Correction fluid

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Correction fluid can be written on after it has dried

A correction fluid is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. Once dried, it can be written over. It is typically packaged in small bottles, and the lid has an attached brush (or a triangular piece of foam) which dips into the bottle. The brush is used to apply the fluid onto the paper.

Before the invention of word processors, correction fluid greatly facilitated the production of typewritten documents.

One of the first forms of correction fluid was invented in 1951 by the secretary Bette Nesmith Graham, founder of Liquid Paper.[1]


Because it contains organic solvents (volatile organic compounds), unused correction fluid thickens over time as volatile solvents escape into the air. It can become too thick to use, and sometimes completely solidifies. Therefore, some manufacturers sell also bottles of solvent as "thinner", a few drops of which will return the correction fluid to its original liquid state.

Thinner originally contained toluene, which was banned due to its toxicity. Later, it contained 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a skin irritant now widely banned under the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, and then the slightly safer trichloroethylene. Thinners currently used with correction fluid include bromopropane.[citation needed]

To avoid the inconveniences of organic solvents (safety and availability), some brands of fluid are water-based. However, those have the disadvantages of a longer drying time, and incompatibility with some inks (which will soak through them).

Abuse as an inhalant[edit]

Organic solvents are psychoactive when sufficient amounts are inhaled. Such solvents are common inhalants for adolescents<[2] due, in part, to the fact that they are inexpensive in comparison to other recreational drugs. Use of correction fluid as an inhalant can cause the heart to beat rapidly and irregularly, which can cause death. An unpleasant smell is added to some brands in order to deter abusers.<[3] Companies have worked closely with authorities in order to ensure that all the warnings are duly mentioned on packaging (card and product labels) to inform parents and younger users of the risks associated with inhaling or drinking the fluid. In India, while there is a ban on the production and sale of bottled correction fluids (and thinners, such as nail polish removers) for retail, it is still permitted to sell in the form of pens and similar device which allow limited amounts of the chemicals to come out those devices when used. A mandatory warning should be shown on such devices regarding the effects of inhalation of the vapor or consumption of the fluids on health.<[4]

Correction pens[edit]

More recently, correction fluid has become available in pen form; the pen is spring-loaded and, when dabbed onto the paper, releases a small amount of fluid. If the pen does dry out, a few vigorous shakes usually get the fluid to flow again. Compared to the bottled form, the pen allows a more even and thin application, and is less prone to drying out (since only a tiny surface is exposed during application) or clogging.

Notable brands[edit]

Correction fluid is commonly referred to by the leading brand names. These brands include:

Generally, "Liquid Paper" and "Wite-Out" are used in the United States, Canada, Australia and Tajikistan, while "Tipp-Ex" is used in Europe. Twink is the leading brand, and colloquial term, for correction fluid in New Zealand. In the English-speaking Caribbean the term "White-paper paste" is used. In India the name "White Ink" is used by the student community.[citation needed]. In Panama and Peru "Liquid Paper" (or just "Liquid") is the colloquial term and it is used the vast majority of times, the only exceptions being made for very formal contexts and by language purists where the correct Spanish term corrector is used instead.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Liquid Paper - Bette Nesmith Graham Invented Liquid Paper". 2012-04-09. Retrieved 2013-03-28. <
  2. ^ "Sniffing Correction Fluid Can Stop Your Heart (1991)". 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2013-03-28. <
  3. ^ "AROUND THE NATION; Youths Urged To Avoid Inhaling Typing Fluid". New York Times. May 10, 1984.<
  4. ^<

External links[edit]