Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary
|Corinnga Wildlife Sanctuary|
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
The Godavari Estuary in Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary
|Location||Andhra Pradesh, India|
|Area||235.7 km2 (58,200 acres)|
|Established||July 5, 1978|
|Governing body||Andhra Pradesh Forest Department|
Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary and estuary situated in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the second largest surviving stretch of mangrove forests in India with 24 mangrove tree species, and more than 120 bird species. It is home for the critically endangered White-backed Vulture, and Long Billed Vulture.
It is located between 16°-30' to 17°-00' N latitudes and 82°-14' to 82°-23'E longitudes.
About half of the area is the backwater, which include a sand pit of 18km stretch. The rivers Coringa and Gaderu and their deltic branches intersect the region, along with other water channels. This forms about 335.7 square km of marsh vegetation..
The average temperature of the region is 17°C to 40°C.
Average Rainfall is greater than 1,000 mm.
The Sanctuary in the estuary of river godavari has rich mangrove vegetation. At present there are thirty five species of plants belonging to twenty four families.The plant species that are commonly found are:
Avicennia officinalis, Avicennia marina, Avicennia alba, Excoecaria agallocha, Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lumnitzera recemosa, Sonneratia apetala, Rhizophora conjugata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Thespesia populneoides and Hibiscus tiliaceus.
Apart from the tree species, some of the shrubs found in the sanctuary are Dalbegia spinosa, Derris trifoliata. Herbs like Sesuvium portulacastrum, Suaeda maritima, Suaeda monoica and Salicornia brachiatta and grasses like Aeluropus lagopoides, Porteresia coarctate and Myriostachya wightiana are found in the sanctuary.
The sanctuary possesses a wide variety of avian fauna, because of the feed viable in the backwater of the mangrove forest. Particularly, during the low tide some of the areas are exposed (elevated mud flats having small fishes, shrimps, molluscs) attracting avifauna for its feed. Some critically endangered spieces like White-backed Vulture, and Long Billed Vulture are present in the sanctuary. The Painted Stork, Oriental White Ibis, Ferruginous Pochard found in the sanctuary are near threatened spices, and Spot-billed Pelican is a Vulnerable species. Significant populations of waders and mangrove birds are also present. All together, more than 120 species of birds have been reported and among them some of the commonly found birds in the sanctuary are:
Little Egret, Cattle Egret, Pied Kingfisher, Small Blue Kingfisher, Black-capped Kingfisher, Pond Heron, Reef Heron, Grey Heron, Night Heron, Little Stint, Sandpiper, Red Shrank, Red-wattled Lapwing, Crow Pheasant, Flamingos, Sea Gulls, Purple Heron, Brahmini Kite, Openbill Stork, Little Cormorant
Apart from the avian fauna the sanctuary has a fair population of Golden Jackal, Sea turtle, Fishing cat, Estuarine Crocodile, and a healthy breeding population of Smooth-coated otter. The Sanctuary has a 18 km. long sand spit where the species of Olive Ridley sea turtle nest during January - March every year.
Threats and conservation issues 
Despite being remote and difficult to access the mangroves are being exploited by the local population. A socio-economic study by Indian Bird Conservation Network found that most of local fishermen harvest wood in the forest and depend heavily on the mangroves for their basic needs. The species Avicennia officinalis, Avicennia marina are being used for fuelwood.
The existence of otters has been hit badly because of increased poaching and habitat destruction. The increasing industrialisation of Godavari Delta, increasing aquaculture activities and fishing pressure have severely affected the population of otters. The Andhra Pradesh Forest Department has taken steps to ensure conservation of otters and for afforestation of mangroves in the sanctuary.
- "Important Bird Areas in India - Andhra Pradesh". Indian Bird Conservation Network. Retrieved 30 July, 2012.
- ":: Wildlife in India ::". Wildlifeinindia.in. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- "Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary". Andhra Pradesh Forest Department. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- "Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary East Godavari District". East Godavari District Web Portal. Retrieved 2012-07-31.