John D. Rust was born on 6 September 1892, near Necessity, Texas, to Benjamin Daniel Rust, a farmer and schoolteacher, and Susan Minerva Burnett, a homemaker. As a youngster, Rust did farm work and displayed an aptitude for mechanical tinkering. His parents died when he was sixteen, and he drifted around Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. In 1924, Rust married Faye Pinkston and had two children. After they divorced, he married Thelma Ford of Leesville, Louisiana, in 1933.
Rust was intrigued with the challenge of building a mechanical cotton picker. Other inventors had used a spindle with barbs, which twisted the fibers onto the spindle and pulled the cotton lock from the boll, but the spindle became clogged with cotton. Rust concerned himself with how to strip the cotton from the barbs, the answer to which, he decided, was to use a smooth, moist spindle. Rust later said:
"The thought came to me one night after I had gone to bed. I remembered how cotton used to stick to my fingers when I was a boy picking in the early morning dew. I jumped out of bed, found some absorbent cotton and a nail for testing. I licked the nail and twirled it in the cotton and found that it would work."
He went back to Texas to live with a sister in Weatherford. He assembled the first working model in her garage and tested it on ten artificial stalks set up on a board. The machine picked ninety-seven out of one hundred locks of cotton.
He continued testing with funds invested by family and friends. In 1928, his brother Mack, who held a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Texas, joined him. Rust received his first patent in 1933. Eventually, he and his brother owned forty-seven patents.
During the Great Depression, the Rust brothers began a migration in search of financial support. In 1930, they moved to Louisiana’s Newllano cooperative community, which invested in their project. After two years, John and Mack moved on to New Orleans, where they chartered the Southern Harvester Company. Next they went to Lake Providence, Louisiana, where local planters financed their experiments.
In 1935, still in pursuit of financial backers, the Rust brothers relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, the center of the Cotton South, and they founded the Rust Cotton Picker Company, successor to the Southern Harvester Company. On 31 August 1936, the Rust picker was demonstrated at the Delta Experiment Station in Stoneville, Mississippi. Though the demonstration attracted national press coverage, it produced mixed results. The machine knocked cotton to the ground and accumulated bits of leaves and stems in the staple it picked, lowering the grade and the cotton’s price. But it did pick cotton, and the Rust Cotton Picker Company pledged to have five hundred machines ready for the picking season in 1937.
The Rust machine sent a shockwave through the country. The reality of a machine that would actually pick cotton loomed over the South, potentially eliminating jobs and raising the specter of social convulsions in the midst of the Depression. The sharecropper or crop lien system, which had been in place since the end of slavery, faced collapse; thus the prospect loomed of millions of black sharecroppers migrating to northern cities in search of employment that did not exist.
The Rust Cotton Picker Company, however, lacked financing for commercial production. The Rust brothers could build a few prototypes, but the production of thousands of machines required the resources of a large company. In addition, Rust was not convinced that his machine possessed the durability required in a commercial product. The brothers’ partnership dissolved, and Mack Rust moved to Arizona.
As the Rust Company slipped into bankruptcy, International Harvester Corporation of Chicago, Illinois, announced in 1942 that it had a production-ready model of a mechanical cotton picker. International Harvester (IH) had spent $5.25 million over two decades to develop a spindle-type picker. Unlike Rust’s, their picker used a barbed spindle, which improved its affinity for cotton fibers. However, the scarcity of steel during World War II delayed production. In 1947, International Harvester opened a new manufacturing plant in Memphis and became the first company to produce commercially a mechanical cotton picker. After World War II, the use of mechanical pickers slowly increased across the Cotton South. The Great Migration of World War II and the postwar period shifted millions of people from farms to cities and averted social disaster.
Though bankruptcy left Rust nothing but his drafting board, he set out in 1943 to redesign his spindle device in order to make it more durable. At last, his efforts paid off in two contracts. After the war, the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, began the manufacture of pickers in Gadsden, Alabama, using the Rust patents. In 1949, Rust entered into another agreement with the Ben Pearson Company of Pine Bluff, an Arkansas company known for archery equipment. Rust moved to Pine Bluff to act as engineering consultant. Pearson went on to market Rust pickers internationally.
The Rust cotton picker achieved commercial success, and Rust, after years of hardship, became a wealthy man. He repaid his sponsors, established scholarships at colleges in Arkansas and Mississippi, and toyed with a universal language that he called “Plaantauk.” He died on 20 January 1954, just as the use of mechanical cotton pickers moved the South into a revolutionary new era of agribusiness. He is buried in Graceland Cemetery at Pine Bluff.
by Donald Holley, Professor and Author: Holley,Donald. The Second Great Emancipation: The Mechanical Cotton Picker, Black Migration, and How They Changed the Modern South. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000. University of Arkansas at Monticello
For additional information: Carlson, Oliver. “The Revolution in Cotton.” American Mercury 34 (September 1935): 129–136.
Holley,Donald. The Second Great Emancipation: The Mechanical Cotton Picker, Black Migration, and How They Changed the Modern South. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000.
Honeycutt, Tom. “The Second Great Emancipator: Eccentric Inventor John Rust Changed the Face of Modern Agriculture.” Arkansas Times 11 (February 1985): 76–78, 81–82.
“Mr. Little Ol’ Rust.” Fortune 46 (December 1952): 150–152, 198–205.
Rust, John. “The Origin and Development of the Cotton Picker.” West Tennessee Historical Society Papers 7 (1953): 38–56.
Straus, Robert Kenneth. “Enter the Cotton Picker: The Story of the Rust Brothers’ Invention.” Harper’s 173 (September 1936): 386–395.
Street, James H. The New Revolution in the Cotton Economy: Mechanization and Its Consequences. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1957.
Donald Holley University of Arkansas at Monticello
The first pickers were only capable of harvesting one row of cotton at a time, but were still able to replace up to forty hand laborers. The current cotton picker is a self-propelled machine that removes cotton lint and seed (seed-cotton) from the plant at up to six rows at a time.
There are two types of pickers in use today. One is the "stripper" picker, primarily found in use in Texas. They are also found in Arkansas. It removes not only the lint from the plant, but a fair deal of the plant matter as well (such as unopened bolls). Later, the plant matter is separated from the lint through a process dropping heavier matter before the lint makes it to the basket at the rear of the picker. The other type of picker is the "spindle" picker. It uses rows of barbed spindles that rotate at high speed and remove the seed-cotton from the plant. The seed-cotton is then removed from the spindles by a counter-rotating doffer and is then blown up into the basket. Once the basket is full the picker dumps the seed-cotton into a "module builder". The module builder creates a compact "brick" of seed-cotton, weighing in at approximately 21,000 lb (16 un-ginned bales), which can be stored in the field or in the "gin yard" until it is ginned. Each ginned bale weighs roughly 480 lb (218.2 kg).
In c.2008 the Case IH Module Express 625 was designed in collaboration with ginners and growers to provide a cotton picker with the ability to build modules while harvesting the crop. An industry-exclusive on-board round module builder was offered by John Deere in 2007.
- Holley, Donald. Mechanical Cotton Picker Encyclopedia article, University of Arkansas at Monticello
- Page, Arthur W. (December 1910). "A Cotton-Harvester At Last: A Machine That Will Emancipate Cotton From Low-Grade Labor". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 13748–13760. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- International Harvester article from Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World
- "Recent Progress in the Mechanization of Cotton Production in the United States," by Gilbert C. Fite © 1950 Agricultural History Society
Media related to Cotton harvesters at Wikimedia Commons