|Native to||United Kingdom|
|Extinct by 19th century.
20 native speakers of revived Cornish (2000)
557 people claim Cornish as their main language (2011)
|Standard Written Form|
Recognised minority language in
|Regulated by||Cornish Language Partnership|
cor – Modern Cornish
cnx – Middle Cornish
oco – Old Cornish
|cnx Middle Cornish|
|oco Old Cornish|
Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people. The language has undergone a revival in recent decades and is widely considered to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. It is a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom, protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, and has a growing number of speakers.
Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. It was the main language of Cornwall for centuries until it was pushed westwards by English. Cornish continued to function as a common community language in parts of Cornwall until the late 18th century and continued to be spoken in the home by some families into the 19th and possibly 20th centuries overlapping the beginning of revival efforts. A process to revive the language was begun in the early 20th century, with a number of orthographical systems in use until a Standard Written Form was agreed upon in 2008. In 2010 UNESCO announced that its former classification of the language as "extinct" was "no longer accurate".
Since the revival of the language many Cornish textbooks and works of literature have been published and an increasing number of people are studying the language. Recent developments include Cornish music, independent films, and children's books. A small number of people in Cornwall have been brought up to be bilingual native speakers, and the language is taught in many schools. The first Cornish language crèche opened in 2010.
- 1 Classification
- 2 History
- 3 Geographic distribution
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Grammar
- 6 Culture
- 7 Samples
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Cornish is one of the Brittonic languages, which constitute a branch of the Insular Celtic section of the Celtic language family. Brittonic also includes Welsh, Breton and the Cumbric language; the last is extinct. Gàidhlig, Irish and Manx are part of the separate Goidelic branch of Insular Celtic.
Cornish evolved from the Common Brittonic spoken throughout Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the British Iron Age and Roman period. As a result of westward Anglo-Saxon expansion, the Britons of the southwest were separated from those in modern-day Wales and Cumbria. Some scholars have proposed that this split took place after the Battle of Deorham in about 577. The western dialects eventually evolved into modern Welsh and the now extinct Cumbric, while Southwestern Brittonic developed into Cornish and Breton, the latter as a result of emigration to the continent (modern Brittany over the following centuries).
The area controlled by the southwestern Britons was progressively reduced by the expansion of Wessex over the next few centuries. During the Old Cornish period (800–1200), the Cornish-speaking area was largely coterminous with modern-day Cornwall; the region of Devon was isolated by Wessex in 936 CE and many inhabitants fled to Cornwall or Domnonée. The earliest written record of the Cornish language comes from this period; a 9th-century gloss in a Latin manuscript of De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethius, which used the words ud rocashaas. The phrase means "it (the mind) hated the gloomy places". A much more substantial survival from Old Cornish is a Cornish-Latin glossary (the Vocabularium Cornicum or Cottonian Vocabulary) containing translations of around 300 words. The manuscript was widely thought to be in Welsh until the 1700s when it was identified as Cornish. At this time there was still little difference between Welsh and Cornish, and even fewer differences between Cornish and Breton, with some scholars arguing that the terms "Old Cornish" and "Old Breton" are merely geographical terms for the same language.
The Cornish language continued to flourish well through the Middle Cornish period (1200–1600), reaching a peak of about 39,000 speakers in the 13th century, after which the number started to decline. This period provided the bulk of traditional Cornish literature, which was used to reconstruct the language during its revival. Most important is the Ordinalia, a cycle of three mystery plays, Origio Mundi, Passio Christi and Resurrexio Domini. Together these provide about 20,000 lines of text. Various plays were written by the canons of Glasney College, intended to educate the Cornish people about the Bible and the Celtic saints. From this period also is Beunans Meriasek and the recently discovered Bewnans Ke.
In the reign of Henry VIII, an account was given by Andrew Boorde in his 1542 Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. He states, "In Cornwall is two speches, the one is naughty Englysshe, and the other is Cornysshe speche. And there be many men and women the which cannot speake one worde of Englysshe, but all Cornyshe."
When Parliament passed the Act of Uniformity 1549, people in many areas of Cornwall did not speak or understand English. The intention of the Act was to replace worship in Latin with worship in English, which was known by the lawmakers not to be universally spoken throughout England. Instead of merely banning Latin, the Act was framed so as to enforce English. The Prayer Book Rebellion, which may also have been influenced by the retaliation of the English after the failed Cornish Rebellion of 1497, broke out, and was ruthlessly suppressed: over 4,000 people who protested against the imposition of an English prayer book were massacred by Edward VI's army. Their leaders were executed and the people suffered numerous reprisals.
