Corfu incident

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Not to be confused with Corfu Channel Incident.
Corfu Incident
Corfu from ISS.jpg
Corfu, one of the Ionian Islands
Date August 29, 1923 – September 27, 1923
Location Corfu, Greece
39°40′N 19°45′E / 39.667°N 19.750°E / 39.667; 19.750
Result Agreement between Italy and Greece under the auspices of the League of Nations
Belligerents
Italy Kingdom of Italy Greece Kingdom of Greece
Commanders and leaders
Italy Admiral Emilio Solari
Strength
2 [1] or 3 battleships

2[1] or 4 cruisers
5[1] or 6 destroyers
2 Torpedo boats [1]
4 MAS boats [1]
2 submarines [1]
1 airship [2]
airplanes [3][4][5]
6 batteries of light artillery [6]

5,000 [7] or 8,000[8] or 10,000 [9] troops
150 (the Greek garrison)[10]
Casualties and losses
none 16 civilians killed, 30 injured and 2 amputated[11] or
20 civilians killed and 32 wounded.[12][13]
Corfu is located in Greece
Corfu
Corfu
Location within Greece

The Corfu Incident was a 1923 diplomatic and military crisis between the Kingdom of Greece and the Kingdom of Italy.

Background[edit]

There was a boundary dispute between Greece and Albania. The two nations took their dispute to the Conference of Ambassadors, which created a commission of British, French, and Italian officials [14] to determine the boundary, which was authorized by the League of Nations to settle the dispute. The Italian General Enrico Tellini became the chairman of the commission. From the outset of the negotiations, the relations between Greece and the commission were negative. Eventually the Greek delegate openly accused Tellini of working in favour of Albania's claims.[15]

Tellini's murder[edit]

On August 27, 1923 the Italian general Enrico Tellini, two of his aides, and their interpreter fell into an ambush and were assassinated by unknown assailants at the border crossing of Kakavia, which is near the town of Ioannina, within Greek territory.[16] The four victims were Enrico Tellini, Major Luigi Corti, Lieutenant Luigi Bonacini and Albanian interpreter Thanassi Gheziri. None of the victims were robbed.[17]

The attack was attributed to Greek nationalists according to the Italian newspapers and the official statement of the Albanian government,[18][19] while other sources, including the Greek government and its officials and the Romanian consul in Ioannina, attributed the murder to Albanian bandits.[20][21][22][23][24]

Italian and Greek reactions[edit]

Upon news of the murder, anti-Greek demonstrations broke out in Italy.[25][26][27] The Greek newspapers were reported by Australian newspapers to "condemn unanimously the Tellini crime, and express friendly sentiments towards Italy. They hope that the Cabinet will give legitimate satisfaction to Italy without going beyond the limits of national dignity."[28]

Italy sent an ultimatum to Greece on August 29, 1923, demanding: (1) a complete official apology at the Italian legation in Athens, (2) a solemn funeral in the Catholic cathedral in Athens in the presence of all the Greek government, (3) military honours for the bodies of the victims, (4) full honours by the Greek fleet to the Italian fleet which would be sent to Piraeus, (5) capital punishment for the guilty, (6) an indemnity of 50 million lire[29][30] within five days of receipt of the note and (7) a strict inquiry, to be carried out quickly with the assistance of the Italian military attaché.[31][32][33] In addition, Italy demanded that Greece must reply to the ultimatum within 24 hours.[34]

Greece replied to Italy on August 30, 1923, accepting four of the demands which with modifications were as follows: (1) The commandant of Piraeus would express the Greek Government's sorrow to the Italian Minister, (2) a memorial service will be held in the presence of members of the government, (3) on the same day a detachment of the guard would salute the Italian flag at the Italian legation, (4) the military would render honors to the remains of the victims when they were transferred to an Italian warship. The other demands were rejected on the ground that they would infringe the sovereignty and honor of Greece.[35][36][37] In addition, the Greek government declared its complete willingness to grant, as a measure of justice, an equitable indemnity to the families of the victims, and that it didn't accept an enquiry in the presence of the Italian military attaché but it would be pleased to accept any assistance which Colonel Perone (the Italian military attaché) might be able to lend by supplying any information likely to facilitate the discovery of the assassins.[38][39]

Mussolini and the Italian cabinet were not satisfied with the reply of the Greek government and declared that it was unacceptable.[40] The Italian press, including the opposition journals, endorsed Mussolini's demands and insisted that Greece must comply without discussion.[41][42][43] Mussolini's decision was received with enthusiasm in all Italy.[44]

Bombardment and occupation of Corfu[edit]

Kakavia is located in Greece
Kakavia
Kakavia
Location of Kakavia, where Enrico Tellini was murdered.

