Coquerel's sifaka

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Coquerel's sifaka[1]
Sifaka in Madagascar.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Indriidae
Genus: Propithecus
Species: P. coquereli
Binomial name
Propithecus coquereli
(A. Grandidier, 1867)
Propithecus coquereli range map.svg
Coquerel's sifaka range
Synonyms
  • damonis Gray, 1870

Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) is a diurnal, medium-sized lemur of the sifaka genus Propithecus. Like all lemurs, it is native to Madagascar. It was once considered to be a subspecies of Verreaux's sifaka, but was eventually granted full species level.

Description[edit]

Coquerel's sifaka is a vertical clinger and leaper with long, powerful hind legs and an upright posture. It has a head-body length of 42–50 cm and a tail length of 50–60 cm. The total mature length (including tail) is approximately 93 to 110 cm. Adult body mass is typically around 4 kg. The dorsal pelage and tail are white, with maroon patches on the chest and portions of the limbs. The coat is generally dense. Its face is bare and black except for a distinctive patch of white fur along the bridge of the nose. Its naked ears are also black, and its eyes are yellow or orange.[3][4] The bottom of the lemurs hands and feet are black, while the thighs, arms, and chest are a chocolate brown. Also, just like all lemurs, Coquerel’s Sifaka’s have a toothcomb. They use this for grooming and sometimes scraping fruit off a pit.” [5]

Distribution[edit]

This species occurs only at altitudes of less than 300 ft in the dry deciduous forests of northwestern Madagascar, including coastal forests.[6] It primarily occurs to the north and east of the Betsiboka River, and the southerly portion of the range extends to Ambato-Boéni.[7] They are common in these two areas.

Groups of this species have a home range area amounting to 4-9 hectares.[8] Overall densities in the wild are observed in the range of 60 individuals per km².[2]

Diet[edit]

Coquerel's sifaka has an herbivorous diet that varies by season. In the wet season, it eats immature leaves, flowers, fruit, bark, and dead wood. In the dry season, it eats mature leaves and buds.[7] It may browse nearly 100 different plant species, but the majority of its feeding time will be concentrated on about 10% of these.[9] Since it has a very fibrous diet, Coquerel's sifaka has an enlarged cecum and extremely long colon which helps facilitate digestion.[10] These lemurs spend between thirty to forty percent of its day foraging, especially in the morning, midday, and evening. Females often take leadership roles during foraging, and exert their dominance by eating the preferred food or denying the males food until they are satisfied. These lemurs are beneficial to the environment because they aid seed dispersion and serve to populate the plant life. Captive Coquerel’s sifkas eat shining leaf sumac and mimosa.[11]

Behaviour[edit]

Coquerel's sifaka using suspension during feeding.

Coquerel's Sifaka lives in matriarchal groups of about three to ten individuals. It is diurnal and primarily arboreal. Much is known about its behavior from observations both in the wild and in captivity.[10]

Social structure[edit]

Coquerel’s sifaka spend the majority of its time in areas of just two or three hectares. However, they can live in areas with four to eight. Even though their home range may overlap with other groups of sifaka, they just avoid each other in order to avoid aggression.[6] When friendly Coquerel's sifakas meet, they greet each other by rubbing their noses together.

Matriarchy is rare in the animal kingdom as a whole but common among lemurs. A matriarchal system is particularly pronounced in Coquerel's sifaka. All adult and even most subadult females are dominant over males.[10]

Females have preferential access to food and other resources. When a female is browsing a particular area or tree, a male must wait for her to finish before he moves there to feed himself. If he gets in the way of the female, she may lunge, smack at him, or bite him. The male then exhibits submissive behavior by rolling his tail between his legs, chattering softly, and baring his teeth in a grimace before quickly leaping out of her way.[10]

When mating, Coquerel's sifaka commonly practices polyandry. A female may choose to mate with only one male, but most often she will mate with several, from other visiting groups as well as from her own. Males compete for access to sexually receptive females. However, the winner of a fight will not necessarily be the one she selects to breed with. The criteria by which she chooses a mate are evidently more complex.[12]

In some other animals, polyandrous mating is thought to raise the chances of successful fertilization, but this does not appear to be the case in Coquerel's sifaka. Instead, polyandry is thought to be advantageous because when paternity is confused, the likelihood of male infanticide decreases.[9]

This young male Coquerel's sifaka is over six months old, and is therefore fully independent.