The rebels' document claimed they wanted a return to the old religious services and ended, "We the Cornishmen (whereof certain of us understand no English) utterly refuse this new English [altered spelling]." Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, replied to the Cornishmen, inquiring as to why they should be offended by services in English when they had them in Latin, which they also did not understand.
Through many factors, including loss of life and the spread of English, the Prayer Book Rebellion proved a turning-point for the Cornish language. Indeed, some recent research has suggested that estimates of the Cornish-speaking population prior to the rebellion may have been low, making the decline even more drastic.
Peter Berresford-Ellis cites the years 1550–1650 as a century of immense damage for the language, and its decline can be traced to this period. In 1680, William Scawen wrote an essay describing 16 reasons for the decline of Cornish, among them the lack of a distinctive Cornish alphabet, the loss of contact between Cornwall and Brittany, the cessation of the miracle plays, loss of records in the Civil War, lack of a Cornish bible, and immigration to Cornwall.
By the middle of the 17th century, the language had retreated to Penwith and Kerrier, and transmission of the language to new generations had almost entirely ceased. Writing in his Survey of Cornwall, John Carew writes:
[M]ost of the inhabitants can speak no word of Cornish, but very few are ignorant of the English; and yet some so affect their own, as to a stranger they will not speak it; for if meeting them by chance, you inquire the way, or any such matter, your answer shall be, 'Meea navidna caw zasawzneck,' 'I [will] speak no Saxonage.'"
The Late Cornish period from 1578 to about 1800 has fewer sources of information on the language but they are more varied in nature. Written sources from this period are largely spelled following English spelling conventions since the majority of writers of the time had had no exposure to Middle Cornish texts or the Cornish orthography within them. In 1776, William Bodinar, who had learnt Cornish from fishermen, wrote a letter in Cornish which was probably the last prose in the language. However, the last verse was the Cranken Rhyme, written in the late 19th century by John Davey of Boswednack.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was intense academic and antiquarian interest in the language, particularly in the Middle Cornish literature, and also in attempting to find the last native speaker of the Cornish language. Despite the announcements of the death of the language, this academic interest, along with the beginning of the Celtic Revival in the late 19th Century, provided the groundwork for a Cornish language revival movement.
In 1904, the Celtic language scholar and Cornish cultural activist Henry Jenner published A Handbook of the Cornish Language. The publication of this book is often considered to be the point at which the revival movement started.
The revival focused on reconstructing and standardising the language, including coining new words for modern concepts, and creating educational material in order to teach Cornish to others. In 1929 Robert Morton Nance published his Unified Cornish system, based on the Middle Cornish literature while extending the attested vocabulary with forms based on Celtic roots also found in Breton and Welsh, publishing a dictionary in 1938. Nance's work became the basis of revived Cornish for most of the 20th century. However, as the revival grew in strength and focus shifted from written to spoken Cornish, Nance's stiff, archaic formulation of the language seemed less suitable for a spoken revival, and academic research into the traditional literature proved that the Unified system lacked some phonological distinctions.
In the 1980s, in response to dissatisfaction with Unified Cornish, Ken George published a new system, Kernewek Kemmyn ("Common Cornish"). Like Unified Cornish, it retained a Middle Cornish base but implemented an orthography that aspired to be as phonemic as possible. It was subsequently adopted by the Cornish Language Board as well as by many Cornish speakers, but came under fierce criticism by academic linguists for its phonological base, as well as those who found its orthography too different from traditional Cornish spelling conventions. Also during this period, Richard Gendall created his Modern Cornish system (also known as "Revived Late Cornish"), which used Late Cornish as a basis, and Nicholas Williams published a revised version of Unified; however neither of these systems gained the popularity of Unified or Kemmyn.