On August 31, 1923, a squadron of the Italian Navy bombarded the Greek island of Corfu and landed 5000 [7] or 8000 [8] or 10,000[45] troops.[46] Airplanes aided in the attack.[3][4][5] Italian fire was concentrated on the town's Old Fortress, which had long been demilitarized and served as a shelter for refugees from Asia Minor, and on the Cities Police school at the New Fortress, which was also a refugee shelter.[47] The bombardment lasted 15[48] or 30 [49] minutes. As a result of the bombardment 16 civilians were killed, 30 injured and two had limbs amputated,[11] while according to other sources 20 were killed and 32 wounded.[12][13] There were no soldiers reported among the victims, all of whom were refugees and orphans.[50] The majority of those killed were children.[51]

The prefect of Corfu, Petros Evripaios, and Greek officers and officials were arrested by the Italians[52] and detained aboard an Italian warship.[53] The Greek garrison did not surrender but retired to the interior of the island.[54][55][56]

After the landing, the Italian officers were worried that British citizens may have been wounded or killed, and were relieved when they learned that there were no British among the victims.[57]

The residence of the British officer in charge of the police training school, who was away on vacation, was looted by Italian soldiers.[58][59]

Reactions after the bombardment and occupation of Corfu[edit]

The Greek Government proclaimed martial law throughout Greece.[60] The Greek fleet was ordered to retire to the Gulf of Volo to avoid contact with the Italian fleet.[61][62] In the Athens Cathedral, a solemn memorial service was held for the persons who were killed in the Corfu bombardment, and the bells of all of the churches were tolled continuously. After the service, demonstrations against Italy broke out.[63] All places of amusement were closed as a sign of mourning for the victims of the bombardment.[64]

After the protest of the Italian Minister, the Greek Government suspended for one day the newspaper Eleftheros Typos for characterizing the Italians as "the fugitives of Caporetto" and dismissed the censor for allowing the statement to pass.[65][66] The Greek Government provided a detachment of 30 men to guard the Italian Legation in Athens.[67] Greek newspapers were unanimous in condemning Italy's action.[68]

Italy closed the Corfu canal[69] and the Straits of Otranto[70] to Greek ships. In addition, Italy suspended all Greek shipping companies sailing for her [71] and ordered Italian ships to boycott Greece,[72] although the Greek ports were open to Italian vessels.[73] Greek steamers were detained in Italian ports and one was seized by a submarine in the straits of Corfu,[74][75] but on September 2, the Italian Ministry of Marine ordered all Greek ships to be released from Italian ports.[76] Anti-Greek demonstrations broke out in Italy again.[77] The Italian government ordered the Italian reservists in London to hold themselves in readiness for army service.[78] The King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, returned to Rome from his summer residence immediately.[79] The Italian military attaché who was sent to inquire into the murder of the Italian delegates was recalled by the Italian legation,[80] and Greek journalists were expelled from Italy.[81]

Albania reinforced the Greco-Albanian frontier and prohibited passage across.[82]

Serbian newspapers declared that Serbia would support Greece,[83] while elements in Turkey advised Mustafa Kemal to seize the opportunity to invade Western Thrace.[84]

Resolution[edit]

Corfu incident is located in Greece
Kakavia
Kakavia
Corfu
Corfu
Kakavia (with red) and Corfu (with green).

On September 1, Greece appealed to the League of Nations, but Antonio Salandra, the Italian representative to the League, informed the Council that he had no permission to discuss the crisis.[85] Mussolini refused to co-operate with the League and demanded that the Conference of Ambassadors should deal with the matter.[86][87]

Britain favored referring the Corfu matter to the League of Nations, but France opposed such a course of action fearing that it would provide a precedent for the League to become involved in the French occupation of the Ruhr.[88]

With the threat of Mussolini to withdraw from the League and lack of French support the matter went to the Conference of Ambassadors. Italy's prestige was safeguarded and the French were relieved from any linkage between Corfu and the Ruhr at the League of Nations.[88]

On September 8 the Conference of Ambassadors announced to both Greece and Italy, as well as to the League of Nations, the terms upon which the dispute should be settled.

The decision was that: (1) the Greek Fleet shall render a salute of 21 guns at Piraeus to the Italian Fleet, which will enter the port, followed by French and British warships, which shall be included in the salute, (2) a funeral service shall be attended by the Greek Cabinet, (3) military honours shall be rendered to the slain upon embarkation at Preveza, (4) Greece shall deposit 50,000,000 lire in a Swiss bank as a guarantee, (5) the highest Greek military authority must apologise to the British, French, and Italian representatives at Athens, (6) there shall be a Greek inquiry into the murders, which must be supervised by a special international commission presided over by the Japanese (Lieutenant-Colonel Shibuya, who was a military attaché of the Japanese embassy), and which must be completed by September 27, (7) Greece must guarantee the commission's safety and defray its expenses and (8) the conference requested the Greek Government to communicate its complete acceptance immediately, separately, and simultaneously to the British, French, and Italian representatives at Athens. In addition, (9) the conference requested the Albanian Government to facilitate the commission's work in Albanian territory.[89]

