|Type||C corporation |
|Founded||April 2003 (New Hampshire non-profit); January 2004 (launch); May 2011 (Delaware for-profit corporation)|
|Headquarters||San Francisco, CA, United States|
|Key people||Erik Blachford (Chairman of the Board), Matt Cohler, Casey Fenton, Dan Hoffer|
|Industry||Hospitality service, Hospitality exchange, networking|
|Current status||The non-profit Couchsurfing organization was formally closed in December 2011.|
Couchsurfing International Inc. is a hospitality exchange and social networking website. The website provides a platform for members to "surf" on couches by staying as a guest at a host's home, host travelers, or join an event.
Couchsurfing International Inc refers to two separate legal entities. The first was founded in 2003 as a non-profit organization, and was liquidated in 2011. Its assets were sold to the private for-profit corporation Better World Through Travel, later renamed Couchsurfing International, Inc., which defines itself as “a mission-driven for-profit corporation”. As of August 2012, the company has raised $22.6 million in investment capital, while reporting no revenue.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Membership and site
- 3 Ownership and management
- 4 History
- 5 Safety and criminal activity
- 6 Controversy
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Couchsurfing is a neologism referring to the practice of moving from one friend's house to another, sleeping in whatever spare space is available, floor or couch, generally staying a few days before moving on to the next house. The term pre-existed the website in vernacular usage; for example, "Couch Surfer" was the title of a song by Bran Van 3000 written in the 90s.
The company, its website, and the general culture of hospitality exchange it is meant to support are all commonly referred to as "couchsurfing". The "c" and "s" are sometimes capitalized, giving "CouchSurfing". Participants frequently refer to themselves as "couchsurfers" or "surfers". "CS" and "CSer" are used as abbreviations.
Membership and site
Registration is free of charge, but payment of an annual fee is a factor in user access to services. CEO Billock envisions increasing the number of services available only to paid members. Members are asked to provide information and photos of themselves and of the accommodation they offer, if any. More information provided by a member, and other members, may affect the chances that someone will find the member trustworthy enough to be their host or guest. Members looking for accommodation can search for hosts using several parameters such as age, location, and gender.
Homestays are consensual between the host and guest, and the duration, nature, and terms of the guest's stay are generally worked out in advance. No monetary exchange takes place except sometimes for compensation of incurred expenses (e.g. food). It is common practice for guests to seek non-monetary means to show their appreciation, such as bringing a gift, cooking a meal or teaching a skill.
The website features a searchable database of thousands of upcoming events organized by Couchsurfing members.
As of January 2013, there were over 5.5 million registered profiles at Couchsurfing (all profiles ever created, including duplicate, dormant and deleted profiles). Founder Casey Fenton stated in 2011 that approximately one-third of the profiles registered at that time were active. As of August 2014, Couchsurfing Incorporated states that 400,000 people log-in over a period of one week. According to information on the Couchsurfing site, since 2011 a significant number of fake membership profiles have been created with the intention of inflating membership statistics. In March 2012, 65% of New York City profiles were intentional fakes. The systematic creation of fraudulent membership profiles has continued through August 2014, with numerous locations across the globe registering rates of 50% or more.
As of January 2013, Couchsurfing represented more than 97,000 unique towns in 250 states and territories. Around 20% of Couchsurfers had registered their country as being the United States, with Germany, France, Canada and England also registering large numbers of participants. The city with the largest number of registered Couchsurfers was Paris.
Active members can nominate themselves to be appointed ambassadors. By nature, Ambassadors spread the word about Couchsurfing and are encouraged to be role-models, exemplifying the Couchsurfing Core Values. In addition to spreading the "Couchsurfing spirit" among members, they may choose to greet new members, help with questions, organize and promote events and are likely to be the first point of contact for members. Their status as an "ambassador" is indicated by an orange flag on their profile. While the ambassador program is laid out as an appreciation program, it is a status that many ambassadors value and strive to obtain. Ex-CEO Tony Espinoza excluded a significant portion of ambassadors from the program in 2013.
Ownership and management
Couchsurfing International, Inc is a privately owned for-profit corporation, incorporated in 2011 in the State of Delaware by Casey Fenton and Dan Hoffer. In contrast to some published statements, Couchsurfing is not a Benefit Corporation. As a privately held corporation, Couchsurfing chooses to not publish any financial data, nor information about its stockholders, majority or minority. After the corporation purchased the assets of the previous non-profit organization in 2011, according to company press releases, a $7.6 million first-round investment was raised by Benchmark Capital, with the ambition of going public at a future date.
In August 2012, Couchsurfing received an additional $15 million in funding from lead investor General Catalyst Partners, with participation by Menlo Ventures, as well as existing investors Benchmark Capital and Omidyar Network. The additional funding brings the company’s total funding raised to $22.6 million.