The revival entered a period of factionalism and public disputes, with each orthography attempting to push the others aside. By the time that Cornish was recognised by the UK government under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2002, it had become recognised that the existence of multiple orthographies was unsustainable with regards to using the language in education and public life, as none had achieved a wide consensus. A process of unification was set about which resulted in the creation of the public-body Cornish Language Partnership in 2005 and agreement on a Standard Written Form in 2008. In 2010 UNESCO altered its classification of Cornish, recognising that its previous label of 'extinct' was no longer accurate. This was seen by Cornish speakers as a milestone, turning the language from a state of undergoing revival, to having been revived.
The modern-day Cornish language is a successfully revived language with a number of speakers that is slowly increasing, and is becoming more visible in Cornwall as local government and business are encouraged to make use of the language as part of revitalisation efforts.
Cornish was the predominant language of the Cornish people for most of their history, and is still seen today as a vital aspect of Cornish culture and identity.
Speakers of Cornish reside primarily in Cornwall. There are also some speakers living outside of Cornwall, particularly in the countries of the Cornish diaspora, as well as other Celtic nations. Estimates of the number of Cornish speakers vary according to the definition of being a speaker, and is difficult to accurately determine due to the individualised nature of language take-up. Nevertheless there is recognition that the number of Cornish speakers is growing. One figure for the mean number of people who know a few basic words, such as knowing that "Kernow" means "Cornwall", was 300,000; the same survey gave the figure of people able to have simple conversations at 3,000. The Cornish Language Strategy project commissioned research to provide quantitative and qualitative evidence for the number of Cornish speakers: due to the success of the revival project it was estimated that 2,000 people were fluent (surveyed in spring 2008), an increase from the estimated 300 people who spoke Cornish fluently suggested in a study by Kenneth MacKinnon in 2000. In the 2011 UK census, 557 people in England and Wales declared Cornish to be their main language, 464 of whom lived in Cornwall.
Cornish is officially recognised as a minority language by the UK government under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, a status it has held since 2002. The Cornish Language Partnership is the official body for promotion and development of the language in Cornwall.
Cornwall Council's policy is to support the language. A motion passed in November 2009 approved the council's use of Cornish. The policy notes the "place of the Cornish language as a unique cultural asset" and requires the council to promote Cornish in line with the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. One effect of the policy is that worn out road signs are replaced by bilingual ones, but this plan has drawn some criticism.
In 2014 the Cornish people were recognised by the UK Government as a national minority under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The FCNM provides certain rights and protections to a national minority with regard to their minority language.
UNESCO's Atlas of World Languages classifies Cornish as "critically endangered". UNESCO has acknowledged that a previous classification of 'extinct', which came under fierce criticism from Cornish speakers, "does not reflect the current situation for Cornish".
The phonology of modern Cornish is based on a number of sources. The work of the linguist Edward Lhuyd who visited Cornwall in 1700 to record the language, as well as the modern Cornish dialect and accent of English, which got much of its intonation and sounds from the Cornish language, have provided a major source of input. Analysis of the traditional literature has also been used, as the Middle Cornish plays were often written in rhyming verse, and Late Cornish texts were written phonetically following English spelling conventions.
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Speakers who prefer a later pronunciation merge the rounded vowels with the unrounded one.
The grammar of Cornish shares with other Celtic languages a number of features which, while not unique, are unusual in an Indo-European context. The grammatical features most unfamiliar to English speakers of the language are the initial consonant mutations, the verb–subject–object word order, inflected prepositions, fronting of emphasised syntactic elements, and the use of two different forms for "to be". Cornish nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, but are not inflected for case. Cornish has a variety of different endings to indicate the plural, and some nouns have a third collective form. Verbs are conjugated for tense and mood, which can be indicated either by inflection of the main verb, or by the use of auxiliary verbs.
As in other Celtic languages, Cornish lacks a number of verbs that are commonly found in other languages. This includes modals and psych-verbs; examples 'have', 'like', 'hate', 'prefer', 'must'/'have to', 'make'='compel to'. These functions are instead fulfilled by periphrastic constructions involving a verb and various prepositional phrases.
- Initial consonant mutation: The first sound of a Cornish word may change according to grammatical context. As in Breton, there are four types of mutation in Cornish (compared to three in Welsh and two in Irish, Manx and Gaelic). These are known as soft (b > v, etc.), hard (b > p), aspirate (b unchanged, t > th) and mixed (b > f).
