|Born||10 December 1691
|Died||28 or 29 September 1759
|Education||apprentice of Jan van Houten and Arnold Boonen|
|Known for||drawing, painting|
Cornelis Pronk (10 December 1691 – 28 or 29 September 1759), also known as Cornelis Pronck, was a Dutch draughtsman, painter and porcelain designer. He is known particularly for his numerous drawings of cities, towns and buildings (so-called topographical drawings), as well as for his porcelain designs.
For many years, Pronk toured the Dutch Republic in summer, usually on foot, to sketch views of cities, towns, and landscapes, as well as castles, stately homes and other buildings, documenting in detail when and where each sketch was made. Each of these field sketches would form the basis for one or several drawings, which he produced back in his studio. On his travels, he would occasionally cross the border into Germany, as he did in 1729 for instance, when he made drawings around Kleve and Cologne.
Together with his pupils Jan de Beijer (1703–c.1780) and Abraham de Haen (1707–1748), he produced over 700 drawings for Het verheerlykt Nederland ("The glorified Netherlands"), a multi-volume work published in 1745-1774 documenting all the provinces of the Dutch Republic. Many of his drawings were turned into engravings by other artists such as Hendrik Spilman and Simon Fokke. Pronk also contributing drawings to a 1760 atlas of the province of Zeeland, Een en twintig gezigten der stemmende steden van Zeeland en derzelver voorname gebouwen.
Pronk's drawing technique developed rapidly in the period 1727 to 1731. He began to use subtle lighting and shadow effects and also added numerous anecdotal details to his drawings. Thereby the drawings attained not only documentary but also artistic value. Pronk's drawings are characterized by clear, simple lines that captured the essence of the buildings he depicted. He knew how to leave out details that would have crowded the drawings.
His pupil and close friend Abraham de Haen wrote numerous poems in his honour. Pronk also dabbled in poetry himself.
Four of Pronk's sketchbooks are in the collection of the Rijksprentenkabinet (National Cabinet of Prints), now part of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. In 1997, the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem held an exhibition of Pronk's work.
In 1734, the Dutch East India Company commissioned Pronk to produce designs for a set of china plates. This porcelain (so-called chine de commande) was produced in China, then shipped to Europe and sold there at an extremely high price. A set of blue-white plates, for instance, would sell for 1160 Dutch guilders – enough to buy a house in Amsterdam. Pronk made four different designs, of which "The Parasol Ladies" was most popular. The Dutch East India Company ended the deal in 1740 because the production and shipping from China proved too costly. However, Pronk's designs remained popular and were frequently copied, and some of his designs are still being produced.
Oostindische werf, Enkhuizen, 1727
Oostindisch huis, Enkhuizen, 1729
Castle Ammersoyen, c. 1730
Hunebed van Havelte, 1737
Life and career
Pronk was the son of an Amsterdam wheat merchant who later opened an administration office. After working in his father's office for several years, Pronk (on the advice of the scholar and art connoisseur Lambert ten Kate) started to take lessons in drawing and painting from the painter Jan van Houten (1679–1713). He also studied, from 1712 to 1715, with the portrait painter Arnold Boonen (1669–1729).
In 1715 he established himself as a painter in his own right, joining the Saint Lucas guild of painters. Early in his career he was primarily a portrait painter and a copyist of 17th-century Dutch masters. He was also known as a painter of theatre sets. He initially worked in Alkmaar but later settled in Amsterdam. From about 1722 he focused mainly on "topographical" drawings, to be used as illustrations for atlases, although he also remained active as a portrait painter. The drawings were almost exclusively commissioned by wealthy Amsterdam patricians, particularly the textile merchant and amateur historian Andries Schoemaker (1660–1735) and his son Gerrit Schoemaker (1692–1736), who would sometimes accompany him on his travels.
Pronk was a Mennonite who was baptised at the relatively young age of 23. He remained unmarried, possibly because within his congregation it was not allowed to marry non-Mennonites and few women within that community were available for marriage.
- Gevers, Jhr. A.J. en Mensema, A.J. Over de Hobbelde Bobbelde Heijde, Andries Schoemaker, Cornelis Pronk en Abraham de Haen op reis door Overijssel, Drenthe en Friesland in 1732. Canaletto, Alphen aan de Rijn, 1985 (Dutch).
- Kasteleyn, L. 'Een Pronkende Haen', in Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum, Jaargang 44, 1996, nr 2. Amsterdam, 1996 (Dutch).
- Kooijmans, L. Pronk met Pen en Penseel : Cornelis Pronk (1691–1759) tekent Noord-Holland. De Bataafsche Leeuw, Amsterdam, 1997 (Dutch)
- Scheltema, H.G. 'Gezigten van Den Haag, Enkele aspecten van een serie schetsen van Cornelis Pronk uit 1741-1742'. in Delineavit et Sculpsit nr 29 (December 2005), The Hague 2005 (Dutch).
- Scheltema, H.G. 'Pronk, Bentinck en Trembley', schetsen uit achttiende-eeuws Den Haag'. in Jaarboek Die Haghe 2005 (Dutch).
- "Pronk met pen en penseel: Cornelis Pronk (1691–1759) tekent Noord-Holland", Provinciale Atlas Noord-Holland (Dutch)
- "PRONK (Cornelis)" in Van der Aa et al., Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden, Vol. 15, pp. 477-478 (Dutch)
- "Pronk, Cornelis", Grove Dictionary of Art
- "Cornelis Pronk (Amsterdam 1691-Amsterdam 1759)", Thuis in Brabant (Dutch)
- "Cornelis Pronk (1691–1759)", Cultuurarchief.nl (Dutch)
- "Voorwerpen van de maand december", Aziatische Keramiek (Dutch)
- Pretty Dutch: 18de-eeuws Hollands porselein Ank Trumpie, Pretty Dutch: 18de-eeuws Hollands porselein, 010 Publishers, 2007, p.66 (Dutch)
- "Cornelis Pronk", Pronk Personal Porcelain (Dutch)
- "Abraham de Haen", Bijdragen tot de historische topografie van Nederland, Historischetopografie.nl
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cornelis Pronk.|
- "Pronk met pen en penseel: Cornelis Pronk (1691–1759) tekent Noord-Holland", Provinciale Atlas Noord-Holland (Dutch) "digital exhibition" of work by Pronk