Cord blood-derived multipotent stem cell
Cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) are a type of multipotent stem cell from mammalian cord blood. They are identifiable by their ability to attach to the plastic surface of non-tissue cultured-treated Petri dishes.
Phenotypic characterization demonstrates that CB-SCs display embryonic cell markers (e.g., transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3, and SSEA-4) and leukocyte common antigen CD45, but they are negative for blood cell lineage markers (e.g., CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14, CD19, CD20, CD34, CD41a, CD41b, CD83, CD90, CD105, and CD133).
Additionally, CB-SCs display very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. They can give rise to three embryonic layer-derived cells in the presence of different inducers.
More specifically, CB-SCs tightly adhere to culture dishes with a large rounded morphology and are resistant to common detaching methods (trypsin/EDTA), making it easy to collect suspended lymphocytes after co-culture. CB-SCs are the active agent in stem cell educator therapy.
- Yong Zhao, Honglan Wang, Theodore Mazzone (Aug 1, 2006). "Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics.". Exp Cell Res. 312 (13): 2454–2464. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.04.008. PMID 16716296.
- Yong Zhao, Brian Lin, Robert Darflinger, Yongkang Zhang, Mark J. Holterman, Randal A. Skidgel (January 19, 2009). "Human cord blood stem cell-modulated regulatory T lymphocytes reverse the autoimmune-caused type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice". In Unutmaz, Derya. PLoS One 4 (1): e4226. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004226. PMC 2627485. PMID 19156219.
- Yong Zhao, Honglan Wang, Theodore Mazzone (Jan 15, 2007). "Immune regulation of T lymphocyte by a newly characterized human umbilical cord blood stem cell". Immunol Lett 108 (1): 78–87. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2006.10.007. PMID 17161871.
- Yong Zhao, Theodore Mazzone (Dec 2010). "Human cord blood stem cells and the journey to a cure for type 1 diabetes". Autoimmun Rev 10 (2): 103–107. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2010.08.011. PMID 20728583.
- Zhao Y, Lin B, Dingeldein M, Guo C, Hwang D, Holterman MJ. (May 2010). "New type of human blood stem cell: a double-edged sword for the treatment of type 1 diabetes". Transl Res. 155 (5): 211–216. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2010.01.003. PMID 20403575.
- Yong Zhao, Zhaoshun Jiang, Tingbao Zhao, Mingliang Ye, Chengjin Hu, Zhaohui Yin, Heng Li, Ye Zhang, Yalin Diao, Yunxiang Li, Yingjian Chen, Xiaoming Sun, Mary Beth Fisk, Randal Skidgel, Mark Holterman, Bellur Prabhakar, Theodore Mazzone (Jan 10, 2012). "Reversal of type 1 diabetes via islet ß cell regeneration following immune modulation by cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells". BMC Medicine 2012 10: 1–11. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-3. PMC 3322343. PMID 22233865.
- Yong Zhao (Oct 2012). "Stem cell educator therapy and induction of immune balance". Curr Diab Rep 12 (5): 517–523. doi:10.1007/s11892-012-0308-1. PMID 22833322.