Both Greece, on September 8,[90] and Italy, on September 10, accepted it.[91] Italy added, however, that she would not evacuate the island until Greece had given full satisfaction.[92]

In Italy everyone was satisfied with the Conference's decision [93] and praised Mussolini.[94][95]

On September 11 the Greek delegate, Nikolaos Politis, informed the Council that Greece had deposited the 50,000,000 lire in a Swiss bank and on September 15, the Ambassadors Conference informed Mussolini that Italy must evacuate Corfu on the September 27, at the latest.[96][97] Mussolini accepted it two days later.[98]

On September 26, before the inquiry had finished, the Conference of Ambassadors awarded Italy an indemnity of 50,000,000 lire, on the alleged ground that "the Greek authorities had been guilty of a certain negligence before and after the crime."[99]

In addition, Italy demanded from Greece 1,000,000 lire per day for the cost of the occupation of Corfu[100] and Conference of the Ambassadors replied that Italy reserved the right of recourse to an International Court of Justice in connection with the occupation expenses.[101]

In Greece there was a general depression over the decision, because Italy obtained practically everything she demanded.[102]

Corfu Evacuation[edit]

On September 27 the Italian flag was lowered and the Italian troops evacuated Corfu. The Italian fleet and a Greek destroyer saluted the Italian flag, and when the Greek flag hoisted, the Italian flagship saluted it.[103]

40,000 residents of Corfu welcomed the prefect when he landed, and shouldered him to the prefecture. British and French flags were waved by the crowd which demonstrated enthusiastically in front of the Anglo-French consulates.[104]

The Italian squadron had been ordered to remain anchored till Italy received the 50 million lire.[105] The 50,000,000 lire deposited in a Swiss bank were at the disposal of the Hague tribunal and the bank refused to transfer the money to Rome without the authority of the Greek National Bank, which was given on the evening of the same day.[106]

On September 30, the Italian fleet, except one destroyer, departed.[107]

Aftermath[edit]

The ulterior motive for the invasion was Corfu's strategic position at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea.[108][109][110]

The crisis showed that the League of Nations was weak [111] and couldn't settle disputes when a great power confronted a small one.[112] The authority of the League had been openly defied by Italy, a founding member of the League and a permanent member of the Council.[86] In addition, it showed the purpose and tone of Fascist foreign policy.[112]

Italy's invasion of Corfu was Mussolini's most aggressive move of the 1920s.[88] The reputation of Mussolini in Italy was enhanced.[113][114][115]

In Corfu during the first quarter of the 20th century, many Italian operas were performed at the Municipal Theatre of Corfu. This tradition came to a halt following the Corfu incident.[116]

After the bombardment the theatre featured Greek operas as well as Greek theater performances by distinguished Greek actors such as Marika Kotopouli and Pelos Katselis.[117]

Stamps[edit]

An Italian Post Office opened on September 11, 1923 in Corfu, issuing a set of 8 Italian stamps overprinted “CORFU” which were placed on sale on the 20th. Three additional stamps overprinted in Greek currency arrived on 24th. The third stamp was 2.40 drachma on 1 lire. The Post Office closed at midday on 26 September 1923, only remaining open to dispatch the morning mail. The office had been open for 15 days.

Three further values arrived on the day the Post Office closed, and were never issued. They eventually became available for sale at the postal ministry in Rome. Many used copies of these stamps have forged postmarks, but it is known that the Corfu cancel was applied to hundreds of stamps before the Post Office closed.[118][119]

People in key roles in Greece and Italy[edit]

Greece[edit]

Italy[edit]

  • Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister.
  • Antonio Salandra, Italian representative to the League of Nations.
  • Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy.
  • General Armando Diaz, Minister of War.
  • Giulio Cesare Montagna, the Italian ambassador in Athens.
  • Colonel Perone di San Martino, the Italian military attache.
  • Admiral Emilio Solari, commander of the Italian troops in Corfu.
  • Admiral Diego Simonetti, commander of the Italian fleet in Lower Adriatic, he was appointed as Corfu governor during the occupation.
  • Captain Antonio Foschini, chief of the naval staff, the man who presented the ultimatum about the Italian occupation to the Greek prefect.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gooch, John (December 2007). Mussolini and his Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0521856027. 
  2. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 30 July 2013. "preceded by a dirigible, which flew over the eastern portion of thc island. "
  3. ^ a b "GREEK FORT AT CORFU SHELLED BY ITALIAN WARSHIPS". Rochester Evening Journal And The Post Express. 4 September 1923. p. 2. "Aeroplanes aided in the attack."
  4. ^ a b "CORFU OCCUPIED AFTER BOMBARDMENT; 15 GREEK CIVILIANS KILLED, MANY WOUNDED". Providence News. 1 September 1923. p. 37. "As the landing of the Italians was carried out, fire also was opened from planes above the town."
  5. ^ a b "CORFU OCCUPIED AFTER BOMBARDMENT; 15 GREEK CIVILIANS KILLED, MANY WOUNDED". Providence News. 1 September 1923. p. 37. "With firing from the fleet and airplanes."
  6. ^ "ITALIAN NAVY GUNS KILLED ARMENIANS ORPHANS IN CORFU.". The Montreal Gazette (Montreal). 5 September 1923. p. 10.  "...and six batteries of light artillery."
  7. ^ a b "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "...Italy landed 5000 troops on Corfu from 15 naval vessels,..."
  8. ^ a b "LEAGUE CHALLENGED.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 6 September 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  "Eight thousand troops were landed."
  9. ^ "ITALIAN NAVY GUNS KILLED ARMENIANS ORPHANS IN CORFU.". The Montreal Gazette (Montreal). 5 September 1923. p. 10.  "...when i left the Italians had landed 10,000 troops"
  10. ^ "5000 ITALIAN TROOPS HAVE LANDED AT CORFU GREEK GARRISON FLED.". Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954) (Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  "The Greek garrison, numbering 150."
  11. ^ a b http://www.tovima.gr/books-ideas/article/?aid=327944
  12. ^ a b "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "The number killed was 20, of whom 16 were children and 32 were wounded."
  13. ^ a b "American Scores Bombardment Of Corfu Civilians.". Meriden Morning Record. 4 September 1923. p. 1.  "the number killed reached twenty, nine of these were killed outright and eleven died at the hospital. Thirty-two wounded are now in hospitals and there were perhaps fifty slightly wounded."
  14. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "...a commission, consisting of English, French, and Italian officials, was engaged in this work on behalf of the Conference of Ambassadors."
  15. ^ Brecher, Michael; Wilkenfeld, Jonathan (1997). A study of crisis. University of Michigan Press. p. 583. ISBN 0-472-10806-9. 
  16. ^ Michael Brecher & Jonathan Wilkenfeld: A study of crisis
  17. ^ Massock, Richard (2007). Italy from Within. READ BOOKS. ISBN 1-4067-2097-6. 
  18. ^ Italy in the last fifteen hundred years: a concise history By Reinhold Schumann page 298 ([1])
  19. ^ "GREEK PLOT ALLEGED.". Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 - 1950) (WA: National Library of Australia). 31 August 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "The Italian newspapers declare that the murders were the result of deliberate ambuscade by Greeks—natives of Epirus, and will leave an indelible stain. The Albanian Legation in London has received a telegram from Tirana affirming that Greek armed bands were the assassins"
  20. ^ Albania's Captives. Pyrrhus J. Ruches. Argonaut, 1965 p. 120 "He had no trouble recognizing three of them. They were Major Lepenica, Nevruz Belo and Xhellaledin Aqif Feta, alias Daut Hohxa."
  21. ^ "ALBANIANS BLAMED.". The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 - 1950) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 31 August 1923. p. 7 Edition: THIRD EDITION. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "The Governor-General of Epirus, the Greek Delegation, and the Roumanian Consul in Janina, attribute the Telini crime to Albanians."
  22. ^ "MURDERED ITALIANS.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 17 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "The Exchange correspondent at Athens says the Court of Inquiry into the Janiria murders puts forward a suggestion that the Italian delegates were killed as an act of vengeance because during the Italian occupation of Vairona Colonel Tellini as Governor had several Albanians shot, including notables."
  23. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "...the Greek Government felt there was reasonable doubt respecting the identity of the murderers, such doubt being based upon two notes to the Government of Albania respecting the operations in that country of a band of brigands."
  24. ^ Duggan, Christopher (April 2008). The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 439. ISBN 0618353674.  "...the killers (who had never caught) had almost certainly come from Albania,..."
  25. ^ "Italians Incensed.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "Demonstrations against the Greeks are reported from all parts of Italy."
  26. ^ "GREEK FLAG BURNED.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  " Anti-Greek demonstrations continue in the Italian towns, notably in Trieste, where Nationalists and Fascists burned the Greek flag in the public square, and threw it into the sea. In Milan there were noisy scenes in front of the Greek Consulate, and demonstrators carried off a shield which bore a replica of the Greek arms."
