Coreopsis

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Coreopsis
Coreopsisgigantea.jpg
Coreopsis gigantea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae[1]
Tribe: Coreopsideae[1][2]
Genus: Coreopsis
L.
Species

Many, see text

Synonyms

Acispermum Neck.
Calliopsis Rchb.
Epilepis Benth.
Leptosyne DC.
Pugiopappus A.Gray
Selleophytum Urb.
Tuckermannia Nutt.[3]

Coreopsis /ˌkɒrˈɒpsɨs/[4] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Common names include calliopsis and tickseed, a name shared with various other plants.

Description[edit]

They range from 46–120 cm (18–47 in) in height. The flat fruits are small and dry and look like bugs. Many of its [5] species are cultivated. 28 species are native to North America and the others come from Central and South America. The flowers are usually yellow with a toothed tip. They have showy flower heads with involucral bracts in two distinct series of eight each, the outer being commonly connate at the base. The name Coreopsis is derived from the Greek words κόρις (koris), meaning "bedbug," and ὄψις (opsis), meaning "view," referring to the shape of the achene.[6]

Uses[edit]

Coreopsis species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora acamtopappi.

All Coreopsis species were designated the state wildflower of Florida in the United States in 1991.[7]

Taxonomy[edit]

Coreopsis is a variable genus closely related to Bidens. In fact, neither Coreopsis nor Bidens, as defined in the 20th century, is strictly monophyletic. Coreopsis is best described as paraphyletic. Previously (1936) Coreopsis was classified into 11 sections and 114 species, but the African species were subsequently reclassified as Bidens, leaving the North and South American species under Coreopsis, some 75-80 in all. 45 are in the 11 North American sections, and the remaining 35 are in the South American Section Pseudoagarista. The North American species fall into two broad groups, with 5 sections in Mexico and North America (12 species) and the remaining 5 sections in Eastern North America (26 species). [5]

One group which does seem to be monophyletic consists of temperate species from North America, including five sections of Coreopsis, Bidens coronata and Bidens tripartita, and the genus Thelesperma (five species). [2]

Classification[edit]

Sections[edit]

One classification (GRIN) of the genus consists of eleven sections,[3] shown by cladistic relationships with number of species in parenthesis. [5]

Mexico and Western North America

Coreopsis sect. Electra (3)
Coreopsis sect. Anathysana (1)
Coreopsis sect. Tuckermannia (2)
Coreopsis sect. Pugiopappus (3)
Coreopsis sect. Leptosyne (3)

Eastern North America

Coreopsis sect. Silphidium (1)
Coreopsis sect. Gyrophyllum (syn. Palmatae)[8] (6)
Coreopsis sect. Calliopsis (3)
Coreopsis sect. Eublepharis (7)
Coreopsis sect. Coreopsis (9)

South America

Coreopsis sect. Pseudoagarista (35)

Selected species[edit]

See: [9][10]

Section Anathysana[edit]

Section Calliopsis[edit]

Section Coreopsis[edit]

Section Electra[edit]

Section Eublepharis[edit]

Section Gyrophyllum (syn. Palmatae)[edit]

Section Leptosyne[edit]

Section Pseudoagarista[edit]

South America, 35 species

Section Pugiopappus[edit]

Section Silphidium[edit]

Section Tuckermannia[edit]

Formerly placed here[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Coreopsideae (and pages for containing groups), Tree of Life Web Project, last updated 2008
  2. ^ a b Crawford, D. J.; Mort, M. E. (2005). "Phylogeny of Eastern North American Coreopsis (Asteraceae-Coreopsideae): insights from nuclear and plastid sequences, and comments on character evolution". American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 330–6. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.330. PMID 21652409. 
  3. ^ a b "Genus: Coreopsis L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. January 6, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  4. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  5. ^ a b c Kim, Seung-Chul; Daniel J. Crawford; Mesfin Tadesse; Mary Berbee; Fred R. Ganders; Mona Pirseyedi; Elizabeth J. Esselman (September–July 1999). "ITS sequences and phylogenetic relationships in Bidens and Coreopsis (Asteraceae)". Systematic Botany 24 (3): 480–493. doi:10.2307/2419701.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: A-C. CRC Press. p. 615. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2. 
  7. ^ Main, Martin B.; Ginger M. Allen. "Florida State Symbols". Electronic Data Information Source. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  8. ^ Flora of North America
  9. ^ a b "Species Records of Coreopsis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Coreopsis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]