 YesY
13454-88-1 (dihydrate)
PubChem 82236
ChemSpider 74214 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula CuF2
Molar mass 101.543 g/mol (anhydrous)
137.573 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance White crystalline powder
When hydrated: Blue
Density 4.23 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.934 g/cm3 (dihydrate)[1]
Melting point 836 °C (anhydrous)
130 °C (dihydrate, decomposes)
Boiling point 1676 °C (anhydrous)
Solubility in other solvents Hygroscopic
Related compounds
Other anions Copper(II) bromide
Copper(II) chloride
Other cations Silver(II) fluoride
Cobalt(II) fluoride
Related compounds Copper(I) fluoride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Copper(II) fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuF2. It is a white or green, crystalline, hygroscopic solid. It has a rutile-type crystal structure similar to other fluorides of chemical formulae MF2.

Structure[edit]

Copper(II) fluoride is made of a crystalline structure. It has a monoclinic crystal structure and can not achieve a higher structure. It forms rectangular prisms and has parallelogram type base. It contains three vectors where one vector is perpendicular to two parallel vectors in the structure.

Uses[edit]

It has been shown that aromatic hydrocarbons react with copper(II) fluoride, in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures above 450 °C, to form fluorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. This reaction is simpler than the Sandmeyer reaction, but is only applicable for compounds that are stable enough to survive the high temperature.[2]

Synthesis of Fluorobenzene

Half mole of oxygen is used with 2 HF and Cu to make a mole of water and copper(II) fluoride.

Copper(II) fluoride can also be used to form fluorobenzene from benzene, HCl, and oxygen. Using a metal fluoride that can successfully oxidize with a methyl bond. The reaction is started by producing copper(II) fluoride with a charged metal reactor that contained copper oxide and then adding HF at high temperatures from there it is exposed to benzene and fluoroaromatics take place causing the formation of fluorotoluene or fluorobenzene or some other fluorinated benzene derivative. This enables fluoroaromatics to be done in large scale quantity without the waste disposals of the current fluorination processes.

Chemistry[edit]

Copper(II) fluoride can be synthesised from copper and fluorine at temperatures of 400 °C. It occurs as a direct reaction.

Cu + F2 → CuF2

It loses fluorine in molten stage at temperatures above 950 °C.

2CuF2 → 2CuF + F2
2CuF → CuF2 + Cu

The complex anions of CuF3, CuF42− and CuF64− are formed if CuF2 is exposed to substances containing fluoride ions F.

Solubility[edit]

It is slightly soluble in water but it starts to decompose when in hot water, to form basic F and Cu(OH) ions.

Toxicity[edit]

Copper(II) fluoride together has not been researched well on toxicity levels. However the toxicity affect of copper compounds and fluoride compounds individually.

Copper can affect the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Some more serious conditions can occur such as metal fume fever, and hemolysis of the red blood cells. It can cause damage to the liver and other major organs as well.

Fluoride can cause nausea, vomiting, as well as causing upset stomach. More serious affects are weakness followed by tremors, problems breathing, serious convulsions and even coma. These can lead to brain and kidney damage. Chronic exposure can cause losses in bone density, weight loss, and on a more serious note even anorexia. It is also known to cause anemia and dental issues in some cases.

If inhaled make sure the person is taken to fresh air and allowed to breathe. If they have problems breathing then oxygen may be needed. In case of ingestion give the person one to two glasses of milk or water. Make sure not to induce vomiting and get medical help. In case of contact with skin remove the clothes that were caught in the spill and wash off the affected area. If more symptoms occur or the symptoms continue take the person to get medical attention. Finally if contact with the eyes occurs flush eyes with water and if burning or other conditions continue to occur seek more medical attention.

Hazards[edit]

When using copper(II) fluoride experiments should be conducted under a fume hood because metal oxide fumes can occur. If working with acids then the possibility of hydrogen fluoride forming may occur. A person should be cautious when dealing with hydrogen fluoride because it is highly toxic and corrosive.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ M. A. Subramanian, L. E. Manzer (2002). "A "Greener" Synthetic Route for Fluoroaromatics via Copper (II) Fluoride". Science 297 (5587): 1665. doi:10.1126/science.1076397. PMID 12215637. 
  • C. Billy, H. M. Haendler (1957). "The Crystal Structure of Copper(II) Fluoride". Journal of the American Chemical Society 79 (5): 1049–51. doi:10.1021/ja01562a011. 
  • P. C. de Mello, M. Hehenberg, S. Larson, M. Zerner (1980). "Studies of the electronic structure of copper fluorides and copper chlorides". Journal of the American Chemical Society 102 (4): 1278–1288. doi:10.1021/ja00524a010. 
  • H. M. Haendler, L. H. Towle, E. F. Bennett, W. L. Patterson (1954). "The Reaction of Fluorine with Copper and Some of its Compounds. Some Properties of Copper(II) Fluoride". Journal of the American Chemical Society 76 (8): 2178–2179. doi:10.1021/ja01637a039. 
  • T. C. Ehlert, J. S. Wang (1977). "Thermochemistry of the copper fluorides". Journal of Physical Chemistry 81 (22): 2069–2073. doi:10.1021/j100537a005. 
  • Dierks, S. "Copper Fluoride". http://www.espimetals.com/index.php/msds/537-copper-fluoride (accessed October 9).
  • Subramanian, M. A.; Manzer, L. E., "A 'Greener' Synthetic Route for Fluoroaromantics via Copper (II) Fluoride". Science 2002, 297 (5587), 1665.
  • Olejniczak I., Wolak J., Barszcz B., Schlueter J., Manson J. "CuF2 Structural Changes in Two-Dimensional Quantum Magnet (H2O)2(pyz) Under Pressure: Raman Study". AIP Conference Proceedings [serial online]. August 6, 2010;1267(1):597–598. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 10, 2012.
  • R. A., K.; Mcdonald, J. D.; Margrave, J. L., "Mass Spectrometric Studies at High Temperatures. IX. The Sublimation Pressure of Copper(II) Fluoride." Journal of Physical Chemistry 1966, 70 (3), 874–877.
  • Shashkin, S. Y.; Goddard III, W. A., "Electron Correlation effects in ligand field parameters and other properties of copper II fluoride." Journal of Physical Chemistry 1986, 90 (2), 250–255.

External links[edit]