Corydoras

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Corydoras
Temporal range: Late Paleocene - Recent
Corydoras semiaquilus 1.jpg
Corydoras semiaquilus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Callichthyidae
Subfamily: Corydoradinae
Tribe: Corydoradini
Hoedeman, 1952
Genus: Corydoras
Lacepède, 1803
Type species
Corydoras geoffroy
Lacepède, 1803
Diversity
Over 150 valid species.
Synonyms
  • Brochis (contested by some; see text)
    Cope, 1871
  • Cordorinus
    Rafinesque, 1815
  • Hoplisoma
    Swainson, 1838
  • Chaenothorax
    Cope, 1878
  • Gastrodermus
    Cope, 1878
  • Osteogaster
    Cope, 1894
  • Microcorydoras
    Myers, 1953

Members of the South American Corydoras genus are freshwater temperate and tropical catfish in the armored catfish family (Corydoradinae subfamily), and are commonly referred to as corydoras, cories, or cory catfish.

Taxonomy[edit]

The name Corydoras is derived from the Greek kory (helmet) and doras (skin).[1] Corydoras is by far the largest genus of Neotropical fishes with more than 142 species.[2] In addition, many variants exist.[citation needed] It is the sole genus in the tribe Corydoradini.[3] C. difluviatilis is recognized as the basalmost species of Corydoradini, exhibiting several plesiomorphic features compared to the other species of Corydoras.[3][4] The type species for this genus is Corydoras geoffroy.[1] Several hundred Corydoras species are not yet classified, but kept by aquarists. These species are given 'C-numbers', originally devised by Hans-Georg Evers for the German fishkeeping magazine DATZ in 1993. In 2006, 153 C-numbers had been assigned, of which 32 had been assigned appropriate scientific names.[5]

The species C. barbatus, C. macropterus, and C. prionotos have been reclassified into the genus Scleromystax.[3] Brochis had been differentiated from Corydoras due to the higher number of dorsal fin rays; however, Brochis has recently been suggested to be a synonym of Corydoras.[3] This is contested and has not been universally accepted. The sixray corydoras belongs in Aspidoras.[6]

Distribution[edit]

The species of Corydoras usually have more restricted areas of endemism than other callichthyids, but the area of distribution of the entire genus almost equals the area of distribution of the family, except for Panama where Corydoras is not present.[7] Corydoras species are distributed in South America where found east of the Andes to the Atlantic coast, from Trinidad to the Río de la Plata drainage in northern Argentina.[2]

Description[edit]

Species assigned to Corydoras display a broad diversity of body shapes and coloration.[4] Corydoras are small fish, ranging from 25 to 120 mm (1.0–4.7 in) in SL.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Corydoras are generally found in smaller-sized streams, along the margins of larger rivers, in marshes and ponds.[2] They are native to slow-moving and almost still (but seldom stagnant) streams and small rivers of South America where the water is shallow and very clear.[citation needed] Most species are bottom-dwellers, foraging in sand, gravel, or detritus.[2] The banks and sides of the streams are covered with a dense growth of plants, and this is where the corys are found. They inhabit a wide variety of water types but tend toward soft, neutral to slightly acidic or slightly alkaline pH and 5-10 degrees of hardness. They can tolerate only a small amount of salt (some species tolerate none at all) and do not inhabit environments with tidal influences.[citation needed] They are often seen in shoals.[2] Most species prefer being in groups and many species are found in schools or aggregations of hundreds or even thousands of individuals, usually of a single species, but occasionally with other species mixed in.[citation needed] Unlike most catfishes which are nocturnal, Corydoras species are active during the daytime.[2]

Their main food is bottom-dwelling insects and insect larvae and various worms, as well as some vegetable matter. Although no corys are piscivorous, they will eat flesh from dead fishes. Their feeding method is to search the bottom with their sensory barbels and suck up food items with their mouth, often burying their snout up to their eyes, one of the reasons a soft sand substrate is preferable.

In several species of Corydoras, it has been observed that the fishes, after initial evasive reaction to threat, lie still; this is suggested to be a form of cryptic behavior. However, it is also argued that most species do not have cryptic coloration nor freezing behavior and continue to exist.[2]

A few Otocinclus species (O. mimulus, O. flexilis, O. affinis, and O. xakriaba) are considered to be Batesian mimics of certain Corydoras species (C. diphyes, C. paleatus, C. nattereri, and C. garbei, respectively). These Corydoras species have bony plates of armor and strong spines as defenses, making them less palatable; by mimicking these species in size and coloration, Otocinclus avoid predation.[2]

A unique form of insemination has been described in Corydoras aeneus. When these fish reproduce, the male will present his abdomen to the female. The female will attach her mouth to the male's genital opening, creating the well-known "T-position" many Corydoras exhibit during courtship. The female will then drink the sperm. The sperm rapidly moves through her intestines and is discharged together with her eggs into a pouch formed by her pelvic fins. The female can then swim away and deposit the pouch somewhere else alone. Because the T-position is exhibited in other species than just C. aeneus, it is likely that this behavior is common in the genus.[8]

In the aquarium[edit]

The Corydoras genus is well known among aquarists for its many ornamental species.[9] They are well suited to tropical freshwater community aquariums, as they get along well with other species and are not at all aggressive. Some types of Corydoras are quite timid and are recommended to be kept in shoals of three upwards. Corys are mostly bottom feeders, so they should be offered sinking pellets as well as supplements of live and frozen foods. If flake foods are used, care should be taken to prevent all food from being eaten by faster moving fish at the higher levels of the tank.