1 Before unrounded vowels (i, y, e, a), l, and r + unrounded vowel.
2 Before rounded vowels (o, u), and r + rounded vowel.
- inflected (or conjugated) prepositions: A preposition combines with a personal pronoun to give a separate word form. For example, gans (with, by) + my (me) → genev; gans + ev (him) → ganso.
- No indefinite article. Porth means "harbour" or "a harbour" (there is, however a definite article: an porth means "the harbour").
The Celtic Congress and Celtic League are groups that advocate cooperation amongst the Celtic Nations in order to protect and promote Celtic languages and cultures, thus working in the interests of the Cornish language.
There have been many films such as Hwerow Hweg, some televised, made entirely, or significantly, in the language. Many businesses use Cornish names.
Cornish has had a significant and lasting impact on Cornwall's place names, as well as in Cornish surnames, and knowledge of the language helps the understanding of these ancient meanings. Many Cornish names are adopted for children, pets, houses and boats.
There is now an increasing amount of Cornish literature, in which poetry is the most important genre, particularly in oral form or as song or as traditional Cornish chants historically performed in marketplaces during religious holidays and public festivals and gatherings.
There are regular periodicals solely in the language such as the monthly An Gannas, An Gowsva, and An Garrick. BBC Radio Cornwall has a regular news broadcast in Cornish, and sometimes has other programmes and features for learners and enthusiasts. Local newspapers such as the Western Morning News regularly have articles in Cornish, and newspapers such as The Packet, The West Briton and The Cornishman have also been known to have Cornish features. There is an online radio service in Cornish called Radyo an Gernewegva, publishing a half-hour podcast each week, based on a magazine format. It includes music in Cornish as well as interviews and features.
The language has financial sponsorship from many sources, including the Millennium Commission. A number of language organisations exist in Cornwall: Agan Tavas (Our Language), the Cornish sub-group of the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages, Gorsedh Kernow, Kesva an Taves Kernewek (the Cornish Language Board) and Kowethas an Yeth Kernewek (the Cornish Language Fellowship)]. There are many popular ceremonies, some ancient, some modern, which use the language or are entirely in the language.
Cornwall has many cultural events associated with the language, including the international Celtic Media Festival, hosted in St Ives in 1997, with the programme in Cornish, English and French. The Old Cornwall Society has promoted the use of the language for many years at annual events and meetings. Two examples of ceremonies that are performed in both the English and Cornish languages are Crying The Neck and the annual mid-summer bonfires.
Study and teaching
Cornish is taught in some schools; it was previously taught at degree level in the University of Wales, though the only existing courses in the language at University level are as part of a course in Cornish Studies at the University of Exeter, or as part of the distance-learning Welsh degree from the University of Wales, Lampeter. In March 2008, a course in the language was started as part of the Celtic Studies curriculum at the University of Vienna, Austria.
Cornwall's first Cornish language crèche, Skol dy'Sadorn Kernewek, was established in 2010 at Cornwall College, Camborne. The nursery teaches children aged between two and five years alongside their parents to ensure the language is also spoken in the home.
A number of dictionaries are available in the different orthographies (a dictionary in the Standard Written Form has yet to be published), including An Gerlyver Meur by Ken George, Gerlyver Kernowek-Sawsnek by Nicholas Williams and A Practical Dictionary of Modern Cornish by Richard Gendall. Course books include the three-part Skeul an Yeth series, Clappya Kernowek, Tavas a Ragadazow and Skeul an Tavas, as well as the more recent Bora Brav and Desky Kernowek.
William Scawen produced a manuscript on the declining Cornish language that continually evolved until he died in 1689, aged 89. He was the first person to realise the language was dying out and wrote detailed manuscripts which he started working on when he was 78. The only version that was ever published was a short first draft, but the final version, which he worked on until his death, is a few hundred pages long. At the same time a group of scholars, led by John Keigwin (nephew of William Scawen), of Mousehole, tried to preserve and further the Cornish language. They left behind a large number of translations of parts of the Bible, proverbs and songs. This group was contacted by the Welsh linguist Edward Lhuyd who came to Cornwall to study the language.
Early Modern Cornish was the subject of a study published by Lhuyd in 1707, and differs from the medieval language in having a considerably simpler structure and grammar. Such differences included the wide use of certain modal affixes that, although out of use by Lhuyd's time, had a considerable effect on the word-order of medieval Cornish. The medieval language also possessed two additional tenses for expressing past events and an extended set of possessive suffixes. Edward Lhuyd theorises that the language of this time was heavily inflected, possessing not just the genitive, ablative and locative cases so common in Early Modern Cornish, but also dative and accusative cases, and even a vocative case, although historical references to this are rare.
