Cortistatin (neuropeptide)

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Not to be confused with the steroids also called cortistatins (chemical structures: cortistatin A, C, and J).
Cortistatin
Identifiers
Symbols CORT ; CST-14; CST-17; CST-29
External IDs OMIM602784 MGI109538 HomoloGene997 GeneCards: CORT Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1325 12854
Ensembl ENSG00000241563 ENSMUSG00000028971
UniProt O00230 P56469
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001302 NM_007745
RefSeq (protein) NP_001293 NP_031771
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
10.51 – 10.51 Mb
Chr 4:
149.13 – 149.13 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Precortistatin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORT gene.[1][2] The 105 amino acid residue human precortistatin in turn is cleaved into cortistatin-17 and cortistatin-29. Cortistatin-17 is the only active peptide derived from the precursor.[1] Cortistatin (or more specifically cortistatin-17) is a neuropeptide that is expressed in inhibitory neurons of the cerebral cortex, and which has a strong structural similarity to somatostatin. Unlike somatostatin, when infused into the brain, it enhances slow-wave sleep. It binds to sites in the cortex, hippocampus and the amygdala.

Function[edit]

Cortistatin is a neuropeptide with strong structural similarity to somatostatin (both peptides belong to the same family). It binds to all known somatostatin receptors, and shares many pharmacological and functional properties with somatostatin, including the depression of neuronal activity. However, it also has many properties distinct from somatostatin, such as induction of slow-wave sleep, apparently by antagonism of the excitatory effects of acetylcholine on the cortex, reduction of locomotor activity, and activation of cation selective currents not responsive to somatostatin.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b de Lecea L, Ruiz-Lozano P, Danielson PE, Peelle-Kirley J, Foye PE, Frankel WN, Sutcliffe JG (Sep 1997). "Cloning, mRNA expression, and chromosomal mapping of mouse and human preprocortistatin". Genomics 42 (3): 499–506. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4763. PMID 9205124. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CORT cortistatin". 

Further reading[edit]