  27. ^ "ITALIAN DEMANDS A MINIMUM.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "Anti-Greek demonstrations are reported from all over Italy, and the police have been reinforced."
  28. ^ "Greek Press Views.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 1 May 2013.  "The Greek newspapers condemn unanimously the Telini crime, and express friendly sentiments towards Italy. They hope that the Cabinet will give legitimate satisfaction to Italy without going beyond the limits of national dignity."
  29. ^ GCSE History Notes. p. 19.  "...blamed the Greeks and demanded 50 million lire in compensation"
  30. ^ Burgwyn, James (April 1997). Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period: 1918-1940. Praeger. p. 23. ISBN 978-0275948771.  "..., a 50 milion lire penalty,..."
  31. ^ "TERMS OF ULTIMATUM.". Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 - 1950) (WA: National Library of Australia). 31 August 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  32. ^ Burgwyn, James (April 1997). Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period: 1918-1940. Praeger. p. 23. ISBN 978-0275948771.  "...demanding of the Greeks an apology, a funeral service for the victims, naval salutes for the Italian flag, a 50 milion lire penalty, and a strict inquiry, to be carried out quickly with the assistance of the Italian military attache."
  33. ^ "ITALY AND AFRICA.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 29 October 1935. p. 10. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "Two days later the Italian Minister at Athens forwarded to the Greek Government the following demands: An unreserved official apology, the holding of a solemn memorial service in the Catholic cathedral at Athens all the members of the Government to be present, the paying of honours to the Italian flag by the Greek navy, a drastic Inquiry into the assassination in the presence of the Royal Italian military attache, capital punishment for the authors of the crime, military honours for the bodies of the victims, and an indemnity of 50,000,000 lire within five days of the presentation of the note."
  34. ^ Brecher, Michael; Wilkenfeld, Jonathan (1997). A study of crisis. University of Michigan Press. p. 583. "...demanding compliance within 24 hours."
  35. ^ "THE ALBANIAN MURDERS.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  36. ^ Burgwyn, James (April 1997). Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period: 1918-1940. Praeger. p. 23. ISBN 978-0275948771.  "Greece accepted all but the last two parts of the ultimatum, which appeared to violate its national sovereignty."
  37. ^ "GREECE WILL INDEMNIFY BEREAVED.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "The Government is ready to express profound sorrow and indemnify the bereaved families, but is not disposed to accept Italy's humiliating conditions."
  38. ^ http://www.hillsdalesites.org/personal/hstewart/war/%281923-08-30%29%20Greek%20Reply%20to%20Italian%20Demands.pdf
  39. ^ "Another European War Possible.". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 10 April 2013. "The reply adds that it is impossible to accept the demands of capital punishment for those responsible and an indemnity of 500,000 or an enquiry in the presence of the Italian military attache, but Greece will willingly accept Italian assistance in carrying out the investigations. The Greek Government are prepared to accord a just indemnity to the families of the victims."
  40. ^ "WARLIKE ACT COMMITTED BY ITALY.". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "Signor Mussolini (the Italian Premier) read the Greek reply to the Italian ultimatum to Cabinet, which declared that it was, unacceptable."
  41. ^ "FRENCH FEELING FAVORS ITALY.". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "The Italian press, including the opposition journals, enthusiastically endorse Premier Mussolini's demands and insist that Greece must instantly comply without discussion."
  42. ^ "ITALIAN NEWSPAPERS SUPPORT GOVERNMENT.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "The newspapers are unanimous in supporting the ultimatum."
  43. ^ Neville, Peter (December 2003). Mussolini. Routledge. p. 93. ISBN 978-0415249904. "Even his critic, Luigi Albertini, gave Mussolini full backing in Corriere della Sera."
  44. ^ "TELL WHY CORFU WAS OCCUPIED". Spokane Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington, USA). 1 September 1923. p. 12.  "Mussolini's decision that the Greek reply could not be accepted, was received everywhere with greatest enthusiasm"
  45. ^ "ITALIAN NAVY GUNS KILLED ARMENIANS ORPHANS IN CORFU.". The Montreal Gazette (Montreal). 5 September 1923. p. 10.  "...when i left the Italians had landed 10,000 troops and six batteries of light artillery."
  46. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  "...stated that an hour before the ultimatum expired Italy landed 5000 troops on Corfu from 15 naval vessels, and that Corfu had been bombarded."
  47. ^ "LEAGUE CHALLENGED.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 6 September 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 21 March 2013. "It was directed at an old fort on the right of the town, and the civil police school on the left of the town."
  48. ^ "ITALIAN NAVY GUNS KILLED ARMENIANS ORPHANS IN CORFU.". The Montreal Gazette (Montreal). 5 September 1923. p. 10.  "The bombardment lasted 15 minutes..."
  49. ^ "WAR CRISIS IN EUROPE.". Aurora Daily Star. 1 September 1923. p. 1.  "Fort at Corfu bombard for 30minutes."
  50. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 18 April 2013. "All the killed and wounded were "refugees or orphans from the British Orphanage and were housed in the old fortress.""
  51. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1935. p. 6. Retrieved 27 July 2013.  "the sight of the dying refugees, mostly children, with dreadful wounds, was heart-rending." The number killed was 20, of whom 16 were children"
  52. ^ "Killing Of 15 Greeks, Occupation Of Corfu, Brings Serious Crisis.". The Washington Reporter. 1 September 1923. p. 1.  "The Prefect and Greek officers who remained in the fort were arrested by the Italians"