After replacing Dan Hoffer, Tony Espinoza stepped down as the chief executive of Couchsurfing in October 2013, amid layoffs constituting 40% of employees. Considerations included an $800,000 monthly expenditure rate, which could be difficult to control, considering revenues. He was replaced by interim CEO Jennifer Billock. In August 2014 she was designated permanent CEO by a renewed Board of Directors.
As of 11 August 2014, Couchsurfing’s current Board of Directors includes: Couchsurfing founders Casey Fenton and Daniel Hoffer, Benchmark General Partner Matt Cohler, General Catalyst Managing Partner Joel Cutler, and Couchsurfing CEO Jennifer Billock. Replacing founder Fenton as Executive Chairman is former travel site Expedia CEO Erik Blachford.
The Couchsurfing project was conceived by Casey Fenton in 1999, according to Fenton's account. The idea arose after finding an inexpensive flight from Boston to Iceland. Fenton randomly e-mailed 1,500 students from the University of Iceland asking if he could stay. He ultimately received more than 50 offers of accommodation. On the return flight to Boston, he began to develop the ideas that would underpin the Couchsurfing project. He registered couchsurfing.com the same year.
Fenton developed the code intermittently over the next few years. The site was launched with the cooperation of Dan Hoffer, Sebastien Le Tuan, and Leonardo Silveira as a beta in January 2003, although none of these except Fenton was a member of the original board of directors. The project became a public website in January 2004. Former CEO Hoffer stated that when Couchsurfing first started, he made sure to write up a contract between Fenton and himself that detailed what would happen if CouchSurfing were to ever go for-profit, as he suspected it one day would.
Initial growth of the site was slow. By the end of 2004 the site had just over 6,000 members. In 2005, growth accelerated and by the end of the year, membership stood at just under 45,000. As of October 2011, shortly following its privatization, Couchsurfing had over 3 million active and inactive members (Fenton stated the number of active members was approximately one million) and was the most popular free accommodation site. As of October 2011, the site had an Alexa Global Traffic Rank of 1,729, but by September 2014 had descended to 3,178.
2006 database loss and relaunch
In June 2006, the project experienced a number of computer problems resulting in much of the database being irrevocably lost. Due to the volume of critical data that had been lost, Casey Fenton was of the opinion that the project could not be resurrected. On 29 June 2006, he sent an e-mail to all members: "It is with a heavy heart that I face the truth of this situation. Couchsurfing as we knew it doesn't exist anymore."
Fenton's e-mail was met with vocal opposition to the termination of the project and considerable support for its recreation. A Couchsurfing Collective was underway in Montreal at the time and those in attendance committed to fully recreating the original site, with users to re-enter their profile data. "Couchsurfing 2.0" was announced early in July 2006, with the intent to be operational within 10 days. The initial implementation of Couchsurfing 2.0 actually launched after only four days with the current Couchsurfing slogan "Participate in Creating a Better World, One Couch At A Time". Since the site relaunch, the project has received international media coverage.
From 2006 through 2011, development of the website was run in large part by Couchsurfing Collectives: events which may last days or weeks, bringing groups of Couchsurfers together in a chosen city, to develop and improve Couchsurfing. Collectives have taken place in Montreal, Vienna, New Zealand, Rotterdam, Thailand, Alaska, Costa Rica and Istanbul. The collectives ended with the privatisation of Couchsurfing in 2011, given that the use of volunteer labor is forbidden in commercial enterprises by the US federal government.
In August 2011, Couchsurfing announced its change of status to a for-profit corporation. Couchsurfing International Inc refers to two separate legal entities. The first was founded in 2003 as a non-profit organization, and was liquidated in 2011. Its assets were sold to the private for-profit corporation Better World Through Travel, later renamed Couchsurfing International, Inc., which defines itself as “a mission-driven for-profit corporation”. A $7.6 million investment was raised by Benchmark Capital, with the ambition of going public. The site had previously been financed by donations from members and revenue from the voluntary identity verification service. Second and third rounds of investors contributed another $15 million.
The announcement that Couchsurfing had become a for-profit corporation has been questioned by members.
August 2014 security breach
According to the Couchsurfing Community Support Team, on 15 August 2014 “the part of Couchsurfing’s system that sends email to members was breached and an email was sent to approximately 1 million members.”  According to a CS Ambassador and IT consultant, the email contained malicious code, an XSRF attack (a Cross-site request forgery), including “embedded on-site action calls loaded as an image”, which would have erased reader’s membership data and deleted member profiles. By design or by accident, the action calls were deactivated in the original code. Couchsurfing censored some posts on the site referring to the incident and generally refused to explain how the breach was made.
Safety and criminal activity
Given the nature of hospitality networks, based on inviting strangers into private homes, safety was a primary concern.
There are mechanisms Couchsurfing Inc claimed increase safety and trust, which were previously all visible on member profiles for potential hosts and guests:
- An optional credit card verification system, verifying addresses with a postcard.
