7758-99-8 (pentahydrate), 16448-28-5 (trihydrate)
|RTECS number||GL8800000 (anhydrous)
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||159.609 g/mol (anhydrous)
249.685 g/mol (pentahydrate)
|Density||3.60 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.286 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
|Melting point||110 °C decomp. (·5H2O)
<560 °C decomp.
|Solubility in water||1.055 molal (10 °C)
1.26 molal (20 °C)
1.502 molal (30 °C)
insoluble in ethanol
soluble in methanol
10.4 g/L (18 °C)
insoluble in ethanol
|Refractive index (nD)||1.724–1.739 (anhydrous)
|Crystal structure||Orthorhombic (chalcocyanite), space group Pnma, oP24, a = 0.839 nm, b = 0.669 nm, c = 0.483 nm
Triclinic (pentahydrate), space group P1, aP22, a = 0.5986 nm, b = 0.6141 nm, c = 1.0736 nm, α = 77.333°, β = 82.267°, γ = 72.567°
|5 J K−1 mol−1|
|EU classification||Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases||R22, R36/38, R50/53|
|S-phrases||(S2), S22, S60, S61|
|LD50||300 mg/kg (oral, rat) |
|Other cations||Iron(II) sulfate
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate or copper sulphate, is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuSO4. This salt exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. Copper(II) sulfate exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex [Cu(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry and is paramagnetic. Other names for copper(II) sulfate are "blue vitriol" and "bluestone".
- 1 Preparation and occurrence
- 2 Chemical properties
- 3 Uses
- 4 Toxicological effects
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
Preparation and occurrence
Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or its oxides with dilute sulfuric acid. For laboratory use, copper sulfate is usually purchased.
The anhydrous form occurs as a rare mineral known as chalcocyanite. The hydrated copper sulfate occurs in nature as chalcanthite (pentahydrate), and two more rare ones: bonattite (trihydrate) and boothite (heptahydrate).
Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting at 150 °C (302 °F), losing two water molecules at 63 °C (145 °F), followed by two more at 109 °C (228 °F) and the final water molecule at 200 °C (392 °F).
Dehydration proceeds by decomposition of the tetraaquacopper(2+) moiety, two opposing aqua groups are lost to give a diaquacopper(2+) moiety. The second dehydration step occurs with the final two aqua groups are lost. Complete dehydration occurs when the only unbound water molecule is lost.
Its blue color is due to water of hydration. When heated in an open flame the crystals are dehydrated and turn grayish-white.
Copper sulfate reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid very strongly. In the reaction the blue solution of copper(II) turns green, due to the formation of tetrachlorocuprate(II):
- Cu2+ + 4 Cl– → CuCl2−
It also reacts with more reactive metals than copper (e.g. Mg, Fe, Zn, Al, Sn, Pb, etc.):
- CuSO4 + Zn → ZnSO4 +Cu
- CuSO4 + Fe → FeSO4 + Cu
- CuSO4 + Mg → MgSO4 + Cu
- CuSO4 + Sn → SnSO4 + Cu
- 3 CuSO4 + 2 Al → Al2(SO4)3 + 3 Cu
Some metals more reactive than others like magnesium and aluminium will cause a secondary reaction. They will form hydroxides with the water while releasing some hydrogen gas.
The copper formed is deposited on the surface of the other metal. The reaction stops when no free surface of the metal is present anymore.
As a herbicide, fungicide and pesticide
Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a fungicide. However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of copper ions. Mixed with lime it is called Bordeaux mixture and used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries. Another application is Cheshunt compound, a mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. Its use as a herbicide is not agricultural, but instead for control of invasive aquatic plants and the roots of plants near pipes containing water. It is used in swimming pools as an algicide. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fish for parasitic infections, and is also used to remove snails from aquariums. Copper ions are highly toxic to fish, so care must be taken with the dosage. Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulfate. Copper sulfate inhibits growth of bacteria such as Escherichia coli.
For most of the twentieth century, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the dominant type of wood preservation for uses other than deep driven piles, utility poles, and railroad ties. To make pressure-treated wood, a large cylinder is filled with an aqueous chemical bath. Copper sulfate pentahydrate is dissolved in the water along with other additives prior to the lumber being placed inside the cylinder. When the cylinder is pressurized, the chemicals are absorbed by the wood, giving the wood fungicidal, insecticidal, and UV-light-reflecting properties that help preserve it.
Copper(II) sulfate has attracted many niche applications over the centuries.
Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper(II) sulfate to insoluble red copper(I) oxide. Copper(II) sulfate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins.
Copper sulfate is also used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulfate of known specific gravity – blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood which does not sink or sinks slowly has insufficient amount of hemoglobin.
In the presence of chlorine, copper ions emit a deep blue light.
Copper sulfate is employed in organic synthesis. The anhydrous salt is used as a dehydrating agent for forming and manipulating acetal groups. The hydrated salt can be intimately mingled with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols.
Copper sulfate is a commonly included chemical in children's chemistry sets and is often used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments. Because of its toxicity, it is not recommended for small children. Copper sulfate is often used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4. It is used in school chemistry courses to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration. The pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. When water is then added to the anhydrous compound, it turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color, and is known as blue vitriol. Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate can easily be produced by crystallization from solution as copper(II) sulfate is quite hygroscopic.