Most corys prefer soft, acidic water. They can, however, tolerate a wide range of water conditions, including temperatures that are cooler than tropical. They do not do well in fish tanks with high nitrate levels. This ion leads to the infection of the barbels, which will shorten and become useless. The barbels may also be affected by constant contact with a sharp substrate. They are more likely to thrive if there is an open area of substrate on the bottom of the tank where they can obtain submerged food.

It is a myth that salt cannot be used on this species of fish as a means of parasite medication. Salt can be added to the water of the Corydoras catfish in order to rid the fish of ich.

These fish are fairly easy to keep, being peaceful, hardy, active, and entertaining. Occasionally they will dart to the surface, sticking their snout above the water for an instant to take a "breath" of air. This behavior is perfectly normal and is not an indication that anything is wrong with the fish. However, If this is done in excess, it can indicate poor water conditions.

Where investigated Corydoras sp. have been shown to be diurnal and crepuscular rather than nocturnal and activity can even peak at twilight.[10] Corydoras are very good choices for a community aquarium, and are widely kept throughout the world. Their longevity in the aquarium is noteworthy; C. aeneus is said to have lived 27 years in captivity and 20 years is not too uncommon.

Species[edit]

There are currently 161 recognized species in this genus:[11][12][13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). Species of Corydoras in FishBase. March 2006 version.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Axenrot, Thomas E.; Kullander, Sven O. (October 2003). "Corydoras diphyes (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) and Otocinclus mimulus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), two new species of catfishes from Paraguay, a case of mimetic association" (PDF). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 14 (3): 249–272. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  3. ^ a b c d Britto, Marcelo R. (December 2003). "Phylogeny of the subfamily Corydoradinae Hoedeman, 1952 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae), with a definition of its genera" (PDF). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 153: 119–154. doi:10.1635/0097-3157(2003)153[0119:POTSCH]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  4. ^ a b Britto, Marcelo R.; Castro, Ricardo M. C. (2002). Schaefer, S. A., ed. "New Corydoradine Catfish (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the Upper Paraná and São Francisco: The Sister Group of Brochis and Most of Corydoras Species". Copeia 2002 (4): 1006–1015. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2002)002[1006:NCCSCF]2.0.CO;2. 
  5. ^ Evers, Hans-Georg. "A system called “C-Numbers”". Retrieved 2006-06-08. 
  6. ^ *Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Aspidoras pauciradiatus" in FishBase. December 2011 version.
  7. ^ Reis, Roberto E. (1996-04-29). "Corydoras". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  8. ^ Kohda, Masanori; Tanimura, Masayo; Kikue-Nakamura, Miyako; Yamagishi, Satoshi (1995). "Sperm drinking by female catfishes: a novel mode of insemination" (PDF). Environmental Biology of Fishes (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 42: 1–6. doi:10.1007/BF00002344. 
  9. ^ Huysentruyt, Frank; Adriaens, Dominique (2005). "Descriptive osteology of Corydoras aeneus (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae)" (PDF). Cybium 29 (3): 261–273. 
  10. ^ Paxton, CGM (1997). "Shoaling and activity levels in Corydoras catfish (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae)". Journal of Fish Biology 51: 496–502. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01507.x. 
  11. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2014). Species of Corydoras in FishBase. February 2014 version.
  12. ^ a b Tencatt, L.F.C., Britto, M.R. & Pavanelli, C.S. (2014): A new long-finned Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the lower rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 12 (1): 61-70.
  13. ^ a b Tencatt, L.F.C., Britto, M.R. & Pavanelli, C.S. (2014): A new species of Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 12 (1): 81-88.
  14. ^ a b Espíndola, V.C., Spencer, M.R.S., Rocha, L.R. & Britto, M.R. (2014): A new species of Corydoras Lacépède (Siluriformes: Callichtyidae) from the rio Tapajós basin and its phylogenetic implications. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 54 (3): 25-32.
  15. ^ Knaack, Joachim (2007). "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes). III. Corydoras longipinnis sp. n. – ein neuer Panzerwels aus dem río Dulce in Argentinien (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae). [Contributions to the Knowledge of Callichthyidae. III. Corydoras longipinnis sp. n. – a new Callichtyid fish from the río Dulce, Argentina (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae)]". Vertebrate Zoology (in German) 57: 35–55. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  16. ^ Tencatt, L.F.C., Vera-Alcaraz, H.S., Britto, M.R. & Pavanelli, C.S. (2013): A new Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (2): 257-264.