  53. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU CONSIDERED DECLARATION OF WAR.". Easton Free Press. 1 September 1923. p. 3.  "The governor of Corfu and ten officers are being detained abroad an Italian warship."
  54. ^ "BOMBARDMENT OF CORFU CONSIDERED DECLARATION OF WAR.". Easton Free Press. 1 September 1923. p. 3.  "while the garrison of 150 men retired to the interior of the island."
  55. ^ "5000 ITALIAN TROOPS HAVE LANDED AT CORFU GREEK GARRISON FLED.". Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954) (Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 17 April 2013. "The Greek garrison, numbering 150 fled to the interior."
  56. ^ "Killing Of 15 Greeks, Occupation Of Corfu, Brings Serious Crisis.". The Washington Reporter. 1 September 1923. p. 1.  "The Greek troops which were stationed in the Corfu fortress have been withdrawn to the interior of the island."
  57. ^ "THE CORFU BOMBARDMENT.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 5 September 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 18 April 2013. "The first Italian officer who landed walked along, mopping his brow, to the spot where English and American nurses were attending the wounded. The officer asked, "Were any Britons killed or wounded? "No." was the reply, whereupon he heaved a sigh of relief and said, "Thank God!""
  58. ^ "LEAGUE CHALLENGED.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 6 September 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 18 April 2013.  "The quarters of Mr. Sloman the British officer in charge of the police training school, were looted by Italian soldiers."
  59. ^ "ITALIAN NAVY GUNS KILLED ARMENIANS ORPHANS IN CORFU.". The Montreal Gazette (Montreal). 5 September 1923. p. 10.  "After landing one group of Italian soldiers visited the residence of Captain Sloonan, director of the British police school. Sloonan was away on his vacation. They looted the premises despite protests from the British servants."
  60. ^ "MARTIAL LAW IN GREECE.". The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) (Hobart, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  "The Government has proclaimed martial law throughout Greece."
  61. ^ "PLAYING SAFE.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 8 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  "The Greek fleet has been ordered to retire to the Pagasetic Gulf to avoid contact with the Italian fleet."
  62. ^ "PLAYING SAFE.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 8 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  " It is semi-officially announced that the Greek Government has informed the Italian, French, and British representatives that the Greek fleet has been sent from Salamis to Volo in order to avoid contact with any Italian warships that might approach the neighbourhood of Athens, and to establish the fact that Athens is a defenceless city."
  63. ^ "MOURNING IN ATHENS.". The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 - 1950) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 5 September 1923. p. 7 Edition: THIRD EDITION. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  "...on Monday a solemn memorial service was held in the cathedral for 12 persons who were killed in the Corfu bombardment. The bells of all of the churches were tolled continuously, and incense was burned in many houses as a sign of mourning. Crowds paraded the streets after the service, crying, Down with Italy,' but the police dispersed them."
  64. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "All places of amusement had been closed since Friday as a sign of mourning for the victims of the Italian bombardment."
  65. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "Acting upon a protest from Signor Montagna, the Italian minister, the Greek Government suspended for one day the newspaper Eleftheros Tipos for characterizing the Italians as "the fugitives of Caporett" and has dismissed the censor for allowing the statement to pass."
  66. ^ "Newspaper Suspended.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 4 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 3 May 2013. " A Greek newspaper has been suspended for the day for styling the Italians: "The fugitives of Carporetto." The Censor has been dismissed for allowing the publication of the insult."
  67. ^ "SUBMARINE SEIZES GREEK STEAMER.". The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 - 1950) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 9 Edition: THIRD EDITION. Retrieved 21 April 2013. "The Government has provided a detachment of 30 men to guard the Italian Legation in Athens."
  68. ^ "FEELING IN GREECE.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 4 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 3 May 2013. "The newspapers are unanimous in condemning Italy's action."
  69. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "..the Italian are now acting as if in a state of war with Greece; for instance they had closed the Corfu canal to Greek navigation,..."
  70. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "The Italian admiral Bellini has forbidden the passage of all Greek steamers through the Straits of Ontranto,..."
  71. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "...all Greek shipping companies have suspended sailing for Italy."
  72. ^ "WAR LIKE ACT COMMITTED BY ITALY.". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 23 April 2013. "An Italian tramp steamer going to ports in Asia Minor was ordered to boycott Greece."
  73. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "All Italian vessels in Greek ports are allowed full liberty of movement."
  74. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  "Four Greek steamers are detained in Italian ports. An Italian submarine has seized the Greek steamer Giorgias in the Straits of Corfu."
  75. ^ "WAR LIKE ACT COMMITTED BY ITALY.". The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 23 April 2013. "A Greek steamer about to depart from Brindisi homeward was stopped and remains in the harbor"