In an illustration of a "single metal replacement reaction", iron is submerged in a solution of copper sulfate. Upon standing, iron reacts, producing iron(II) sulfate, and copper precipitates.
- Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu
Copper sulfate was also used in the past as an emetic. It is now considered too toxic for this use. It is still listed as an antidote in the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System.
In 2008, the artist Roger Hiorns filled an abandoned waterproofed council flat in London with 75,000 liters of copper sulfate solution. The solution was left to crystallize for several weeks before the flat was drained, leaving crystal-covered walls, floors and ceilings. The work is titled Seizure.
Copper sulfate is an irritant. The usual routes by which humans can receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through eye or skin contact, as well as by inhaling powders and dusts. Skin contact may result in itching or eczema. Eye contact with copper sulfate can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, ulceration, and clouding of the cornea.
Upon oral exposure, copper sulfate is only moderately toxic. According to studies, the lowest dose of copper sulfate that had a toxic impact on humans is 11 mg/kg. Because of its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting is automatically triggered in case of the ingestion of copper sulfate. However, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, the symptoms can be severe. After 1–12 grams of copper sulfate are swallowed, such poisoning signs may occur as a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, discontinued urination, which leads to yellowing of the skin. In cases of copper sulfate poisoning, injury to the brain, stomach, liver, or kidneys may also occur.
- Haynes, p. 4.62
- Haynes, p. 5.199
- Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W. and Nichols, Monte C., ed. (2003). "Chalcocyanite" (PDF). Handbook of Mineralogy. V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209740.
- Haynes, p. 10.240
- Kokkoros, P. A.; Rentzeperis, P. J. (1958). "The crystal structure of the anhydrous sulphates of copper and zinc". Acta Crystallographica 11 (5): 361–364. doi:10.1107/S0365110X58000955.
- Bacon, G. E.; Titterton, D. H. (1975). "Neutron-diffraction studies of CuSO4 · 5H2O and CuSO4 · 5D2O". Z. Kristallogr. 141 (5–6): 330–341. doi:10.1524/zkri.1975.141.5-6.330.
- "Copper(II) sulfate MSDS". Oxford University. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- Andrew Knox Galwey; Michael E. Brown (1999). Thermal decomposition of ionic solids. Elsevier. pp. 228–229. ISBN 0-444-82437-5.
- Wiberg, Egon; Nils Wiberg; Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 1263. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
- Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
- Johnson, George Fiske (1935). "The Early History of Copper Fungicides". Agricultural History 9 (2): 67–79. JSTOR 3739659.
- Parry, K. E.; Wood, R. K. S. (1958). "The adaption of fungi to fungicides: Adaption to copper and mercury salts". Annals of Applied Biology 46 (3): 446. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1958.tb02225.x.
- "Uses of Copper Compounds: Copper Sulfate's Role in Agriculture". Copper.org. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- "All About Copper Sulfate". National Fish Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- Estridge, Barbara H.; Anna P. Reynolds; Norma J. Walters (2000). Basic Medical Laboratory Techniques. Thomson Delmar Learning. p. 166. ISBN 0-7668-1206-5.
- Hoffman, R. V. (2001). Copper(II) Sulfate, in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rc247.
- Philip J. Kocienski (2005). Protecting Groups. Thieme. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-58890-376-1.
- Jefford, C. W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y., A Selective, Heterogeneous Oxidation using a Mixture of Potassium Permanganate and Cupric Sulfate: (3aS,7aR)-Hexahydro-(3S,6R)-Dimethyl-2(3H)-Benzofuranone, Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 9: 462
- "Process for the preparation of stable copper (II) sulfate monohydrate applicable as trace element additive in animal fodders". Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- Holtzmann, N. A.; Haslam, R. H. (July 1968). "Elevation of serum copper following copper sulfate as an emetic". Pediatrics 42 (1): 189–93. PMID 4385403.
- Olson, Kent C. (2004). Poisoning & drug overdose. New York: Lange Medical Mooks/McGraw-Hill. p. 175. ISBN 0-8385-8172-2.
- "Seizure homepage". Artangel.org.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- Bordeau etch. Greenart.info (2009-01-18). Retrieved 2011-06-02.
- The Chemistry of using Copper Sulfate Mordant. Ndiprintmaking.ca (2009-04-12). Retrieved 2011-06-02.
- Windholz, M., ed. 1983. The Merck Index. Tenth edition. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Company.
- Guidance for reregistration of pesticide products containing copper sulfate. Fact sheet no. 100., Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, 1986
- TOXNET. 1975–1986. National library of medicine's toxicology data network. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). Public Health Service. National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bethesda, MD: NLM.
- Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton, eds. 1981. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Third edition. Vol. 2, Part 6 Toxicology. NY: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-01280-7
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1981–1986. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (RTECS). Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.
- Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 1439855110.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copper(II) sulfate.|
- International Chemical Safety Card 0751
- International Chemical Safety Card 1416
- National Pollutant Inventory – Copper and compounds fact sheet
|Salts and the ester of the Sulfate ion|