Reproduction[edit]

Female Coquerel's sifakas choose who they mate with whether it be intragroup males or males from outside groups.[13] They have synchronized estrous and this occurs during January and February.[10] Infants are born in June and July after a gestation period of about 162 days. Normally, one infant is born during Madagascar’s dry season (June–July). Newborn lemurs have an average weight of 100 grams, though it can vary between 85 and 115 grams An infant will cling to its mother's chest until about a month or so after birth, then transfer to her back. Infants are weaned and become fully independent by about six months of age. Adult size is reached anywhere from one to five years.[7]

Both males and females become sexually mature around two to three and half years old, though some do not have their first offspring until they are six. Hybrid species have been known to occur with some species. One such species is the Propithecus verreauxi.[14]

Locomotion[edit]

Coquerel's sifaka in the wild at Anjajavy Forest
The terrestrial locomotion of Coquerel's sifaka

In the trees, Coquerel's sifaka moves by vertical clinging and leaping. It maintains an upright posture when at rest or when propelling itself between branches or trunks. This style of arboreal locomotion is characteristic of most, if not all, lemurs.[10] This particular lemur can leap from tree to tree anywhere up to thirty-three feet.[15] They also have the extraordinary ability to leap to spiny trees and precisely place their hands and feet so that they will not hurt themselves.

Occasionally Coquerel's sifaka will descend to the ground to cross open spaces. Its terrestrial locomotion is unique to its species. Like Verreaux's sifaka, it moves in a series of bipedal hops with its arms thrown out to the sides for balance. However, whereas Verreaux's sifaka bounds sideways and crosses its legs one in front of the other, the Coquerel's sifaka bounds forward, like a kangaroo. It leans in the direction of its jump to achieve forward momentum.[7]

Communication[edit]

Coquerel's sifaka uses a variety of auditory, visual, and olfactory signals to communicate.[16] ‘Sifaka' is a Malagasy name that comes from the lemurs’ characteristic “shif-auk” sound.[17] The first syllable is a low growl that "bubbles" in the throat, and the second is a clicking sound like an amplified hiccup. The "shih-fak" call is used to warn fellow group members of a potential ground predator or to threaten enemies and intruders. Coquerel's sifaka is highly territorial.[18]

Contact calls used when groups are traveling include soft grunts and growls. If a sifaka is separated from its group members, it may emit a long, loud wail to find them.[9]

One visual signal which Coquerel's sifaka uses to communicate is a rapid backward jerking of the head. This is a threatening action which may accompany the "shih-fak" call.[7]

Sifakas also rely heavily on scent for communication. Males typically scent-mark using a gland in their throats, which they will rub back and forth along branches. Females are more likely to scent-mark with anogenital glands. It is not entirely clear what information is conveyed in these scents, beyond the demarcation of territory.[9]

Economic importance[edit]

Coquerel’s sifakas, like many lemurs, have been studied to help scientists learn about the evolutionary history of primates, including humans. Since they are so endangered and hunted in Madagascar, the ecotourism industry has benefitted greatly because of the Sifaka and brings people into the country. Not only do scientists study the sifaka to get insight of evolution but they have also been the subject of those researching evolution of color vision, paternal care, matriarchal primate societies and causes of speciation.[10]

Conservation status and threats[edit]

Though its populations are thought to be widely distributed, Coquerel's sifaka is found in only two protected areas in Madagascar: the Ankarafantsika National Park and the Bora Special Reserve. It is an endangered species, according to the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. The principal threats to its existence are deforestation, habitat fragmentation, and hunting pressure. The locals often clear trees to produce new farming land, especially in the marshes where rice can be grown. In northwestern Madagascar, deforestation results from annual burning to create new pastureland for livestock. Trees are also cut for the production of charcoal.[6]

Many local Malagasy traditions prohibit hunting of the Coquerel's sifaka. One such taboo derives from a legend of a sifaka saving the life of a boy who has fallen out of a tree. The story goes like this: "A little boy heads into the forest to find some honey. He spots a hive in a high tree and he ascends it. As he's about to reach in to collect the honey, he is immediately attacked by bees. The surprise causes the boy to lose his grip on the tree branch, and he falls to what is almost certainly his death. As the boy plummets toward the earth, a large lemur suddenly appears, swoops in and catches the boy, saving his life. Ever since that day, lemurs became sacred to the Malagasy and it is said that anyone who kills one shall have extreme misfortune."[19] However, these protective taboos are breaking down with cultural erosion and immigration.[6]

This lemur is now hunted for bush-meat, but humans are not the only threat. The introduction of foreign species, especially cats and dogs, has hurt the Coquerel’s sifaka. PAW (Projects for Animal Welfare) encourages the neutering and spaying of the cats and dogs on the island in order to protect the native wildlife.[20] Even the protected areas in which the Coquerel's sifaka occurs offer it little protection. It is hunted even within Ankarafantsika, and the Bora Special Reserve has become seriously degraded.[7]

Predation[edit]

There are many animals that prey on the Coquerel’s Sifaka. Hawks and various other raptors attack these lemurs from above, while constrictor snakes and the Fossa threaten them from the ground. There are also many introduced predators such as feral dogs, African cats, European cats, mongooses and civets. However out of all these creatures, humans are the biggest hazard to the sifaka. Even though it was considered a taboo to kill the lemurs,[10] in some places, the breakdown of the Madagascar culture encourages some people to hunt these creatures. Non-locals are the biggest threats to the lemurs because they are either unaware of the local taboos or refuse to abide by them.[citation needed] Coquerel’s sifaka see humans now as a threat and may give out an alarm call to warn the others.[10] Unfortunately, some of these lemurs are unaware of the danger humans pose and will approach humans on the ground. To intimidate predators they do recognize, the lemurs will announce the threat with a warning call, and stare at the threat, shaking their heads back and forth.[21]