  76. ^ "RELEASE OF GREEK, SHIPS.". The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 - 1950) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 9 Edition: THIRD EDITION. Retrieved 21 April 2013. "According to a Rome message, the Ministry of Marine has ordered all Greek ships to be allowed to leave Italian ports without hindrance."
  77. ^ "GREEK "ARMS" TORN DOWN.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  "During an anti-Greek demonstration at Milan the crowd tore down the Coat of Arms from the Greek Consulate."
  78. ^ "ITALIANS IN LONDON.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2013.  "Italian reservists in London have received orders from the secretary of their Legation to hold themselves in readiness for army service during the next five days, when it will be known whether they are wanted or not."
  79. ^ "KING RETURNING TO ROME.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 5 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 21 April 2013. "A Rome message says that the King is returning to Rome from his summer residence immediately."
  80. ^ "BALKAN CRISIS STILL GRAVE; MORE GREEK TERRITORY SAID TO BE OCCUPIED BY ITALIANS". The Morning Leader. 3 September 1923. p. 1.  " The Italian military attache who had sent to Janina to inquire into the murder of the Italian delegates has been recalled by the Italian legation."
  81. ^ "OCCUPATION OF VERA CRUZ BY U.S. CITED BY ITALY IN CORFU BOMBARDMENT". The Bonham Daily Favorite. 3 September 1923. p. 1. "Three Greek journalists have been expelled from Italy, one of them being Elefteros Typos."
  82. ^ "THE ALBANIAN FRONTIER.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 3 September 1923. p. 5 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 21 April 2013. "It is announced that Albania has reinforced the Greco-Albanian frontier. Guards prohibit passage across the frontier. A Greek courier carrying delimitation commission papers has been prevented passing."
  83. ^ "ANOTHER BALKAN WAR THREATENED.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 8 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  "Serbian newspapers are already declaring that Serbia will support Greece."
  84. ^ "ANOTHER BALKAN WAR THREATENED.". Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954) (Port Pirie, SA: National Library of Australia). 8 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  "Reports from Turkey show that a section of opinion is already urging Kemal Pasha to seize the opportunity to invade Western Thrace."
  85. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 22 March 2013.  "Greece, at once and very properly appeared to the League of Nations. Fortunately for the world, the Council of the League was in session, and the Assembly was also about to meet. On September 1 Signor Salandra informed the Council that he had no permission to discuss the crisis."
  86. ^ a b GCSE History Notes. p. 19. 
  87. ^ Todd, Allan (2001). The Modern World. Oxford University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0199134250.  "Greece asked the League for help, but Mussolini ignored the League as he argued it was a Conference of Ambassabors' matter."
  88. ^ a b c Burgwyn, James (April 1997). Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period: 1918-1940. Praeger. p. 23. ISBN 978-0275948771. 
  89. ^ "TERMS FOR GREECE.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 10 September 1923. p. 12. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  90. ^ "Ambassadors' Decisions.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 11 September 1923. p. 5 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "Greece has replied to the Note of the conference of Ambassadors, announcing a readiness to conform with the conference's decision."
  91. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  " On September 8 Greece accepted these terms,and, on the next day, Mussolini did the same,..."
  92. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "...with the proviso,however, that Corfu was not to be evacuated until Greece had given full satisfaction."
  93. ^ "ITALY TRIUMPHANT.". Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 - 1954) (Burnie, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 11 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 18 March 2013.  "The Italian newspapers rejoice at the decision of the Ambassadors' Conference, which is described as a triumph for the Italian contentions."
  94. ^ "ITALY TRIUMPHANT.". Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 - 1954) (Burnie, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 11 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 18 March 2013.  "The papers praise the energy and firmness of Signor Mussolini."
  95. ^ "ITALY TRIUMPHANT.". Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 - 1954) (Burnie, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 11 September 1923. p. 1. Retrieved 18 March 2013.  "Signor Mussolini is acclaimed, as the man of the hour. He received an ovation at Milan, where he attended the motor races, as great as anyone has received in Italy since the day of the first king of a united Italy. Even his political enemies who at the time of the Janina murders desired Mussolini's overthrow, now declare that Mussolini is a strong Government, and is capable of looking after the nation's interests. Signor Mussolini's personal triumph is complete. Italians of all shades have backed him up without reserve. Even the Socialist press opposition is halfhearted."
  96. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "On September 11 M. Politis informed the Council that Greece had deposition in a Swiss bank 50,000,000 lire as security for an indemnity which a commission at Janina might assess. Four days later the Ambassadors' Conference informed Mussoolini that he must evacuate Corfu on September 27."
  97. ^ "EVACUATION OF CORFU.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 September 1923. p. 15. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "As a counterpart Italy will evacuate Corfu on the date named, at the latest."