John Whitaker, the Manchester-born rector of Ruan Lanihorne, studied the decline of the Cornish language. In his 1804 work the Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall he concluded that: "[T]he English Liturgy, was not desired by the Cornish, but forced upon them by the tyranny of England, at a time when the English language was yet unknown in Cornwall. This act of tyranny was at once gross barbarity to the Cornish people, and a death blow to the Cornish language.".
Robert Williams published the first comprehensive Cornish dictionary in 1865, the Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum. As a result of the discovery of additional ancient Cornish manuscripts, 2000 new words were added to the vocabulary by Whitley Stokes in A Cornish Glossary. William C. Borlase published Proverbs and Rhymes in Cornish in 1866 while A Glossary of Cornish Place Names was produced by John Bannister in the same year. Frederick Jago published his English-Cornish Dictionary in 1882.
In 1981, the Breton library Preder edited Passyon agan arluth (Passion of our lord), a 15th-century Cornish poem. The first complete translation of the Bible into Cornish translated from English, was published in 2011. Another Bible translation project translating from original languages is underway. The New Testament and Psalms were posted on-line on YouVersion (Bible.com) and Bibles.org in July 2014 by the Bible Society.
A few small publishers produce books in Cornish which are stocked in some local bookshops, as well as in Cornish branches of Waterstones and WH Smiths, although newer publications are becoming increasingly available on the Internet. The Truro Waterstones hosts the annual "Holyer an Gof" literary awards, established by Gorsedh Kernow to recognise publications relating to Cornwall or in the Cornish language. In recent years, a number of Cornish translations of literature has been published, including Treasure Island, Alice in Wonderland, The Railway Children, Around the World in Eighty Days and A Christmas Carol (which won the 2012 Holyer an Gof award for Cornish Language books), as well as original Cornish literature such as Jowal Lethesow (The Lyonesse Stone) by Craig Weatherhill and literature aimed at children such as Ple'ma Spot? (Where's Spot?) and Best Goon Brèn (The Beast of Bodmin Moor).
In 1983 BBC Radio Cornwall started broadcasting around two minutes of Cornish every week. In 1987, however, they gave over 15 minutes of airtime on Sunday mornings for a programme called Kroeder Kroghen, presented by John King, running until the early 1990s. It was eventually replaced with a five-minute news bulletin called An Nowodhow. The bulletin is presented every Sunday evening by Rod Lyon. Pirate FM ran short bulletins on Saturday lunchtimes from 1998 to 1999. In 2006, Matthew Clarke who had presented the Pirate FM bulletin, launched a web-streamed news bulletin called Nowodhow an Seythen, which in 2008 was merged into a new weekly magazine podcast Radyo an Gernewegva (RanG).
Cornish television shows have included a 1982 series by Westward Television each episode containing a three-minute lesson in Cornish. An Canker-Seth, an eight episode series produced by Television South West and broadcast between June and July 1984, later on S4C from May to July 1985, and as a schools programme in 1986. Also by Television South West were two bilingual programmes on Cornish Culture called Nosweyth Lowen
English composer Peter Warlock, an enthusiast of the Celtic languages, wrote a Christmas carol in Cornish (setting words by Henry Jenner). Cornish musician Jory Bennett (born Redruth, 1963) has composed "Six Songs of Cornwall" for bass and piano, a Cornish song-cycle, settings of Cornish language poems by Nicholas Williams /trans. E. G. Retallack Hooper (f.p. Keele University, 7 May 1986). The Cornish electronic musician Richard D James has often used Cornish names for track titles, most notably on his DrukQs album. Gwenno Saunders is a multilingual Welsh-born musician and a Cornish speaker. Skwardya has produced four CD albums in Cornish in a modern pop/rock/blues/dance style.