Cultural references[edit]

The lemur on Zoboomafoo (the PBS kids television program) is based on a Coquerel's sifaka.[10] The Coquerel’s sifaka who starred in the show is named Jovian. Jovian lives at the Duke Lemur Center where the show was originally filmed. His son Charlie also lives at the Center, along with his family group of other Coquerel’s sifaka.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M, eds. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 120. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. (2014). "Propithecus coquereli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  3. ^ Kappeler, P.M. (1991). "Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates". Folia Primatologia 57: 132–146. doi:10.1159/000156575. PMID 1794769. 
  4. ^ Tattersall, I. (1982). The Primates of Madagascar. Columbia University. 
  5. ^ Pochron, S.T.; Wright, P.C. (2005). ""Dance of the sexes: a lemur needs some unusual traits to survive in Madagascar's unpredictable environment". CBS. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1134/is_5_114/ai_n13811126/. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  6. ^ a b c d Garbutt, N., C.M. Hogan, H. Hastings, W. Pollecutt, and T. Andriaharimalala (May 2006). Anjajavy, the village and the forest. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Mittermeier, R.A.; Konstant, W.R.; Hawkins, F.; Louis, E.E.; Langrand, O.; Ratsimbazafy, J.; Rasoloarison, R.; Ganzhorn, J.U.; Rajaobelina, S.; Tattersall, I.; Meyers, D.M. (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar. Illustrated by S.D. Nash (2nd ed.). Conservation International. ISBN 1-881173-88-7. 
  8. ^ Petter, J.J- (1962). "Recherches sur l'ecologie et l'ethologie des lemuriens malgashes". Memoires National de Histoire Naturelle, Paris (A) 27: 1–146. 
  9. ^ a b c d Richard, Alison (2003). "Propithecus, Sifakas". In Steven M. Goodman and Jonathan P. Benstead. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago: University of Chicago. pp. 1345–1348. ISBN 0-226-30306-3. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Oldenkamp, R. (2011). "Propithecus coquereli". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Campbell, J., K. Glenn, B. Grossi, J. Eisemann. 2001. Use of Local North Carolina Browse Species to Supplement the Diet of a Captive Colony of Folivorous Primates (Propithecus sp.). Zoo Biology, 20: 447-461.
  12. ^ Pochron, S.T.; Wright, P.C. (2005). "Dance of the sexes: a lemur needs some unusual traits to survive in Madagascar's unpredictable environment". CBS. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  13. ^ Kubzdela, K., A. Richard, M. Pereira. 1992. Social Relations in Semi-Free Ranging Sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi coquereli) and the Question of Female Dominance. American Journal of Primatology, 28: 139-145.
  14. ^ Taylor, L. 2008. Old Lemurs: Preliminary Data on Behavior and Reproduction from the Duke University Primate Center. Pp. 319-333 in J Fleagle, C Gilbert, eds. Elwyn Simons: A Search for Origins. New York: Springer Science Business+Media, LLC.
  15. ^ Iverson, Erik. "Coquerel's Sifaka." Mongabay. Mongabay, n.d. Web. 26 Jul 2012. <http://kids.mongabay.com/animal-profiles/coquerels_sifaka.html>.
  16. ^ Greive, Bradley Trevor. Priceless: The Vanishing Beauty of a Fragile Planet. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Pub., 2003. Print.
  17. ^ Richard, A. 1978. Behavioral Variation: Case Study of a Malagasy Lemur. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, Inc.
  18. ^ Jolly, Alison (2004). Lords and Lemurs: Mad Scientists, Kings with Spears, and the Survival of Diversity in Madagascar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 
  19. ^ Smith, Dave. "Lemurs Killed, Eaten More in Madagascar as Taboos Fade." International Business Times. 29 Dec. 2011. Web. <http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/274228/20111229/lemurs-killed-eaten-madagascar-taboo.htm>.
  20. ^ International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 2008. "Propithecus coquereli" (On-line). Accessed January 24, 2011 at http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/18355/0/full/print
  21. ^ Fichtel, C., C. P. van Schaik. 2006. Semantic Differences in Sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) Alarm Calls: A Reflection of Genetic or Cultural Variants?. Ethology, 112: 839-849.
  22. ^ Duke Lemur Center. 2011. "Coquerel's Sifaka" (On-line). Duke Lemur Center Studying and Caring for Lemurs. Accessed February 18, 2011 at http://lemur.duke.edu/category/diurnal-lemurs/coquerels-sifaka/.

External links[edit]