- Personal references, which hosts and guests have the option to leave after having used the service to comment on what their experience with person they are leaving a reference for was like. It is also possible to leave neutral or negative references if it is deemed appropriate. Negative references are sometimes removed by the site when they are deemed to have been done in a retaliatory or unfair manner. Members tend to rely heavily on references when trying to determine whether another user is "safe" or not.
- A personal vouching system was discontinued in November 2014.
Couchsurfing states that "all members are responsible for their own safety".
Then CEO Tony Espinoza stated in 2013 that none of the three primary safety mechanisms were reliable, and that sexual abuse, although certainly under-reported, was shockingly prevalent, including among Couchsurfing ambassadors.
Several individual sexual assault and harassment charges have been brought forward by mainly female guests against their male hosts. Sexual assault and harassment charges in Leeds (UK, 2009), Marseille (France, 2012) and Padua (Italy,2014) have had extensive coverage in the international press.
Rollout of the Place Pages and site-wide censorship
In December 2012, major changes were made to the Couchsurfing website when the Place Pages system was instituted. Individual cities pages were replaced with Place Pages.The Place Pages were felt to have many user security and safety issues, geographical and technical problems, be difficult to navigate, and to encourage misuse of the Couchsurfing website.
On the Berlin, Chicago, and other message boards there was a loud outcry against the bannings and perceived censorship. Some users felt that Couchsurfing, as a for-profit company, would no longer uphold the open culture of hospitality exchange and decided to join BeWelcome, a non profit European website, either exclusively or in addition to being a member of Couchsurfing.
Other hospitality exchange networks
- "State of Delaware corporate entity search - enter "couchsurfing"".
- "Deep link to corporate records".
- Couchsurfing.com on Alexa.com Retrieved 2015-04-10
- "TechCrunch Article". Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "A rough ride to profit for CouchSurfing". Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- "Statistics". Couchsurfing. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Job Openings". Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Robot Creating Fake Profiles". Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "B Corporation". B Corporation. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
- Tweney, Dylan (24 August 2011). "Benchmark plops down $7.6M to make Couchsurfing into a for-profit". VentureBeat. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Couchsurfing Moves from NGO to B-Corps: Bona fide or Bogus?". Triplepundit.com. 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
- "El jefe de Couchsurfing asegura que su objetivo es salir a Bolsa" [The Boss of Couchsurfing ensures that his objective is to be listed on the stock market]. El País. 13 September 2011.
- "TechCrunch Article". 22 August 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Founders & Board of Directors". Couchsurfing. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Txakeeyang, Lindsey (22 January 2011). "Couchsurfing Co-founder and former CEO Daniel Hoffer Discusses Leadership at the Stanford Graduate School of Business". The Daily Dish. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Baker, Vicky (22 January 2011). "How to stay with a local". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Couchsurfing.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- Fenton, Casey (28 June 2006). "Help! - Innodb and MyISAM accidental DROP DATABASE - 112 tables gone forever?". forums.mysql.com. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Fenton, Casey. "The Perfect Storm". Couchsurfing. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "elaws - Fair Labor Standards Act Advisor". United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Business Entity". New Hampshire Department of State. 25 August 2011.
- Perlroth, Nicole (24 August 2011). "Non-Profit CouchSurfing Raises Millions In Funding". Forbes. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "After going for-profit, CouchSurfing faces user revolt". GigaOm. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- "Official answer". Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Security Breach". Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "IT security consultant". Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "site improvement email from CS". Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "References FAQ". Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "One Couch at a Time". Couchsurfing. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "What’s changed on Couchsurfing?". couchsurfing.com. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
- "Tony Espinoza". Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Leeds couchsurfing.com rapist jailed". Yorkshire Evening Post. 29 October 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
- "Il piégeait les étudiantes qu'il hébergeait". Europe 1. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Couchsurfing, carabiniere arrestato per violenza sessuale". Il Mattono. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Stordì e violentò due ragazze straniere, arresti domiciliari per il carabiniere". Corriere del Veneto. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Schaar kritisiert Backpacker-Netzwerk Couchsurfing". ZEIT.DE. Die Zeit. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- https://support.couchsurfing.org/entries/22546803-Place-Pages-come-to-Couchsurfing Retrieved 18 March 2013
- http://kingsofcouchsurfing.blogspot.com/2013/02/a-couchsurfer-no-more.html Retrieved 18 March 2013
- http://www.couchsurfing.org/news/cs-organization/member-removal-is-couchsurfing-censoring-the-community-by-removing-outspoken-members/ Retrieved 18 March 2013
- http://www.couchsurfing.org/news/cs-organization/member-removal-is-couchsurfing-censoring-the-community-by-removing-outspoken-members/ Retrieved 27 March 2013
- http://couchwiki.org/en/Couchsurfing_censorship Retrieved 18 March 2013
|Look up couch surf in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|