Placenames and surnames
The Cornish language has had a profound impact on the toponomy of Cornwall, and has historically been used in surnames for the Cornish people. The following tables present some examples of Cornish placenames and surnames, and their anglicised versions:
From the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
|Genys frank ha par yw oll tus an bys||All human beings are born free and|
|yn aga dynita hag yn aga gwiryow.||equal in dignity and rights. They are|
|Enduys yns gans reson ha kowses||endowed with reason and conscience|
|hag y tal dhedha omdhon an eyl orth||and should act towards one another|
|y gila yn spyrys a vrederedh.||in a spirit of brotherhood.|
From Bro Goth agan Tasow, the Cornish anthem:
|Bro goth agan tasow, dha fleghes a'th kar,||Old land of our fathers, your children love you,|
|Gwlas ker an howlsedhes, pan vro yw dha bar?||Dear country of the west, what land is your equal?|
|War oll an norvys 'th on ni skollys a-les,||Over all the world, we are spread far and wide,|
|Mes agan kerensa yw dhis.||But our love is for you.|
|Kernow, Kernow y keryn Kernow;||Cornwall, Cornwall, we love Cornwall;|
|An mor hedre vo yn fos dhis a-dro||For as long as the sea is a wall around you|
|'Th on onan hag oll rag Kernow!||We are one and all for Cornwall!|
- Anglo-Cornish, the Cornish dialect of the English language
- Bible translations into Cornish
- Cornish literature
- List of Celtic-language media
- Languages in the United Kingdom
- List of topics related to Cornwall
- Language revival
- The Cornish Language Council (Cussel an Tavas Kernuak)
- Manx, another revived Celtic language.
- European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
- Irish language revival
- Ken George, "Cornish", and George & Broderick, "The Revived Languages: Cornish and Manx", in Ball & Müller, eds., 2009, The Celtic Languages, 2nd edition
- Christopher Mosely, ed., 2007, Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages
- Hadumod Bussmann, 1996, Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics
- P.J Payton, "Cornish", in Brown & Ogilvie, eds., 2009, Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World
- Bernard Comrie, ed, 2009, The World's Major Languages, 2nd edition
- James Clackson, 2007, Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction
- Gareth King, 2003, Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar, 2nd edition
- Ken McKinnon, Cornish Language Study 2000 - http://www.magakernow.org.uk/default.aspx?page=797
- UK 2011 Census
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Cornish". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- "Cornish gains official recognition". BBC News. 2002-11-06. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- Diarmuid O'Neill. Rebuilding the Celtic Languages: Reversing Language Shift in the Celtic Countries. Y Lolfa. p. 240. ISBN 0-86243-723-7.
- Beresford Ellis, Peter (1990, 1998, 2005). The Story of the Cornish Language. Tor Mark Press. pp. 19–25. ISBN 0-85025-371-3.
- "Cornish language no longer extinct, says UN". BBC. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Ethnologue report for language code: cor". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "Cornish language – is it dead? (From This is The West Country)". Thisisthewestcountry.co.uk. 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "Education | The Times". Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- Jackson, Kenneth (1953). Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
- [dead link]
- Sims-Williams, P., 'A New Brittonic Gloss on Boethius: ud rocashaas', Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 50 (Winter 2005), 77–86.
- Graves, Eugene van T. (ed.) (1964) The Old Cornish Vocabulary. Ann Arbor, Mich: Univ. M/films
- Estimate by Ken George
- Jenner, Henry (1904) A Handbook of the Cornish Language Chiefly in Its Latest Stages with Some Account of Its History and Literature. London: David Nutt
- The Cornish Language and its Literature
- Carew, Richard (1811). Carew's Survey of Cornwall: to which are added, notes illustrative of its history and antiquities. Printed by T. Bensley for J. Faulder. p. 152. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Morris, Jonathan (2008-05-19). "Breakthrough for Cornish language". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "Standard Cornish spelling agreed". BBC News. 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- Diarmuid O'Neill. Rebuilding the Celtic Languages: Reversing Language Shift in the Celtic Countries. Y Lolfa. p. 242. ISBN 0-86243-723-7.
- "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website (BBC). 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- "First Cornish-speaking creche is inspired by example set in Wales". WalesOnline website (Welsh Media Ltd). 16 January 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- [dead link]
- Mann, Petra (12 November 2009). "Council backs bilingual road signs". Western Morning News website (Western Morning News). Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- Herald, Plymouth (21 July 2014). "Dyslexic councillor says Cornish language road signs could prove dangerous for drivers". Plymouth Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Cornish people formally declared a national minority along with Scots, Welsh and Irish". The Independent. 23 April 2014.
- Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities Strasbourg, 1.II.1995 - http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/157.htm
- Rebuilding the Celtic languages By Diarmuid O'Néill (Page 222)
- In a post on the blog Language Log. Retrieved 2 August 2011, the linguist Geoffrey K. Pullum reported that MacKinnon was quoting an edition of Jenner that is no longer available to him (Pullum's main concern was the impact of the triple negative in the cited sentence).
- "RanG". Radyo.kernewegva.com. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "Crying the Neck in Cornwall". Newquay.oldcornwall.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- "bonfire". Redrutholdcornwall.org. 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- Ellis, P. B. (1974); pp. 82-94
- Lhuyd, Edward (1707) Archæologia Britannica: giving some account additional to what has been hitherto publish'd, of the languages, histories and customs of the original inhabitants of Great Britain, from collections and observations in travels through Wales, Cornwal, Bas-Bretagne, Ireland, and Scotland; Vol. I. Glossography. Oxford: printed at the Theater for the author, and sold by Mr. Bateman, London
- Ellis, P. B. (1974); pp. 100–08
- Lhuyd, Edward (1702) [Elegy on the death of King William III, in Cornish verse] in: Pietas Universitatis Oxoniensis in obitum augustissimi Regis Gulielmi III; et gratulatio in exoptatissimam serenissimae Annæ Reginæ inaugurationem. Oxonii: e Theatro Sheldoniano
- Jago, Fred W. P. (1882) The Ancient Language and the Dialect of Cornwall. New York: AMS Press, 1983, (originally published 1882, Netherton and Worth, Truro), pp. 4 ff.
- "Passyon Agan Arluth". Preder.net. 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2012-11-11.
- Martin Ball, Nicole Muller, The Celtic Languages, Psychology Press, 12 Nov 2012
- "Cornwall – Connected – Hear the news read in Cornish". BBC. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Martin Ball, Nicole Muller
- "An Canker-Seth". BroadcastForSchools.co.uk. 2011-12-31. Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- F. W. P. Jago, A Cornish Dictionary (1887)
- Ellis, Peter B. (1974) The Cornish Language and its Literature. ix, 230 p. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
- Ellis, Peter B. (1971) The Story of the Cornish Language. 32 p. Truro: Tor Mark Press
- Jackson, Kenneth (1953) Language and History in Early Britain: a chronological survey of the Brittonic languages, first to twelfth century a.D. Edinburgh: U. P. 2nd ed. Dublin : Four Courts Press, 1994 has a new introduction by William Gillies
- Sandercock, Graham (1996) A Very Brief History of the Cornish Language. Hayle: Kesva an Tavas Kernewek ISBN 0-907064-61-2
- Weatherhill, Craig (1995) Cornish Place Names & Language. Wilmslow: Sigma Press (reissued in 1998, 2000 ISBN 1-85058-462-1; second revised edition 2007 ISBN 978-1-85058-837-5)
|Cornish edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|For a list of words relating to Cornish, see the Cornish language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cornish language.|
- A Handbook of the Cornish Language, by Henry Jenner A Project Gutenberg eBook
- Cornish Language Partnership website
- Endangered Languages Project: Cornish
- A Cornish Internet radio station in nascent state featuring weekly podcasts in Cornish
- Spellyans – Standard Written Form Cornish discussion list
- UdnFormScrefys' site for the proposed compromise orthography, Kernowek Standard
- List of localized software in Cornish
- Blas Kernewek – A Taste of Cornish – basic Cornish lessons hosted by BBC Cornwall
- Cornish Language Fellowship
- Lyver Pysadow Kemyn (1980) Portions of the Book of Common Prayer in Cornish
- Cornish today by Kenneth MacKinnon – from the BBC
- Bibel Kernewek Cornish Bible Translation Project
- Cowethas Peran Sans Cornish Christian fellowship promoting use of Cornish in prayer and worship
- An Index to the Historical Place Names of Cornwall
- An English-Cornish Glossary in the Standard Written Form – Cornish Language Partnership
- An English-Cornish Glossary in the Standard Written Form (using traditional graphs) – Cornish Language Partnership
- Cornish-English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary – The Rosetta Edition.
- Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum: a Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall by Robert Williams, Llandovery, 1865.
- Cornish-English Dictionary