Cost-effective minimum water network

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Cost-effective minimum water network is a holistic framework for water conservation which considers all conceivable methods to save water based on the water management hierarchy.

This framework, which is applicable for industrial as well as urban systems was first developed by Wan Alwi and Manan.[1] The framework is applicable for grassroots design and retrofit of water systems and ensures that a desired payback period for design of a water recovery system is satisfied using the systematic hierarchical approach for resilient process screening (SHARPS) technique.


  1. ^ Wan Alwi, S. R. and Manan, Z. A. (2007). A new holistic framework for cost effective minimum water network in industrial and urban sector. Journal of Environmental Management. 46, 5968–76.

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