  98. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "This date was accepted by Mussolini within 48 hours,..."
  99. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  100. ^ "THE ITALO-GREEK CRISIS.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 15 October 1923. p. 11. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "...about Italy's demand from Greece of 1,000,000 lire per day for the cost of the occupation of Corfu."
  101. ^ "EVACUATION OF CORFU.". Singleton Argus (NSW : 1880 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia). 29 September 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "The award of the Ambassadors' Conference with respect to Janina has been confirmed, and the matter is declared to be settled, except that Italy reserves the right of recourse to an International Court of Justice in connection with the occupa- tion expenses."
  102. ^ "PRACTICALLY UNOBSERVED.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 29 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "The news of the evacuation at Corfu was almost unobserved owing to the general depression through Italy obtaining practically, everything she demanded."
  103. ^ "THE EVACUATION.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 29 September 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "The Italian flag was lowered and salutes from the Italian fleet and a Greek destroyer. The Italian flagship saluted the Greek flag when it was hoisted."
  104. ^ "EVACUATION OF CORFU.". Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 - 1950) (WA: National Library of Australia). 29 September 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  105. ^ "FLEET WAITS FOR PAYMENT.". Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 - 1950) (WA: National Library of Australia). 29 September 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 17 March 2013.  "The Italians have not completed the evacuation of Corfu. Although the troops have left the Italian squadron has been ordered to remain till Italy actually receives the fifty million lire, payable by Greece."
  106. ^ "EVACUATION OF CORFU.". Kalgoorlie Miner (WA : 1895 - 1950) (WA: National Library of Australia). 1 October 1923. p. 5. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "The return of the Italian fleet to Corfu was due to the fact that the fifty million lire deposited in a Swiss bank were at the disposal of the Hague tribunal and the bank refused to transfer the money to Rome without the authority of the Greek National Bank, which was given yesterday evening."
  107. ^ "EVACUATION OF CORFU.". Western Argus (Kalgoorlie, WA : 1916 - 1938) (Kalgoorlie, WA: National Library of Australia). 2 October 1923. p. 21. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  "Corfu, Sept. 30. The Italian fleet, all except one destroyer, has now departed."
  108. ^ "The Brisbane Courier.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 11 September 1923. p. 4. Retrieved 31 January 2013. "... because there is not the slightest doubt that the real cause of trouble is that old disturbing "Adriatic question " which has been the cause of many Balkan troubles, and is likely to be the cause of many more."
  109. ^ "The Register. ADELAIDE: MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1923.". The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia). 24 September 1923. p. 6. Retrieved 31 January 2013.  "But, though deprived of a base which would have made her control of the Adriatic more secure,..."
  110. ^ "LEAGUE CHALLENGED.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 6 September 1923. p. 9. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  " It was recently predicted that Signor Mussolini was seeking a pretext to annex Fiume, despite, the Treaty of Versailles, but, thanks to the murders of the Greek territory, he found an opportunity of seizing Corfu, which is even more coveted by Italy than Flume, because it would enable her to close the Adriatic. "
  111. ^ O’Connell, Ciaran. GCSE History Paper 1 Revision Guide. p. 15. 
  112. ^ a b Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. 2004. p. 214. ISBN 978-0826473011. 
  113. ^ Jaques, Tony (November 2006). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity through the Twenty-first Century. Greenwood. p. 262. ISBN 978-0313335372.  "...,enhancing the reputation of Mussolini, who then annexed Fiume"
  114. ^ Burgwyn, James (April 1997). Italian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period: 1918-1940. Praeger. p. 24. ISBN 978-0275948771.  "Improvised and incoherent, Mussolini's gunboat diplomacy failed to add Corfu to Italy's possession, but it did successfully fulfill demagogic and propagandistic aims within the country."
  115. ^ Neville, Peter (December 2003). Mussolini. Routledge. p. 93. ISBN 978-0415249904. "There is no doubt that Mussolini's occupation of Corfu had widespread support at home."
  116. ^ Thomopoulos, Elaine (December 2011). The History of Greece. Greenwood. p. 109. ISBN 978-0313375118.  "Incensed by Italy's act of aggression, the Corfiots stopped playing Italian operas at their theater."
  117. ^ Municipality of Corfu Official Website. (2008) History of the municipal theatre via the Internet ArchiveAfter 1923, when Italy bombarded Corfu, the Italian operas ceased to appear in Corfu. From that time on Greek operas were called under the direction of the maestros Dionisius Lavrangas, Alexandros Kiparissis, Stefanos Valtetsiotis and others. Since then, dramatic plays were also staged and artists like Marika Kotopouli and Pelos Katselis appeared in Corfu, as well as many operettas of the time"
  118. ^ Dead Country Stamps and Banknotes
  119. ^ Postage Stamps of Italian Post Offices by Tony Clayton

Further reading[edit]

  • Παπαφλωράτος, Ιωάννης Σ. (2009). Η Ελληνοϊταλική κρίση του 1923 Το επεισόδιο Tellini/ Κέρκυρας [The Greco-Italian crisis of 1923 The incident Tellini / Corfu] (in Greek). Σάκκουλας Αντ. Ν. ISBN 9789601522388. 

External links[edit]

  • "Chapter III-State Practice During the Pre-United Nations Period". US Naval War College. pp. 33–34. 

Videos[edit]