The mature seeds are brown ovoids weighing about a tenth of a gram. By weight, they are 60% cotyledon, 32% coat and 8% embryonic root and shoot. These are 20% protein, 20% oil and 3.5% starch. Fibres grow from the seed coat to form a boll of cotton lint. The boll is a protective fruit and when the plant is grown commercially, it is stripped from the seed by ginning and the lint is then processed into cotton fibre. For every hundred weight of fibre, about one hundred and sixty weight of seeds are produced. The seeds are about 15% of the value of the crop and are pressed to make oil and used as animal feed. About 5% of the seeds are used to sow the next crop.
Uses of Cottonseed
Feed products for livestock
With the advancement of technology, the processing of food has become considerably convenient.As a result cottonseed has been able to flourish in new markets such as feed products for livestock. Cotton seed is crushed in the mill after removing lint from the cotton plant. The seed is further crushed to remove any remaining linters or strands of minute cotton fibres.The seeds are further hulled and polished to release the soft and high-protein meat. These hulls of the cottonseed are then mixed with other types of grains in order to make it suitable for the livestock feed. Cottonseed Meal and Cottonseed Hulls are the most abundantly available natural sources of protein and fibre used to feed livestock.
Cottonseed meal is a good source of protein. There are two types of meal extraction processes: Solvent Extraction Process and Mechanical Extraction Process. Most of the meal is extracted mechanically through cottonseed kernels.The flaked cottonseed kernels are put into high pressure through a screw inside a barrel which is constantly revolving. The screw pushes out the oil through the openings made in the barrel. The dry pieces left in the barrel are preserved and ground into meal. On the other hand,in the process of solvent extraction, the cotton seed kernels are subjected to fine grinding by pushing them through an expander and then the solvent is used to extract most of the oil. The solvent extracted meals have a lower fat content of 0.5% than the mechanically extracted meals with a fat content of 2.0%. Cottonseed meal is considered to have more arginine than soybean meal.Cottonseed meal can be used in multiple ways: either alone or by mixing it with other plant and animal protein sources.
The outer covering of the cottonseed is known as cottonseed hulls. They are removed from the cotton kernels before the oil is extracted from them. Cottonseed hulls serve as an excellent source of feed for the livestock as they contain about 8% of cotton linters which have nearly 100% cellulose in them. They require no grinding and easily mix with other feel sources. As they are easy to handle, their transportation cost is fairly low as well. Due to a superior nutrition quality,cottonseed hulls they serve as valuable digestive sources for animals. Whole cottonseed is another feed product of cottonseed used to feed livestock. It is the seed, left after the separation of long fibres from cotton and serves as a good source of cellulose for ruminants.Whole Cottonseed leads to high production of milk and fat, if it is been fed to a high-producing dairy cow. It is very cost effective and provides nutrients such as high protein value of about 23%, crude fibre value of 25% and high energy value of 20%. Whole Cottonseed serves as a highly digestible feed which also improves the reproductive performance in livestock. Pima cottonseed which is free of linters by default,and De-linted Cottonseed are other types of cottonseed feed products.
The seed oil extracted from the kernels, after being refined serves as a good edible and nutritious source. It can be used as a cooking oil, salad dressings. It is also highly beneficial for the production of shortening and margarine. Cotton grown for the extraction of cottonseed oil is one of major crops grown around the world for the production of oil, after soy, corn and canola.
The cottonseed meal after being dried up can be used as a dry organic fertilizer. As it contains 41 percent protein and comprises other natural nutrients such as omega-9 fatty acids.It does not contain any added products or chemicals and is free of animal residue. It can also be mixed with other natural fertilizers to improve its quality and use. Due to its natural nutrients, cottonseed meal improves soil's texture and helps retain moisture. It serves as a good source of natural fertilizers in dry areas due to its tendency of keeping the soil moist. Cottonseed meal fertilizers can be used for roses, camellias or in vegetable gardens.
The fine quality oil extracted from cottonseeds during the extraction process is also used in cosmetic products. Cottonseed oil is rich in omega-6 fatty acid content, which makes it highly beneficial for human health.Its natural antioxidants are very useful for human skin as it makes it feel smooth and well moisturized. Therefore, the oil is used in moisturizing lotions and bath soaps.
- C. W. Smith (2006), The Encyclopedia of Seeds, CABI, pp. 105–109, ISBN 9780851997230
- "GMO Compass.Cottonseed". Retrieved 11 November 2005.
- Kelly, Valerie. "Cottonseed, oil, and cake: Co-products or by-products in the C-4 cotton sectors?". Retrieved May 2010.
- "Cottonseed Meal 6-2-1 Organic Fertilizer".
- National Cottonseed Products Association — the US organisation of cottonseed producers and processors
- http://www.organic-gardening-for-life.com/cottonseed_meal.htmlplant (gossypium).